**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**4142

# Search results for: energy balance equation

##### 4142 The Splitting Upwind Schemes for Spectral Action Balance Equation

**Authors:**
Anirut Luadsong,
Nitima Aschariyaphotha

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
upwind scheme,
parallel algorithm,
spectral action balance equation,
splitting method.

##### 4141 Energy Budget Equation of Superfluid HVBK Model: LES Simulation

**Authors:**
M. Bakhtaoui,
L. Merahi

**Abstract:**

The reliability of the filtered HVBK model is now investigated via some large eddy simulations (LES) of freely decaying isotropic superfluid turbulence. For homogeneous turbulence at very high Reynolds numbers, comparison of the terms in the spectral kinetic energy budget equation indicates, in the energy-containing range, that the production and energy transfer effects become significant except for dissipation. In the inertial range, where the two fluids are perfectly locked, the mutual friction maybe neglected with respect to other terms. Also, the LES results for the other terms of the energy balance are presented.

**Keywords:**
Superfluid turbulence,
HVBK,
Energy budget,
Large
Eddy Simulation.

##### 4140 Splitting Modified Donor-Cell Schemes for Spectral Action Balance Equation

**Authors:**
Tanapat Brikshavana,
Anirut Luadsong

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
donor-cell scheme,
parallel algorithm,
spectral action balance equation,
splitting method.

##### 4139 Periodic Solutions for Some Strongly Nonlinear Oscillators by He's Energy Balance Method

**Abstract:**

In this paper, applying He-s energy balance method to determine frequency formulation relations of nonlinear oscillators with discontinuous term or fractional potential. By calculation and computer simulations, compared with the exact solutions show that the results obtained are of high accuracy.

**Keywords:**
He's energy balance method,
periodic solution,
nonlinear oscillator,
discontinuous,
fractional potential.

##### 4138 Three Steps of One-way Nested Grid for Energy Balance Equations by Wave Model

**Authors:**
Worachat Wannawong,
Usa W. Humphries,
Prungchan Wongwises,
Suphat Vongvisessomjai

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
energy balance equation,
Gulf of Thailand,
nested gridapplication,
South China Sea,
wave model.

##### 4137 Modeling Converters during the Warm-up Period for Hydrocarbon Oxidation

**Authors:**
Sanchita Chauhan,
V.K. Srivastava

**Abstract:**

Catalytic converters are used for minimizing the release of pollutants to the atmosphere. It is during the warm-up period that hydrocarbons are seen to be released in appreciable quantities from these converters. In this paper the conversion of a fast oxidizing hydrocarbon propylene is analysed using two numerical methods. The quasi steady state method assumes the accumulation terms to be negligible in the gas phase mass and energy balance equations, however this term is present in the solid phase energy balance. The unsteady state model accounts for the accumulation term to be present in the gas phase mass and energy balance and in the solid phase energy balance. The results derived from the two models for gas concentration, gas temperature and solid temperature are compared.

**Keywords:**
Propylene,
catalyst,
quasi steady state,
unsteady state.

##### 4136 Assessment of the Energy Balance Method in the Case of Masonry Domes

**Authors:**
M. M. Sadeghi,
S. Vahdani

**Abstract:**

Masonry dome structures had been widely used for covering large spans in the past. The seismic assessment of these historical structures is very complicated due to the nonlinear behavior of the material, their rigidness, and special stability configuration. The assessment method based on energy balance concept, as well as the standard pushover analysis, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods in the case of masonry dome structures. The Soltanieh dome building is used as an example to which two methods are applied. The performance points are given from superimposing the capacity, and demand curves in Acceleration Displacement Response Spectra (ADRS) and energy coordination are compared with the nonlinear time history analysis as the exact result. The results show a good agreement between the dynamic analysis and the energy balance method, but standard pushover method does not provide an acceptable estimation.

**Keywords:**
Energy balance method,
pushover analysis,
time history analysis,
masonry dome.

##### 4135 Numerical Analysis of Wave and Hydrodynamic Models for Energy Balance and Primitive Equations

**Authors:**
Worachat Wannawong,
Usa W. Humphries,
Prungchan Wongwises,
Suphat Vongvisessomjai,
Wiriya Lueangaram

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
energy balance equation,
numerical analysis,
primitiveequation,
storm surge,
wave.

##### 4134 Active Power Filtering Implementation Using Photovoltaic System with Reduced Energy Storage Capacitor

**Authors:**
Horng-Yuan Wu,
Chin-Yuan Hsu,
Tsair-Fwu Lee

**Abstract:**

A novel three-phase active power filter (APF) circuit with photovoltaic (PV) system to improve the quality of service and to reduce the capacity of energy storage capacitor is presented. The energy balance concept and sampling technique were used to simplify the calculation algorithm for the required utility source current and to control the voltage of the energy storage capacitor. The feasibility was verified by using the Pspice simulations and experiments. When the APF mode was used during non-operational period, not only the utilization rate, power factor and power quality could be improved, but also the capacity of energy storage capacitor could sparing. As the results, the advantages of the APF circuit are simplicity of control circuits, low cost, and good transient response.

**Keywords:**
active power filter,
sampling,
energy-storagecapacitor,
harmonic current,
energy balance.

##### 4133 Explicit Solution of an Investment Plan for a DC Pension Scheme with Voluntary Contributions and Return Clause under Logarithm Utility

**Authors:**
Promise A. Azor,
Avievie Igodo,
Esabai M. Ase

**Abstract:**

The paper merged the return of premium clause and voluntary contributions to investigate retirees’ investment plan in a defined contributory (DC) pension scheme with a portfolio comprising of a risk-free asset and a risky asset whose price process is described by geometric Brownian motion (GBM). The paper considers additional voluntary contributions paid by members, charge on balance by pension fund administrators and the mortality risk of members of the scheme during the accumulation period by introducing return of premium clause. To achieve this, the Weilbull mortality force function is used to establish the mortality rate of members during accumulation phase. Furthermore, an optimization problem from the Hamilton Jacobi Bellman (HJB) equation is obtained using dynamic programming approach. Also, the Legendre transformation method is used to transform the HJB equation which is a nonlinear partial differential equation to a linear partial differential equation and solves the resultant equation for the value function and the optimal distribution plan under logarithm utility function. Finally, numerical simulations of the impact of some important parameters on the optimal distribution plan were obtained and it was observed that the optimal distribution plan is inversely proportional to the initial fund size, predetermined interest rate, additional voluntary contributions, charge on balance and instantaneous volatility.

**Keywords:**
Legendre transform,
logarithm utility,
optimal distribution plan,
return clause of premium,
charge on balance,
Weibull mortality function.

##### 4132 On the Integer Solutions of the Pell Equation x2 - dy2 = 2t

**Authors:**
Ahmet Tekcan,
Betül Gezer,
Osman Bizim

**Abstract:**

Let k ≥ 1 and t ≥ 0 be two integers and let d = k2 + k be a positive non-square integer. In this paper, we consider the integer solutions of Pell equation x2 - dy2 = 2t. Further we derive a recurrence relation on the solutions of this equation.

**Keywords:**
Pell equation,
Diophantine equation.

##### 4131 Bowen Ratio in Western São Paulo State, Brazil

**Authors:**
Elaine C. Barboza,
Antonio J. Machado

**Abstract:**

This paper discusses micrometeorological aspects of the urban climate in three cities in Western São Paulo State: Presidente Prudente, Assis and Iepê. Particular attention is paid to the method used to estimate the components of the energy balance at the surface. Estimates of convective fluxes showed that the Bowen ratio was an indicator of the local climate and that its magnitude varied between 0.3 and 0.7. Maximum values for the Bowen ratio occurred earlier in Iepê (11:00 am) than in Presidente Prudente (4:00 pm). The results indicate that the Bowen ratio is modulated by the radiation balance at the surface and by different clusters of vegetation.

**Keywords:**
Bowen ratio,
medium-sized cities,
surface energy balance,
urban climate.

##### 4130 Using ANSYS to Realize a Semi-Analytical Method for Predicting Temperature Profile in Injection/Production Well

**Authors:**
N. Tarom,
M.M. Hossain

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Energy balance equation,
reservoir and well
performance,
temperature log,
overall heat transfer coefficient.

##### 4129 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Discharge Modes of an Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage System

**Authors:**
Shane D. Inder,
Mehrdad Khamooshi

**Abstract:**

Efficient energy storage is a crucial factor in facilitating the uptake of renewable energy resources. Among the many options available for energy storage systems required to balance imbalanced supply and demand cycles, compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a proven technology in grid-scale applications. This paper reviews the current state of micro scale CAES technology and describes a micro-scale advanced adiabatic CAES (A-CAES) system, where heat generated during compression is stored for use in the discharge phase. It will also describe a thermodynamic model, developed in EES (Engineering Equation Solver) to evaluate the performance and critical parameters of the discharge phase of the proposed system. Three configurations are explained including: single turbine without preheater, two turbines with preheaters, and three turbines with preheaters. It is shown that the micro-scale A-CAES is highly dependent upon key parameters including; regulator pressure, air pressure and volume, thermal energy storage temperature and flow rate and the number of turbines. It was found that a micro-scale AA-CAES, when optimized with an appropriate configuration, could deliver energy input to output efficiency of up to 70%.

**Keywords:**
CAES,
adiabatic compressed air energy storage,
expansion phase,
micro generation,
thermodynamic.

##### 4128 Propagation of Viscous Waves and Activation Energy of Hydrocarbon Fluids

**Authors:**
Ram N. Singh,
Abraham K. George,
Dawood N. Al-Namaani

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Activation Energy,
Attenuation,
Crude Oil,
Navier-
Stokes Equation,
Viscosity.

##### 4127 Developing the Methods for the Study of Static and Dynamic Balance

**Authors:**
K. Abuzayan,
H. Alabed,
J. Ezarrugh,
M. Agila

**Abstract:**

Static and dynamic balance are essential in daily and sports life. Many factors have been identified as influencing static balance control. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the (XCoM) method and other relevant variables (CoP, CoM, F_{h}, KE, P, Q, and, AI) to investigate sport related activities such as hopping and jumping. Many studies have represented the CoP data without mentioning its accuracy so several experiments were done to establish the agreement between the CoP and the projected CoM in a static condition. 5 healthy male were participated in this study (Mean ± SD:- age 24.6 years ±4.5, height 177cm ± 6.3, body mass 72.8kg ± 6.6).Results found that the implementation of the XCoM method was found to be practical for evaluating both static and dynamic balance. The general findings were that the CoP, the CoM, the XCoM, F_{h}, and Q were more informative than the other variables (e.g. KE, P, and AI) during static and dynamic balance. The XCoM method was found to be applicable to dynamic balance as well as static balance.

**Keywords:**
Centre of Mass,
static balance,
Dynamic balance,
extrapolated Centre of Mass

##### 4126 Bound State Solutions of the Schrödinger Equation for Hulthen-Yukawa Potential in D-Dimensions

**Authors:**
I. Otete,
A. I. Ejere,
I. S. Okunzuwa

**Abstract:**

In this work, we used the Hulthen-Yukawa potential to obtain the bound state energy eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation in D-dimensions within the frame work of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. We demonstrated the graphical behaviour of the Hulthen and the Yukawa potential and investigated how the screening parameter and the potential depth affected the structure and the nature of the bound state eigenvalues. The results we obtained showed that increasing the screening parameter lowers the energy eigenvalues. Also, the eigenvalues acted as an inverse function of the potential depth. That is, increasing the potential depth reduces the energy eigenvalues.

**Keywords:**
Schrödinger's equation,
bound state,
Hulthen-Yukawa potential,
Nikiforov-Uvarov,
D-dimensions

##### 4125 The Proof of Two Conjectures Related to Pell-s Equation x2 −Dy2 = ± 4

**Authors:**
Armend Sh. Shabani

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Pell's equation,
solutions of Pell's equation.

##### 4124 An Examination and Validation of the Theoretical Resistivity-Temperature Relationship for Conductors

**Authors:**
Fred Lacy

**Abstract:**

Electrical resistivity is a fundamental parameter of metals or electrical conductors. Since resistivity is a function of temperature, in order to completely understand the behavior of metals, a temperature dependent theoretical model is needed. A model based on physics principles has recently been developed to obtain an equation that relates electrical resistivity to temperature. This equation is dependent upon a parameter associated with the electron travel time before being scattered, and a parameter that relates the energy of the atoms and their separation distance. Analysis of the energy parameter reveals that the equation is optimized if the proportionality term in the equation is not constant but varies over the temperature range. Additional analysis reveals that the theoretical equation can be used to determine the mean free path of conduction electrons, the number of defects in the atomic lattice, and the ‘equivalent’ charge associated with the metallic bonding of the atoms. All of this analysis provides validation for the theoretical model and provides insight into the behavior of metals where performance is affected by temperatures (e.g., integrated circuits and temperature sensors).

**Keywords:**
Callendar–van Dusen,
conductivity,
mean free path,
resistance temperature detector,
temperature sensor.

##### 4123 Multiparametric Optimization of Water Treatment Process for Thermal Power Plants

**Authors:**
B. Mukanova,
N. Glazyrina,
S. Glazyrin

**Abstract:**

The formulated problem of optimization of the technological process of water treatment for thermal power plants is considered in this article. The problem is of multiparametric nature. To optimize the process, namely, reduce the amount of waste water, a new technology was developed to reuse such water. A mathematical model of the technology of wastewater reuse was developed. Optimization parameters were determined. The model consists of a material balance equation, an equation describing the kinetics of ion exchange for the non-equilibrium case and an equation for the ion exchange isotherm. The material balance equation includes a nonlinear term that depends on the kinetics of ion exchange. A direct problem of calculating the impurity concentration at the outlet of the water treatment plant was numerically solved. The direct problem was approximated by an implicit point-to-point computation difference scheme. The inverse problem was formulated as relates to determination of the parameters of the mathematical model of the water treatment plant operating in non-equilibrium conditions. The formulated inverse problem was solved. Following the results of calculation the time of start of the filter regeneration process was determined, as well as the period of regeneration process and the amount of regeneration and wash water. Multi-parameter optimization of water treatment process for thermal power plants allowed decreasing the amount of wastewater by 15%.

**Keywords:**
Direct problem,
multiparametric optimization,
optimization parameters,
water treatment.

##### 4122 Transient Combined Conduction and Radiation in a Two-Dimensional Participating Cylinder in Presence of Heat Generation

**Authors:**
Raoudha Chaabane,
Faouzi Askri,
Sassi Ben Nasrallah

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
heat generation,
cylindrical coordinates; RTE;transient; coupled conduction radiation; heat transfer; CVFEM; LBM

##### 4121 Design and Research of a New Kind Balance Adjusting System of Centrifuge

**Authors:**
Li Xinyao,
Hong Jianzhong,
Wu Wenkai

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
balance adjusting system,
centrifuge,
screw pair,
timing belt

##### 4120 An Analytical Method for Solving General Riccati Equation

**Authors:**
Y. Pala,
M. O. Ertas

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the general Riccati equation is analytically solved by a new transformation. By the method developed, looking at the transformed equation, whether or not an explicit solution can be obtained is readily determined. Since the present method does not require a proper solution for the general solution, it is especially suitable for equations whose proper solutions cannot be seen at first glance. Since the transformed second order linear equation obtained by the present transformation has the simplest form that it can have, it is immediately seen whether or not the original equation can be solved analytically. The present method is exemplified by several examples.

**Keywords:**
Riccati Equation,
ordinary differential equation,
nonlinear differential equation,
analytical solution,
proper solution.

##### 4119 Stabilization of the Bernoulli-Euler Plate Equation: Numerical Analysis

**Authors:**
Carla E. O. de Moraes,
Gladson O. Antunes,
Mauro A. Rincon

**Abstract:**

The aim of this paper is to study the internal stabilization of the Bernoulli-Euler equation numerically. For this, we consider a square plate subjected to a feedback/damping force distributed only in a subdomain. An algorithm for obtaining an approximate solution to this problem was proposed and implemented. The numerical method used was the Finite Difference Method. Numerical simulations were performed and showed the behavior of the solution, confirming the theoretical results that have already been proved in the literature. In addition, we studied the validation of the numerical scheme proposed, followed by an analysis of the numerical error; and we conducted a study on the decay of the energy associated.

**Keywords:**
Bernoulli-Euler Plate Equation,
Numerical Simulations,
Stability,
Energy Decay,
Finite Difference Method.

##### 4118 The Pell Equation x2 − Py2 = Q

**Authors:**
Ahmet Tekcan,
Arzu Özkoç,
Canan Kocapınar,
Hatice Alkan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Pell equation,
solutions of Pell equation.

##### 4117 Conformal Invariance in F (R, T) Gravity

**Authors:**
Pyotr Tsyba,
Olga Razina,
Ertan Güdekli,
Ratbay Myrzakulov

**Abstract:**

In this paper we consider the equation of motion for the F (R, T) gravity on their property of conformal invariance. It is shown that in the general case, such a theory is not conformal invariant. Studied special cases for the functions v and u in which can appear properties of the theory. Also we consider cosmological aspects F (R, T) theory of gravity, having considered particular case F (R, T) = μR+νT^2. Showed that in this case there is a nonlinear dependence of the parameter equation of state from time to time, which affects its evolution.

**Keywords:**
Conformally invariance,
F (R,
T) gravity,
metric
FRW,
equation of motion,
dark energy.

##### 4116 The Effect of Static Balance Enhance by Table Tennis Training Intervening on Deaf Children

**Authors:**
Yi-Chun Chang,
Ching-Ting Hsu,
Wei-Hua Ho,
Yueh-Tung Kuo

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Deaf children,
static balance,
table tennis,
vestibular structure.

##### 4115 To Study the Parametric Effects on Optimality of Various Feeding Sequences of a Multieffect Evaporators in Paper Industry using Mathematical Modeling and Simulation with MATLAB

**Authors:**
Deepak Kumar,
Vivek Kumar,
V. P. Singh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
MATLAB "fsolve" solver,
multiple effectevaporators,
black liquor,
feeding sequences.

##### 4114 The Diophantine Equation y2 − 2yx − 3 = 0 and Corresponding Curves over Fp

**Authors:**
Ahmet Tekcan,
Arzu Özkoç,
Hatice Alkan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Diophantine equation,
Pell equation,
quadratic form.

##### 4113 Analysis of Normal Penetration of Ogive -Nose Projectiles into Thin Metallic Plates

**Authors:**
M. H. Pol,
A. Bidi,
A.V. Hoseini,
G.H. Liaghat

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Ogive Projectile,
normal impact,
penetration,
thinmetallic target.