Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6881

Search results for: steel production

6881 A Range of Steel Production in Japan towards 2050

Authors: Reina Kawase

Abstract:

Japan set the goal of 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. To consider countermeasures for reducing GHG emission, the production estimation of energy intensive materials, such as steel, is essential. About 50% of steel production is exported in Japan, so it is necessary to consider steel production including export. Steel productions from 2005-2050 in Japan were estimated under various global assumptions based on combination of scenarios such as goods trade scenarios and steel making process selection scenarios. Process selection scenarios decide volume of steel production by process (basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace) with considering steel consumption projection, supply-demand balance of steel, and scrap surplus. The range of steel production by process was analyzed. Maximum steel production was estimated under the scenario which consumes scrap in domestic steel production at maximum level. In 2035, steel production reaches 149 million ton because of increase in electric arc furnace steel. However, it decreases towards 2050 and amounts to 120 million ton, which is almost same as a current level. Minimum steel production is under the scenario which assumes technology progress in steel making and supply-demand balance consideration in each region. Steel production decreases from base year and is 44 million ton in 2050.

Keywords: goods trade scenario, steel making process selection scenario, steel production, global warming

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6880 Estimation of World Steel Production by Process

Authors: Reina Kawase

Abstract:

World GHG emissions should be reduced 50% by 2050 compared with 1990 level. CO2 emission reduction from steel sector, an energy-intensive sector, is essential. To estimate CO2 emission from steel sector in the world, estimation of steel production is required. The world steel production by process is estimated during the period of 2005-2050. The world is divided into aggregated 35 regions. For a steel making process, two kinds of processes are considered; basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF). Steel production by process in each region is decided based on a current production capacity, supply-demand balance of steel and scrap, technology innovation of steel making, steel consumption projection, and goods trade. World steel production under moderate countermeasure scenario in 2050 increases by 1.3 times compared with that in 2012. When domestic scrap recycling is promoted, steel production in developed regions increases about 1.5 times. The share in developed regions changes from 34 %(2012) to about 40%(2050). This is because developed regions are main suppliers of scrap. 48-57% of world steel production is produced by EAF. Under the scenario which thinks much of supply-demand balance of steel, steel production in developing regions increases is 1.4 times and is larger than that in developed regions. The share in developing regions, however, is not so different from current level. The increase in steel production by EAF is the largest under the scenario in which supply-demand balance of steel is an important factor. The share reaches 65%.

Keywords: global steel production, production distribution scenario, steel making process, supply-demand balance

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6879 CO₂ Capture by Membrane Applied to Steel Production Process

Authors: Alexandra-Veronica Luca, Letitia Petrescu

Abstract:

Steel production is a major contributor to global warming potential. An average value of 1.83 tons of CO₂ is emitted for every ton of steel produced, resulting in over 3.3 Mt of CO₂ emissions each year. The present paper is focused on the investigation and comparison of two O₂ separation methods and two CO₂ capture technologies applicable to the iron and steel industry. The O₂ used in steel production comes from an Air Separation Unit (ASU) using distillation or from air separation using membranes. The CO₂ capture technologies are represented by a two-stage membrane separation process and the gas-liquid absorption using methyl di-ethanol amine (MDEA). Process modeling and simulation tools, as well as environmental tools, are used in the present study. The production capacity of the steel mill is 4,000,000 tones/year. In order to compare the two CO₂ capture technologies in terms of efficiency, performance and sustainability, the following cases have been investigated: Case 1: steel production using O₂ from ASU and no CO₂ capture; Case 2: steel production using O₂ from ASU and gas-liquid absorption for CO₂ capture; Case 3: steel production using O₂ from ASU and membranes for CO₂ capture; Case 4: steel production using O₂ from membrane separation method and gas-liquid absorption for CO₂ capture and Case 5: steel production using membranes for air separation and CO₂ capture. The O₂ separation rate obtained in the distillation technology was about 96% and about 33% in the membrane technology. Similarly, the O₂ purity resulted in the conventional process (i.e., distillation) is higher compared to the O₂ purity obtained in the membrane unit (e.g., 99.50% vs. 73.66%). The air flow-rate required for membrane separation is about three times higher compared to the air flow-rate for cryogenic distillation (e.g., 549,096.93 kg/h vs. 189,743.82 kg/h). A CO₂ capture rate of 93.97% was obtained in the membrane case while the CO₂ capture rate for the gas-liquid absorption was 89.97%. A quantity of 6,626.49 kg/h CO₂ with a purity of 95.45% is separated from the total 23,352.83 kg/h flue-gas in the membrane process while with absorption 6,173.94 kg/h CO₂ with a purity of 98.79% is obtained from 21,902.04 kg/h flue-gas and 156,041.80 kg/h MDEA is recycled. The simulation results, performed using ChemCAD process simulator software, lead to the conclusion that membrane-based technology can be a suitable alternative for CO₂ removal for steel production. An environmental evaluation using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was also performed. Considering the electricity consumption, performance and environmental indicators, Case 3 can be considered the most effective. The environmental evaluation, performed using GaBi software, shows that membrane technology can lead to lower environmental emissions if membrane production is based on benzene derived from toluene hydrodealkilation, and chlorine and sodium hydroxide are produced using mixed technologies.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, gas-liquid absorption, Life Cycle Assessment, membrane separation, steel production

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6878 Experimental Study of Application of Steel Slag as Aggregate in Road Construction

Authors: Meftah M. Elsaraiti, Samir Milad Elsariti

Abstract:

Steel slag is a by-product of the steel production and utilizing it potentially as new or substitute materials in road construction is advantageous regarding cost reduction and flattening improvement or properties pavement. Ease of use, low cost, and resource availability are some of few advantages of reuse and recycling of steel slag. This study assesses the use of Steel Slag Aggregates (SSA) as an alternative to natural road building aggregates. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of steel slag based on extensive laboratory tests, and to determine the possibilities of using steel slag in road construction. Samples were taken from the furnaces directly at different times and dates. Moreover, random samples were also taken from the slag field from various areas at different far distances from each other. A necessary analysis was performed through the use of (XRF). Three different percentages of SSA (0, 50 and 100%) were added as an alternative to natural aggregate in hot mix asphalt (HMA) production. The proposed design of the mix was made according to the Marshall mix design. The results of the experiments revealed that the percentages of iron oxide ranged from (9 to 26%) and that the addition of SSA has a significant improvement on HMA properties. It was observed that the Marshall stability obtained in the mix of 100% slag ranged from 600 to 800 N as a minimum, and the flow of Marshall obtained from 2.4 to 3.23 mm and the specification requires from 2 to 4 mm. The results may be showed possibilities to use steel slag as new or substitute materials in road construction in Libya.

Keywords: by-product material, properties, road construction, steel slag

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6877 Opportunities and Challenges for Decarbonizing Steel Production by Creating Markets for ‘Green Steel’ Products

Authors: Hasan Muslemani, Xi Liang, Kathi Kaesehage, Francisco Ascui, Jeffrey Wilson

Abstract:

The creation of a market for lower-carbon steel products, here called ‘green steel’, has been identified as an important means to support the introduction of breakthrough emission reduction technologies into the steel sector. However, the definition of what ‘green’ entails in the context of steel production, the implications on the competitiveness of green steel products in local and international markets, and the necessary market mechanisms to support their successful market penetration remain poorly explored. This paper addresses this gap by holding semi-structured interviews with international sustainability experts and commercial managers from leading steel trade associations, research institutes and steelmakers. Our findings show that there is an urgent need to establish a set of standards to define what ‘greenness’ means in the steelmaking context; standards that avoid market disruptions, unintended consequences, and opportunities for greenwashing. We also highlight that the introduction of green steel products will have implications on product competitiveness on three different levels: 1) between primary and secondary steelmaking routes, 2) with traditional, lesser green steel, and 3) with other substitutable materials (e.g. cement and plastics). This paper emphasises the need for steelmakers to adopt a transitional approach in deploying different low-carbon technologies, based on their stage of technological maturity, applicability in certain country contexts, capacity to reduce emissions over time, and the ability of the investment community to support their deployment. We further identify market mechanisms to support green steel production, including carbon border adjustments and public procurement, highlighting a need for implementing a combination of complementary policies to ensure the products’ roll-out. The study further shows that the auto industry is a likely candidate for green steel consumption, where a market would be supported by price premiums paid by willing consumers, such as those of high-end luxury vehicles.

Keywords: green steel, decarbonisation, business model innovation, market analysis

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6876 Research on Architectural Steel Structure Design Based on BIM

Authors: Tianyu Gao

Abstract:

Digital architectures use computer-aided design, programming, simulation, and imaging to create virtual forms and physical structures. Today's customers want to know more about their buildings. They want an automatic thermostat to learn their behavior and contact them, such as the doors and windows they want to open with a mobile app. Therefore, the architectural display form is more closely related to the customer's experience. Based on the purpose of building informationization, this paper studies the steel structure design based on BIM. Taking the Zigan office building in Hangzhou as an example, it is divided into four parts, namely, the digital design modulus of the steel structure, the node analysis of the steel structure, the digital production and construction of the steel structure. Through the application of BIM software, the architectural design can be synergized, and the building components can be informationized. Not only can the architectural design be feedback in the early stage, but also the stability of the construction can be guaranteed. In this way, the monitoring of the entire life cycle of the building and the meeting of customer needs can be realized.

Keywords: digital architectures, BIM, steel structure, architectural design

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6875 Optimization of Hot Metal Charging Circuit in a Steel Melting Shop Using Industrial Engineering Techniques for Achieving Manufacturing Excellence

Authors: N. Singh, A. Khullar, R. Shrivastava, I. Singh, A. S. Kumar

Abstract:

Steel forms the basis of any modern society and is essential to economic growth. India’s annual crude steel production has seen a consistent increase over the past years and is poised to grow to 300 million tons per annum by 2030-31 from current level of 110-120 million tons per annum. Steel industry is highly capital-intensive industry and to remain competitive, it is imperative that it invests in operational excellence. Due to inherent nature of the industry, there is large amount of variability in its supply chain both internally and externally. Production and productivity of a steel plant is greatly affected by the bottlenecks present in material flow logistics. The internal logistics constituting of transport of liquid metal within a steel melting shop (SMS) presents an opportunity in increasing the throughput with marginal capital investment. The study was carried out at one of the SMS of an integrated steel plant located in the eastern part of India. The plant has three SMS’s and the study was carried out at one of them. The objective of this study was to identify means to optimize SMS hot metal logistics through application of industrial engineering techniques. The study also covered the identification of non-value-added activities and proposed methods to eliminate the delays and improve the throughput of the SMS.

Keywords: optimization, steel making, supply chain, throughput enhancement, workforce productivity

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6874 Feasibility of Iron Scrap Recycling with Considering Demand-Supply Balance

Authors: Reina Kawase, Yuzuru Matsuoka

Abstract:

To mitigate climate change, to reduce CO2 emission from steel sector, energy intensive sector, is essential. One of the effective countermeasure is recycling of iron scrap and shifting to electric arc furnace. This research analyzes the feasibility of iron scrap recycling with considering demand-supply balance and quantifies the effective by CO2 emission reduction. Generally, the quality of steel made from iron scrap is lower than the quality of steel made from basic oxygen furnace. So, the constraint of demand side is goods-wise steel demand and that of supply side is generation of iron scap. Material Stock and Flow Model (MSFM_demand) was developed to estimate goods-wise steel demand and generation of iron scrap and was applied to 35 regions which aggregated countries in the world for 2005-2050. The crude steel production was estimated under two case; BaU case (No countermeasures) and CM case (With countermeasures). For all the estimation periods, crude steel production is greater than generation of iron scrap. This makes it impossible to substitute electric arc furnaces for all the basic oxygen furnaces. Even though 100% recycling rate of iron scrap, under BaU case, CO2 emission in 2050 increases by 12% compared to that in 2005. With same condition, 32% of CO2 emission reduction is achieved in CM case. With a constraint from demand side, the reduction potential is 6% (CM case).

Keywords: iron scrap recycling, CO2 emission reduction, steel demand, MSFM demand

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6873 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai

Abstract:

The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

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6872 Liquid Phase Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Powder Metallurgy Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Zih-Jie Lin

Abstract:

Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a feasible means for decreasing the porosity of powder metallurgy (PM) Fe-based material without substantially increase the production cost. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 0.6 wt% boron on the densification of PM 304L stainless steel by LPS. The results indicated that the increase in the sintered density of 304L+0.6B steel is obvious after 1250 ºC sintering, and eutectic structures with borides are observed at the interfaces of the raw steel powders. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show that liquid is generated at 1244ºC during sintering. The boride in the eutectic structure is rich in boron and chromium atoms and is deficient in nickel atoms, as identified by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Furthermore, the sintered densities of 304L and 304L+0.6B steels sintered at 1300 ºC are 6.99 g/cm3 and 7.69 g/cm3, respectively, indicating that boron is a suitable alloying element for facilitating LPS of PM 304L stainless steel.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, liquid phase sintering, stainless steel, boron, microstructure

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6871 Structural Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed S. Sarhan

Abstract:

This study presents the performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel plates as a technique of reinforcement. Three reinforced concrete beams with the dimensions of 200 mm x 300 mm x 4000 mm (width x height x length, respectively) were experimentally investigated under flexural loading. The deformed steel bars were used as the main reinforcement for the first beam. A steel plate placed horizontally was used as the main reinforcement for the second beam. The bond between the steel plate and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using steel bolts (with a diameter of 20 mm and length of 100 mm) welded to the steel plate at a regular distance of 200 mm. A pair of steel plates placed vertically was used as the main reinforcement for the third beam. The bond between the pair steel plates and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using 4 equal steel angles (with the dimensions of 75 mm x 75 mm and the thickness of 8 mm) for each vertical steel plate. Two steel angles were welded at each end of the steel plate. The outcomes revealed that the bending stiffness of the beams reinforced with steel plates was higher than that reinforced with deformed steel bars. Also, the flexural ductile behavior of the second beam was much higher than the rest beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, deflection, ductility, plate

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6870 Ultimate Stress of the Steel Tube in Circular Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Stub Columns Subjected to Axial Compression

Authors: Siqi Lin, Yangang Zhao

Abstract:

Concrete-filled steel tube column achieves the excellent performance of high strength, stiffness, and ductility due to the confinement from the steel tube. Well understanding the stress of the steel tube is important to make clear the confinement effect. In this paper, the ultimate stress of the steel tube in circular concrete-filled steel tube columns subjected to axial compression was studied. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the effects of the parameters, including concrete strength, steel strength, and D/t ratio, on the ultimate stress of the steel tube. The stress of the steel tube was determined by employing the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule associated with isotropic strain hardening. Results indicate that the stress of steel tube was influenced by the parameters. Specimen with higher strength ratio fy/fc and smaller D/t ratio generally leads to a higher utilization efficiency of the steel tube.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube, axial compression, ultimate stress, utilization efficiency

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6869 Architectural Strategies for Designing Durable Steel Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

Nowadays, steel structures are used for not only common buildings but also high-rise construction and wide span covering. The advanced methods of construction as well as the advanced structural connections have a great effect on architecture. However a better use of steel structural systems will be achieved with the deep understanding of steel structures specifications and their substantial advantages. On the other hand, the steel structures face to the different environmental factors such as air flow which cause erosion and corrosion. With the time passing, the amount of these steel mass damages and also the imposed stress will be increased. In other words, the position of erosion in steel structures related to existing stresses indicates that effective environmental conditions will gradually decrease the structural resistance of steel components and result in decreasing the durability of steel components. In this paper, the durability of different steel structural components is evaluated and on the basis of these stress, architectural strategies for designing the system and the components of steel structures is recognized in order to achieve an optimum life cycle.

Keywords: durability, bending stress, erosion in steel structure, life cycle

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6868 Prioritization of Customer Order Selection Factors by Utilizing Conjoint Analysis: A Case Study for a Structural Steel Firm

Authors: Burcu Akyildiz, Cigdem Kadaifci, Y. Ilker Topcu, Burc Ulengin

Abstract:

In today’s business environment, companies should make strategic decisions to gain sustainable competitive advantage. Order selection is a crucial issue among these decisions especially for steel production industry. When the companies allocate a high proportion of their design and production capacities to their ongoing projects, determining which customer order should be chosen among the potential orders without exceeding the remaining capacity is the major critical problem. In this study, it is aimed to identify and prioritize the evaluation factors for the customer order selection problem. Conjoint analysis is used to examine the importance level of each factor which is determined as the potential profit rate per unit of time, the compatibility of potential order with available capacity, the level of potential future order with higher profit, customer credit of future business opportunity, and the negotiability level of production schedule for the order.

Keywords: conjoint analysis, order prioritization, profit management, structural steel firm

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6867 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of SA 210 Gr. C Pipes Welded by Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: H. Demirtaş, İ. H. Kara, H. Ahlatcı

Abstract:

Welding failures of steel pipes in power plants usually occur in weld zones. This is similar for the economizer, water walls and superheaters in the power plants where SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes are used. Although these steel pipes have very good welding properties, the welding parameters are also important for the welding life. Welding processes of this pipes are carried out by TIG and SMA techniques. In this study SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes were welded by TIG method and investigated how PWHT affected the welding properties. The results show that this steel does not require post weld heat treatment.

Keywords: SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes, TIG welding, HAZ region, Widmanstatten ferrite

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6866 Behaviour of Beam Reinforced with Longitudinal Steel-CFRP Composite Reinforcement under Static Load

Authors: Faris A. Uriayer, Mehtab Alam

Abstract:

The concept of using a hybrid composite by combining two or more different materials to produce bilinear stress–strain behaviour has become a subject of interest. Having studied the mechanical properties of steel-CFRP specimens (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips), full size steel-CFRP composite reinforcement were fabricated and used as a new reinforcing material inside beams in lieu of traditional steel bars. Four beams, three beams reinforced with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement and one beam reinforced with traditional steel bars were cast, cured and tested under quasi-static loading. The flexural test results of the beams reinforced with this composite reinforcement showed that the beams with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement had comparable flexural strength and flexural ductility with beams reinforced with traditional steel bars.

Keywords: CFRP laminate, steel strip, flexural behaviour, modified model, concrete beam

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6865 Investigation of the Corroded Steel Beam

Authors: Hesamaddin Khoshnoodi, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji

Abstract:

Corrosion in steel structures is one of the most important issues that should be considered in designing and constructing. Corrosion reduces the cross section and load capacity of element and leads to costly damage of structures. In this paper, the corrosion has been modeled for moment stresses. Moreover, the steel beam has been modeled using ABAQUS advanced finite element software. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the displacement of the analyzed composite steel girder bridge might increase.

Keywords: Abaqus, Corrosion, deformation, Steel Beam

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6864 Using Recyclable Steel Material in Tall Buildings

Authors: O. Eren, L. Zakar

Abstract:

Recycling steel building components is key to the sustainability of a structure’s end-of-life, as it is the most economical solution. In this paper the effects of usage of recycled steel material in tall buildings aspects are investigated.

Keywords: building, recycled material, steel, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
6863 Bond Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed Sarhan Sarhan

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study of the bond behaviour of confined concrete beams reinforced with a chequer steel plate or a deformed steel bar by using the beam-bending pullout test. A total of three beams of 225 mm width, 300 mm height, and 600 mm length were cast and tested. All the beams had the same details of compression reinforcement and stirrups; two plain steel bars of 10 mm diameter (R10) were used for the compression reinforcement, and plain steel bars (R10) at a distance of 80 mm centre to centre were used for the stirrups. The first beam was reinforced with a deformed steel bar while the remaining beams were reinforced with horizontal or vertical chequer steel plates. The results showed no significant difference in the bond force between the beams reinforced with a deformed steel bar or a horizontal steel plate. The beam reinforced with a vertical steel plate considerably presented a bond force higher than the beam reinforced with a horizontal steel plate.

Keywords: bond, pullout, reinforced concrete, steel plate

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6862 Shear Behavior of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Precast/Prestressed Concrete Hollow Core Slabs

Authors: Thi Nguyet Hang Nguyen, Kang Hai Tan

Abstract:

Precast/prestressed concrete hollow core (PCHC) slabs, especially ones with depth more than 300 mm, are susceptible to web-shear failure. The reasons lie on the fact that the production process of PCHC slabs, i.e., the extrusion method (the most common method to cast PCHC slabs nowadays), does not allow them to contain any shear reinforcement. Moreover, due to the presence of the longitudinal voids, cross sections of PCHC slabs are reduced. Therefore, the shear capacity of the slabs depends solely on the tensile strength of concrete which is relatively low. Given that shear is a major concern in using hollow-core slabs, this paper investigates the possibility of adopting steel fibers in PCHC slabs produced by the extrusion method to enhance the shear capacity of the slabs. Three full-scale PCHC slabs with and without hooked-steel fibers were cast and tested until failure. Three different volumetric fiber contents of 0, 0.51 and 0.89% were investigated. The test results showed that there were substantial increases in shear capacity and ductility with the use of hooked-steel fibers. Ultimate shear strength increased with fiber content. In addition, while the specimen without steel fibers and the one with the steel-fiber volume fraction of 0.51% failed in web-shear mode, the specimen with the higher fiber content (0.89%) collapsed in flexural-shear mode. However, as the hooked-steel fibers with the fiber content of 0.89% were used, difficulties in concrete consolidation were observed while concrete was being cast. This could lead to a lower ultimate shear capacity due to a poorer bond between the concrete and the steel fibers.

Keywords: hollow-core slabs, shear strength, steel fibers, web-shear failure

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6861 Energy Efficiency Measures in Canada’s Iron and Steel Industry

Authors: A. Talaei, M. Ahiduzzaman, A. Kumar

Abstract:

In Canada, an increase in the production of iron and steel is anticipated for satisfying the increasing demand of iron and steel in the oil sands and automobile industries. It is predicted that GHG emissions from iron and steel sector will show a continuous increase till 2030 and, with emissions of 20 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, the sector will account for more than 2% of total national GHG emissions, or 12% of industrial emissions (i.e. 25% increase from 2010 levels). Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve the energy intensity and to implement energy efficiency measures in the industry to reduce the GHG footprint. This paper analyzes the current energy consumption in the Canadian iron and steel industries and identifies energy efficiency opportunities to improve the energy intensity and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from this industry. In order to do this, a demand tree is developed representing different iron and steel production routs and the technologies within each rout. The main energy consumer within the industry is found to be flared heaters accounting for 81% of overall energy consumption followed by motor system and steam generation each accounting for 7% of total energy consumption. Eighteen different energy efficiency measures are identified which will help the efficiency improvement in various subsector of the industry. In the sintering process, heat recovery from coolers provides a high potential for energy saving and can be integrated in both new and existing plants. Coke dry quenching (CDQ) has the same advantages. Within the blast furnace iron-making process, injection of large amounts of coal in the furnace appears to be more effective than any other option in this category. In addition, because coal-powered electricity is being phased out in Ontario (where the majority of iron and steel plants are located) there will be surplus coal that could be used in iron and steel plants. In the steel-making processes, the recovery of Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) gas and scrap preheating provides considerable potential for energy savings in BOF and Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steel-making processes, respectively. However, despite the energy savings potential, the BOF gas recovery is not applicable in existing plants using steam recovery processes. Given that the share of EAF in steel production is expected to increase the application potential of the technology will be limited. On the other hand, the long lifetime of the technology and the expected capacity increase of EAF makes scrap preheating a justified energy saving option. This paper would present the results of the assessment of the above mentioned options in terms of the costs and GHG mitigation potential.

Keywords: Iron and Steel Sectors, Energy Efficiency Improvement, Blast Furnace Iron-making Process, GHG Mitigation

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6860 The Prospect of Producing Hydrogen by Electrolysis of Idle Discharges of Water from Reservoirs and Recycling of Waste-Gas Condensates

Authors: Inom Sh. Normatov, Nurmakhmad Shermatov, Rajabali Barotov, Rano Eshankulova

Abstract:

The results of the studies for the hydrogen production by the application of water electrolysis and plasma-chemical processing of gas condensate-waste of natural gas production methods are presented. Thin coating covers the electrode surfaces in the process of water electrolysis. Therefore, water for electrolysis was first exposed to electrosedimentation. The threshold voltage is shifted to a lower value compared with the use of electrodes made of stainless steel. At electrolysis of electrosedimented water by use of electrodes from stainless steel, a significant amount of hydrogen is formed. Pyrolysis of gas condensates in the atmosphere of a nitrogen was followed by the formation of acetylene (3-7 vol.%), ethylene (4-8 vol.%), and pyrolysis carbon (10-15 wt.%).

Keywords: electrolyze, gascondensate, hydrogen, pyrolysis

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6859 Application of Generalized Taguchi and Design of Experiment Methodology for Rebar Production at an Integrated Steel Plant

Authors: S. B. V. S. P. Sastry, V. V. S. Kesava Rao

Abstract:

In this paper, x-ray impact of Taguchi method and design of experiment philosophy to project relationship between various factors leading to output yield strength of rebar is studied. In bar mill of an integrated steel plant, there are two production lines called as line 1 and line 2. The metallic properties e.g. yield strength of finished product of the same material is varying for a particular grade material when rolled simultaneously in both the lines. A study has been carried out to set the process parameters at optimal level for obtaining equal value of yield strength simultaneously for both lines.

Keywords: bar mill, design of experiment, taguchi, yield strength

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6858 Effect of Demineralized Water Purity on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel Alloys

Authors: A. M. El-Aziz, M. Elsehamy, H. Hussein

Abstract:

Steel or stainless steel have reasonable corrosion behavior in water, their corrosion resistance is significantly dependent on the water purity. It was not expected that demineralized water has an aggressive effect on steel alloys, in this study, the effect of water with different purity on steel X52 and stainless steel 316L was investigated. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were employed to measure the corrosion behavior. Samples were microscopically investigated after test. It was observed that the higher the water purity the more reactive it is. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different water purity showed the aggressiveness of the demineralised water (conductivity of 0.05 microSiemens per cm) over the distilled water. Whereas, the corrosion rates of stainless steel 858 and 623 nm/y for demi and distilled water respectively. On the other hand, the corrosion rates of carbon steel x52 were estimated about 4.8 and 3.6 µm/y for demi and distilled water, respectively. Open circuit potential (OCP) recorded more positive potentials in case of stainless steel than carbon steel in different water purities. Generally, stainless steel illustrated high pitting resistance than carbon steel alloy, the surface film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This behavior was explained based on that demi and distilled water might be considered as ‘hungry water’ in which it wants to be in equilibrium and will pull ions out of the surrounding metals trying to satisfy its ‘hunger’.

Keywords: corrosion, demineralized water, distilled water, steel alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
6857 Calculating Quantity of Steel Bar Placed in Mesh Form in a Circular Slab or Dome

Authors: Karam Chand Gupta

Abstract:

When steel reinforcement is placed in mesh form in circular concrete slab at base or domes at top in case of over head service reservoir or any other structure, it is difficult to estimate/measure the total quantity of steel that would be needed or placed. For the purpose of calculating the total length of the steel bars, at present, the practice is – the length of each bar is measured and then added up. This is tiresome and time consuming process. I have derived a mathematics formula with the help of which we can calculate in one line the quantity of total steel that will be needed. This will not only make it easy and time saving but also avoids any error in making entries and calculations.

Keywords: dome, mesh, slab, steel

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6856 Seismic Response of Braced Steel Frames with Shape Memory Alloy and Mega Bracing Systems

Authors: Mohamed Omar

Abstract:

Steel bracing members are widely used in steel structures to reduce lateral displacement and dissipate energy during earthquake motions. Concentric steel bracing provide an excellent approach for strengthening and stiffening steel buildings. Using these braces the designer can hardly adjust the stiffness together with ductility as needed because of buckling of braces in compression. In this study the use of SMA bracing and steel bracing (Mega) utilized in steel frames are investigated. The effectiveness of these two systems in rehabilitating a mid-rise eight-storey steel frames were examined using time-history nonlinear analysis utilizing Seismo-Struct software. Results show that both systems improve the strength and stiffness of the original structure but due to excellent behavior of SMA in nonlinear phase and under compressive forces this system shows much better performance than the rehabilitation system of Mega bracing.

Keywords: finite element analysis, seismic response, shapes memory alloy, steel frame, mega bracing

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
6855 Behaviour of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete

Authors: Emdad K. Z. Balanji, M. Neaz Sheikh, Muhammad N. S. Hadi

Abstract:

This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the behaviour of Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete (HSFR-HSC) cylinder specimens (150 mm x 300 mm) under uniaxial compression. Three different combinations of HSFR-HSC specimens and reference specimens without steel fibres were prepared. The first combination of HSFR-HSC included 1.5% Micro Steel (MS) fibre and 1% Deformed Steel (DS) fibre. The second combination included 1.5% MS fibre and 1.5% Hooked-end Steel (HS) fibre. The third combination included 1% DS fibre and 1.5% HS fibre. The experimental results showed that the addition of hybrid steel fibres improved the ductility of high strength concrete. The combination of MS fibre and HS fibre in high strength concrete mixes showed best stress-strain behaviour compared to the other combinations and the reference specimens.

Keywords: high strength concrete, micro steel fibre (MS), deformed steel fibre (DS), hooked-end steel fibre (HS), hybrid steel fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
6854 Effect of Heating Rate on Microstructural Developments in Cold Heading Quality Steel Used for Automotive Applications

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, F. Mufadi, A. Boodi

Abstract:

Microstructural study and phase transformation in steels is a basic and important step during the design of structural steel. There are huge efforts and study has been done so far on phase transformations, due to so many steel grades available commercially the phase development in steel has different consequences. In the present work an effort has been made to study the effect of heating rate on microstructural features of cold heading quality steel. The SEM, optical microscopy, and heat treatment techniques have been applied to observe the microstructural features in the experimental steel. It was observed that heating rate has the strong influence on phase transformation of CHQ steel under investigation. Heating rate increases the austenite formation kinetics with respect to holding time, and this austenite has been transformed to martensite upon cooling. Heating rate also plays a vital role on nucleation sites of austenite formation in the experimental steel.

Keywords: CHQ steel, austenite formation, heating rate, nucleation

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
6853 Emissivity Analysis of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Fire

Authors: Christian Gaigl, Martin Mensinger

Abstract:

Once a fire resistance rating is necessary, it has to be proofed that the load bearing behavior of a steel construction under the exposure of fire still fits the static demands. High costs of passive fire protection, which satisfies the requirements, frequently result in a concrete solution. To optimize these expenses, one method is to determine the critical temperature according to the Eurocode DIN EN 1993-1-2. For this purpose, positive effects of hot-dip galvanized surface layers on the temperature development of steel members in the accidental situation of fire exposure has been investigated. The test results show a significant better heating behavior of hot-dip galvanized steel components compared to normal steel specimen. This leads in many cases to a R30 (30 minutes of ISO-fire) fire protection requirement of unprotected steel members and therefore to an economic added value.

Keywords: fire resistance, hot-dip galvanizing, steel constructions, R30 requirement, emissivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
6852 Behavior of Double Skin Circular Tubular Steel-Concrete-Composite Column

Authors: Usha Sivasankaran, Seetha Raman

Abstract:

Experimental work on Double skin Concrete Filled tubes (DSCFT) are a variation of CFT (Concrete- filled steel tubular) with a hollow core formed by two concentric steel tubes in – filled with concrete. Six Specimens with three different volume fractions of steel fibres are cast and tested. Experiments on circular steel tubes in – filled with steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) and normal concrete have been performed to investigate the contribution of steel fibres to the load bearing capacity of Short Composite Columns. The main Variable considered in the test study is the percentage of steel fibres added to the in –filled concrete. All the specimens were tested under axial compression until failure state realisation. This project presents the percentage Variation in the compression strengths of the 3 types of Composite members taken under Study. The results show that 1.5% SFRC in filled steel columns exhibit enhanced ultimate load carrying capacity.

Keywords: composite columns, optimization of steel, double skin, DSCFT

Procedia PDF Downloads 442