Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: heat generation

33 Magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell Nanofluids Flow over a Stretching Surface through a Porous Medium: Effects of Non-Linear Thermal Radiation, Convective Boundary Conditions and Heat Generation/Absorption

Authors: Sameh E. Ahmed, Ramadan A. Mohamed, Abd Elraheem M. Aly, Mahmoud S. Soliman

Abstract:

In this paper, an enhancement of the heat transfer using non-Newtonian nanofluids by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection along stretching sheets embedded in an isotropic porous medium is investigated. Case of the Maxwell nanofluids is studied using the two phase mathematical model of nanofluids and the Darcy model is applied for the porous medium. Important effects are taken into account, namely, non-linear thermal radiation, convective boundary conditions, electromagnetic force and presence of the heat source/sink. Suitable similarity transformations are used to convert the governing equations to a system of ordinary differential equations then it is solved numerically using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. The main results of the study revealed that the velocity profiles are decreasing functions of the Darcy number, the Deborah number and the magnetic field parameter. Also, the increase in the non-linear radiation parameters causes an enhancement in the local Nusselt number.

Keywords: MHD, Nanofluids, Stretching surface, non-linear thermal radiation, convective condition

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32 Feasibility Study of Friction Stir Welding Application for Kevlar Material

Authors: Ahmet Taşan, Süha Tirkeş, Yavuz Öztürk, Zafer Bingül

Abstract:

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a joining process in the solid state, which eliminates problems associated with the material melting and solidification, such as cracks, residual stresses and distortions generated during conventional welding. Among the most important advantages of FSW are; easy automation, less distortion, lower residual stress and good mechanical properties in the joining region. FSW is a recent approach to metal joining and although originally intended for aluminum alloys, it is investigated in a variety of metallic materials. The basic concept of FSW is a rotating tool, made of non-consumable material, specially designed with a geometry consisting of a pin and a recess (shoulder). This tool is inserted as spinning on its axis at the adjoining edges of two sheets or plates to be joined and then it travels along the joining path line. The tool rotation axis defines an angle of inclination with which the components to be welded. This angle is used for receiving the material to be processed at the tool base and to promote the gradual forge effect imposed by the shoulder during the passage of the tool. This prevents the material plastic flow at the tool lateral, ensuring weld closure on the back of the pin. In this study, two 4 mm Kevlar® plates which were produced with the Kevlar® fabrics, are analyzed with COMSOL Multiphysics in order to investigate the weldability via FSW. Thereafter, some experimental investigation is done with an appropriate workbench in order to compare them with the analysis results.

Keywords: Analytical Modeling, Friction Stir Welding, heat generation, composite materials welding

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31 Effect on the Performance of the Nano-Particulate Graphite Lubricant in the Turning of AISI 1040 Steel under Variable Machining Conditions

Authors: S. Srikiran, Dharmala Venkata Padmaja, P. N. L. Pavani, R. Pola Rao, K. Ramji

Abstract:

Technological advancements in the development of cutting tools and coolant/lubricant chemistry have enhanced the machining capabilities of hard materials under higher machining conditions. Generation of high temperatures at the cutting zone during machining is one of the most important and pertinent problems which adversely affect the tool life and surface finish of the machined components. Generally, cutting fluids and solid lubricants are used to overcome the problem of heat generation, which is not effectively addressing the problems. With technological advancements in the field of tribology, nano-level particulate solid lubricants are being used nowadays in machining operations, especially in the areas of turning and grinding. The present investigation analyses the effect of using nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant in the turning of AISI 1040 steel under variable machining conditions and to study its effect on cutting forces, tool temperature and surface roughness of the machined component. Experiments revealed that the increase in cutting forces and tool temperature resulting in the decrease of surface quality with the decrease in the size of nano-particulate graphite powder as lubricant.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Graphite, minimum quantity lubrication, solid lubricant

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30 Numerical Solution of Steady Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary Layer Flow Due to Gyrotactic Microorganism for Williamson Nanofluid over Stretched Surface in the Presence of Exponential Internal Heat Generation

Authors: M. A. Talha, M. Osman Gani, M. Ferdows

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the study of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady incompressible viscous Williamson nanofluid with exponential internal heat generation containing gyrotactic microorganism over a stretching sheet. The governing equations and auxiliary conditions are reduced to a set of non-linear coupled differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions using similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically through spectral relaxation method. The influences of various parameters such as Williamson parameter γ, power constant λ, Prandtl number Pr, magnetic field parameter M, Peclet number Pe, Lewis number Le, Bioconvection Lewis number Lb, Brownian motion parameter Nb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, and bioconvection constant σ are studied to obtain the momentum, heat, mass and microorganism distributions. Moment, heat, mass and gyrotactic microorganism profiles are explored through graphs and tables. We computed the heat transfer rate, mass flux rate and the density number of the motile microorganism near the surface. Our numerical results are in better agreement in comparison with existing calculations. The Residual error of our obtained solutions is determined in order to see the convergence rate against iteration. Faster convergence is achieved when internal heat generation is absent. The effect of magnetic parameter M decreases the momentum boundary layer thickness but increases the thermal boundary layer thickness. It is apparent that bioconvection Lewis number and bioconvection parameter has a pronounced effect on microorganism boundary. Increasing brownian motion parameter and Lewis number decreases the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, magnetic field parameter and thermophoresis parameter has an induced effect on concentration profiles.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, similarity, internal heat generation, spectral method, convection flow, Williamson nanofluid

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29 Design Approach to Incorporate Unique Performance Characteristics of Special Concrete

Authors: Devendra Kumar Pandey, Debabrata Chakraborty

Abstract:

The advancement in various concrete ingredients like plasticizers, additives and fibers, etc. has enabled concrete technologists to develop many viable varieties of special concretes in recent decades. Such various varieties of concrete have significant enhancement in green as well as hardened properties of concrete. A prudent selection of appropriate type of concrete can resolve many design and application issues in construction projects. This paper focuses on usage of self-compacting concrete, high early strength concrete, structural lightweight concrete, fiber reinforced concrete, high performance concrete and ultra-high strength concrete in the structures. The modified properties of strength at various ages, flowability, porosity, equilibrium density, flexural strength, elasticity, permeability etc. need to be carefully studied and incorporated into the design of the structures. The paper demonstrates various mixture combinations and the concrete properties that can be leveraged. The selection of such products based on the end use of structures has been proposed in order to efficiently utilize the modified characteristics of these concrete varieties. The study involves mapping the characteristics with benefits and savings for the structure from design perspective. Self-compacting concrete in the structure is characterized by high shuttering loads, better finish, and feasibility of closer reinforcement spacing. The structural design procedures can be modified to specify higher formwork strength, height of vertical members, cover reduction and increased ductility. The transverse reinforcement can be spaced at closer intervals compared to regular structural concrete. It allows structural lightweight concrete structures to be designed for reduced dead load, increased insulation properties. Member dimensions and steel requirement can be reduced proportionate to about 25 to 35 percent reduction in the dead load due to self-weight of concrete. Steel fiber reinforced concrete can be used to design grade slabs without primary reinforcement because of 70 to 100 percent higher tensile strength. The design procedures incorporate reduction in thickness and joint spacing. High performance concrete employs increase in the life of the structures by improvement in paste characteristics and durability by incorporating supplementary cementitious materials. Often, these are also designed for slower heat generation in the initial phase of hydration. The structural designer can incorporate the slow development of strength in the design and specify 56 or 90 days strength requirement. For designing high rise building structures, creep and elasticity properties of such concrete also need to be considered. Lastly, certain structures require a performance under loading conditions much earlier than final maturity of concrete. High early strength concrete has been designed to cater to a variety of usages at various ages as early as 8 to 12 hours. Therefore, an understanding of concrete performance specifications for special concrete is a definite door towards a superior structural design approach.

Keywords: Structural Design, Special Concrete, High Performance Concrete, structural lightweight concrete

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28 Two-Dimensional Modeling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using FLUENT

Authors: Imane Khalil, Quinn Pratt

Abstract:

In a nuclear reactor, an array of fuel rods containing stacked uranium dioxide pellets clad with zircalloy is the heat source for a thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion from heat to electricity. After fuel is used in a nuclear reactor, the assemblies are stored underwater in a spent nuclear fuel pool at the nuclear power plant while heat generation and radioactive decay rates decrease before it is placed in packages for dry storage or transportation. A computational model of a Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assembly is modeled using FLUENT, the computational fluid dynamics package. Heat transfer simulations were performed on the two-dimensional 9x9 spent fuel assembly to predict the maximum cladding temperature for different input to the FLUENT model. Uncertainty quantification is used to predict the heat transfer and the maximum temperature profile inside the assembly.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Uncertainty quantification, spent Nuclear Fuel, conduction

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27 Studying the Possibility to Weld AA1100 Aluminum Alloy by Friction Stir Spot Welding

Authors: Ahmad K. Jassim, Raheem Kh. Al-Subar

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a modern and an environmentally friendly solid state joining process used to joint relatively lighter family of materials. Recently, friction stir spot welding has been used instead of resistance spot welding which has received considerable attention from the automotive industry. It is environmentally friendly process that eliminated heat and pollution. In this research, friction stir spot welding has been used to study the possibility to weld AA1100 aluminum alloy sheet with 3 mm thickness by overlapping the edges of sheet as lap joint. The process was done using a drilling machine instead of milling machine. Different tool rotational speeds of 760, 1065, 1445, and 2000 RPM have been applied with manual and automatic compression to study their effect on the quality of welded joints. Heat generation, pressure applied, and depth of tool penetration have been measured during the welding process. The result shows that there is a possibility to weld AA1100 sheets; however, there is some surface defect that happened due to insufficient condition of welding. Moreover, the relationship between rotational speed, pressure, heat generation and tool depth penetration was created.

Keywords: Sustainable, Environmental, friction, spot, stir, AA1100 aluminum alloy

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26 An Inverse Heat Transfer Algorithm for Predicting the Thermal Properties of Tumors during Cryosurgery

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix

Abstract:

This study aimed at developing an inverse heat transfer approach for predicting the time-varying freezing front and the temperature distribution of tumors during cryosurgery. Using a temperature probe pressed against the layer of tumor, the inverse approach is able to predict simultaneously the metabolic heat generation and the blood perfusion rate of the tumor. Once these parameters are predicted, the temperature-field and time-varying freezing fronts are determined with the direct model. The direct model rests on one-dimensional Pennes bioheat equation. The phase change problem is handled with the enthalpy method. The Levenberg-Marquardt Method (LMM) combined to the Broyden Method (BM) is used to solve the inverse model. The effect (a) of the thermal properties of the diseased tissues; (b) of the initial guesses for the unknown thermal properties; (c) of the data capture frequency; and (d) of the noise on the recorded temperatures is examined. It is shown that the proposed inverse approach remains accurate for all the cases investigated.

Keywords: Cryosurgery, Thermal Properties, Levenberg-Marquardt method, inverse heat transfer, enthalpy method, Pennes model

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25 Long-Term Economic-Ecological Assessment of Optimal Local Heat-Generating Technologies for the German Unrefurbished Residential Building Stock on the Quarter Level

Authors: M. A. Spielmann, L. Schebek

Abstract:

In order to reach the long-term national climate goals of the German government for the building sector, substantial energetic measures have to be executed. Historically, those measures were primarily energetic efficiency measures at the buildings’ shells. Advanced technologies for the on-site generation of heat (or other types of energy) often are not feasible at this small spatial scale of a single building. Therefore, the present approach uses the spatially larger dimension of a quarter. The main focus of the present paper is the long-term economic-ecological assessment of available decentralized heat-generating (CHP power plants and electrical heat pumps) technologies at the quarter level for the German unrefurbished residential buildings. Three distinct terms have to be described methodologically: i) Quarter approach, ii) Economic assessment, iii) Ecological assessment. The quarter approach is used to enable synergies and scaling effects over a single-building. For the present study, generic quarters that are differentiated according to significant parameters concerning their heat demand are used. The core differentiation of those quarters is made by the construction time period of the buildings. The economic assessment as the second crucial parameter is executed with the following structure: Full costs are quantized for each technology combination and quarter. The investment costs are analyzed on an annual basis and are modeled with the acquisition of debt. Annuity loans are assumed. Consequently, for each generic quarter, an optimal technology combination for decentralized heat generation is provided in each year of the temporal boundaries (2016-2050). The ecological assessment elaborates for each technology combination and each quarter a Life Cycle assessment. The measured impact category hereby is GWP 100. The technology combinations for heat production can be therefore compared against each other concerning their long-term climatic impacts. Core results of the approach can be differentiated to an economic and ecological dimension. With an annual resolution, the investment and running costs of different energetic technology combinations are quantified. For each quarter an optimal technology combination for local heat supply and/or energetic refurbishment of the buildings within the quarter is provided. Coherently to the economic assessment, the climatic impacts of the technology combinations are quantized and compared against each other.

Keywords: Heat, LCA, systemic approach, building sector, quarter level

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24 Performance Assessment of Carbon Nano Tube Based Cutting Fluid in Machining Process

Authors: Alluru Gopala Krishna, Thella Babu Rao

Abstract:

In machining, there is always a problem with heat generation and friction produced during the process as they consequently affect tool wear and surface finish. An instant heat transfer mechanism could protect the cutting tool edge and enhance the tool life by cooling the cutting edge of the tool. In the present work, carbon nanotube (CNT) based nano-cutting fluid is proposed for machining a hard-to-cut material. Tool wear and surface roughness are considered for the evaluation of the nano-cutting fluid in turning process. The performance of nanocoolant is assessed against the conventional coolant and dry machining conditions and it is observed that the proposed nanocoolant has produced better performance than the conventional coolant.

Keywords: Turning, Tool Wear, surface roughness, CNT based nanocoolant

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23 Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation in a Partial Porous Channel Using LTNE and Exothermicity/Endothermicity Features

Authors: Mohsen Torabi, Nader Karimi, Kaili Zhang

Abstract:

This work aims to provide a comprehensive study on the heat transfer and entropy generation rates of a horizontal channel partially filled with a porous medium which experiences internal heat generation or consumption due to exothermic or endothermic chemical reaction. The focus has been given to the local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model. The LTNE approach helps us to deliver more accurate data regarding temperature distribution within the system and accordingly to provide more accurate Nusselt number and entropy generation rates. Darcy-Brinkman model is used for the momentum equations, and constant heat flux is assumed for boundary conditions for both upper and lower surfaces. Analytical solutions have been provided for both velocity and temperature fields. By incorporating the investigated velocity and temperature formulas into the provided fundamental equations for the entropy generation, both local and total entropy generation rates are plotted for a number of cases. Bifurcation phenomena regarding temperature distribution and interface heat flux ratio are observed. It has been found that the exothermicity or endothermicity characteristic of the channel does have a considerable impact on the temperature fields and entropy generation rates.

Keywords: Analytical Modeling, forced convection, entropy generation, local thermal non-equilibrium, exothermicity, endothermicity

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22 Performance of Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Battery in Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Bambang Ariantara, Nandy Putra, Rangga Aji Pamungkas

Abstract:

The development of electric vehicle batteries have resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, this progress is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which can result in serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal management for their lightweight, compact size and do not require external power supply. This paper aims to examine experimentally a Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger in thermal management system of lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol and acetone were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone gives the best performance that produces thermal resistance of 0.22 W/°C with 50°C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61 W/cm2.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, thermal management system, flat plate loop heat pipe, lithium-ion battery

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21 Study of Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel Filled with a Reactive Porous Medium in the Absence of Local Thermal Equilibrium

Authors: Hamid Maidat, Khedidja Bouhadef, Djamel Eddine Ameziani, Azzedine Abdedou

Abstract:

This work consists of a numerical simulation of convective heat transfer in a vertical plane channel filled with a heat generating porous medium, in the absence of local thermal equilibrium. The walls are maintained to a constant temperature and the inlet velocity is uniform. The dynamic range is described by the Darcy-Brinkman model and the thermal field by two energy equations model. A dimensionless formulation is developed for performing a parametric study based on certain dimensionless groups such as, the Biot interstitial number, the thermal conductivity ratio and the volumetric heat generation, q '''. The governing equations are solved using the finite volume method, gave rise to a multitude of results concerning in particular the thermal field in the porous channel and the existence or not of the local thermal equilibrium.

Keywords: porous medium, mixed convection, local thermal non equilibrium model, Power generation

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20 Boundary Layer Flow of a Casson Nanofluid past a Vertical Exponentially Stretching Cylinder in the Presence of a Transverse Magnetic Field with Internal Heat Generation/Absorption

Authors: G. Sarojamma, K. Vendabai

Abstract:

An analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of magnetic field and heat source on the steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson nanofluid over a vertical cylinder stretching exponentially along its radial direction. Using a similarity transformation, the governing mathematical equations, with the boundary conditions are reduced to a system of coupled, non –linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting system is solved numerically by the fourth order Runge – Kutta scheme with shooting technique. The influence of various physical parameters such as Reynolds number, Prandtl number, magnetic field, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Lewis number and the natural convection parameter are presented graphically and discussed for non – dimensional velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction. Numerical data for the skin – friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number have been tabulated for various parametric conditions. It is found that the local Nusselt number is a decreasing function of Brownian motion parameter Nb and the thermophoresis parameter Nt.

Keywords: thermophoresis, boundary layer flow, Brownian motion, casson nanofluid, exponentially stretching cylinder, Heat Transfer, Internal heat generation/absorption

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19 Electro-Thermal Imaging of Breast Phantom: An Experimental Study

Authors: H. Feza Carlak, N. G. Gencer

Abstract:

To increase the temperature contrast in thermal images, the characteristics of the electrical conductivity and thermal imaging modalities can be combined. In this experimental study, it is objected to observe whether the temperature contrast created by the tumor tissue can be improved just due to the current application within medical safety limits. Various thermal breast phantoms are developed to simulate the female breast tissue. In vitro experiments are implemented using a thermal infrared camera in a controlled manner. Since experiments are implemented in vitro, there is no metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion. Only the effects and results of the electrical stimulation are investigated. Experimental study is implemented with two-dimensional models. Temperature contrasts due to the tumor tissues are obtained. Cancerous tissue is determined using the difference and ratio of healthy and tumor images. 1 cm diameter single tumor tissue causes almost 40 °mC temperature contrast on the thermal-breast phantom. Electrode artifacts are reduced by taking the difference and ratio of background (healthy) and tumor images. Ratio of healthy and tumor images show that temperature contrast is increased by the current application.

Keywords: breast cancer detection, medical diagnostic imaging, breast phantom, active thermography

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18 MHD Non-Newtonian Nanofluid Flow over a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Heat Generation and Velocity Slip

Authors: Rama Bhargava, Mania Goyal

Abstract:

The problem of magnetohydrodynamics boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable stretching surface in a second grade nanofluid under the effect of heat generation and partial slip is studied theoretically. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are also considered. The boundary layer equations governed by the PDE’s are transformed into a set of ODE’s with the help of local similarity transformations. The differential equations are solved by variational finite element method. The effects of different controlling parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are examined. The numerical results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically. The comparison confirmed excellent agreement. The present study is of great interest in coating and suspensions, cooling of metallic plate, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal-oil slurries, heat exchangers technology, materials processing exploiting.

Keywords: FEM, stretching sheet, MHD flow, heat generation/absorption, viscoelastic nanofluid, partial slip

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17 MHD Stagnation Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Suction in an Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) Fluid

Authors: K. Jafar, R. Nazar, A. Ishak, I. Pop

Abstract:

The present analysis considers the steady stagnation point flow and heat transfer towards a permeable shrinking sheet in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) electrically conducting fluid, with a constant magnetic field applied in the transverse direction to flow and a local heat generation within the boundary layer, with a heat generation rate proportional to (T-T\infty)p Using a similarity transformation, the governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical results are obtained for the flow and thermal fields for various values of the stretching/shrinking parameter λ, the magnetic parameter M, the elastic parameter K, the Prandtl number Pr, the suction parameter s, the heat generation parameter Q, and the exponent p. The results indicate the existence of dual solutions for the shrinking sheet up to a critical value λc whose value depends on the value of M, K, and s. In the presence of internal heat absorption (Q<0)  the surface heat transfer rate decreases with increasing p but increases with parameters Q and s when the sheet is either stretched or shrunk.

Keywords: stagnation point, shrinking sheet, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), boundary layer flow, UCM fluid

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16 Unsteady Transient Free Convective Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Fluid under Influence of Uniform Transverse Magnetic Field

Authors: Praveen Saraswat, Vipin Kumar Verma, Rudraman Singh

Abstract:

The unsteady transient free convection flow of an incompressible dissipative viscous fluid between parallel plates at different distances have been investigated under porous medium. Due to presence of heat flux under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field the velocity distribution and the temperature distribution, is shown graphically. Since exact solution is not possible so we find parametrical solution by perturbation technique. The result is shown in graph for different parameters. We notice that heat generation effects fluid velocity keeping in which of free convection which cools.

Keywords: MHD, Convection, Porous, transient, viscous

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15 Heat Generation Rate and Computational Simulation for Li-Ion Battery Module

Authors: Ravichandra R., Srithar Rajoo, Tan Lit Wen

Abstract:

In recent years Li-Ion batteries getting more attention among the Electrical Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEV) energy storage. Li-Ion has shown extended power density and light weight compared to other batteries readily available in the market. One of the major drawbacks in Li-Ion batteries is their sensitivity to the temperature. If the working temperature is beyond the limit, that could affect seriously on the durability and performance of Li-Ion battery. Thus Battery Thermal Management (BTM) is the most essential in adapting Li-Ion battery to the EVs and HEVs.

Keywords: Li-ion battery, HEV/EV, battery thermal management, heat generation rate

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14 Uniform Solution on the Effect of Internal Heat Generation on Rayleigh-Benard Convection in Micropolar Fluid

Authors: Izzati K. Khalid, Nor Fadzillah M. Mokhtar, Norihan Md. Arifin

Abstract:

The effect of internal heat generation is applied to the Rayleigh-Benard convection in a horizontal micropolar fluid layer. The bounding surfaces of the liquids are considered to be rigid-free, rigid-rigid and free-free with the combination of isothermal on the spin-vanishing boundaries. A linear stability analysis is used and the Galerkin method is employed to find the critical stability parameters numerically. It is shown that the critical Rayleigh number decreases as the value of internal heat generation increase and hence destabilize the system.

Keywords: internal heat generation, micropolar fluid, rayleighbenard convection

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13 Analysis of Tool-Chip Interface Temperature with FEM and Empirical Verification

Authors: M. Bagheri, P. Mottaghizadeh

Abstract:

Reliable information about tool temperature distribution is of central importance in metal cutting. In this study, tool-chip interface temperature was determined in cutting of ST37 steel workpiece by applying HSS as the cutting tool in dry turning. Two different approaches were implemented for temperature measuring: an embedded thermocouple (RTD) in to the cutting tool and infrared (IR) camera. Comparisons are made between experimental data and results of MSC.SuperForm and FLUENT software. An investigation of heat generation in cutting tool was performed by varying cutting parameters at the stable cutting tool geometry and results were saved in a computer; then the diagrams of tool temperature vs. various cutting parameters were obtained. The experimental results reveal that the main factors of the increasing cutting temperature are cutting speed (V ), feed rate ( S ) and depth of cut ( h ), respectively. It was also determined that simultaneously change in cutting speed and feed rate has the maximum effect on increasing cutting temperature.

Keywords: Finite element modeling, Temperature Measurement, cutting parameters, Tool-chip interface temperature

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12 Decay Heat Contribution Analyses of Curium Isotopes in the Mixed Oxide Nuclear Fuel

Authors: S. S. Nafee, A. K. Al-Ramady, S. A. Shaheen

Abstract:

The mixed oxide nuclear fuel (MOX) of U and Pu contains several percent of fission products and minor actinides, such as neptunium, americium and curium. It is important to determine accurately the decay heat from Curium isotopes as they contribute significantly in the MOX fuel. This heat generation can cause samples to melt very quickly if excessive quantities of curium are present. In the present paper, we introduce a new approach that can predict the decay heat from curium isotopes. This work is a part of the project funded by King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology (KASCT), Long-Term Comprehensive National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovations, and take place in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia. The approach is based on the numerical solution of coupled linear differential equations that describe decays and buildups of many nuclides to calculate the decay heat produced after shutdown. Results show the consistency and reliability of the approach applied.

Keywords: Decay heat, Mixed oxide nuclear fuel, Numerical Solution of Linear Differential Equations, and Curium isotopes

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11 MHD Falkner-Skan Boundary Layer Flow with Internal Heat Generation or Absorption

Authors: G.Ashwini, A.T.Eswara

Abstract:

This paper examines the forced convection flow of incompressible, electrically conducting viscous fluid past a sharp wedge in the presence of heat generation or absorption with an applied magnetic field. The system of partial differential equations governing Falkner - Skan wedge flow and heat transfer is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations which is later solved using an implicit finite - difference scheme, along with quasilinearization technique. Numerical computations are performed for air (Pr = 0.7) and displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of pertinent physical parameters on local skin friction and heat transfer coefficients and, also on, velocity and temperature fields. It is observed that the magnetic field increases both the coefficients of skin friction and heat transfer. The effect of heat generation or absorption is found to be very significant on heat transfer, but its effect on the skin friction is negligible. Indeed, the occurrence of overshoot is noticed in the temperature profiles during heat generation process, causing the reversal in the direction of heat transfer.

Keywords: Heat generation / absorption, MHD Falkner- Skan flow, skin friction and heat transfer

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10 On Thermal Instabilities in a Viscoelastic Fluid Subject to Internal Heat Generation

Authors: Donna M. G. Comissiong, Tyrone D. Dass, Harold Ramkissoon, Alana R. Sankar

Abstract:

The B'enard-Marangoni thermal instability problem for a viscoelastic Jeffreys- fluid layer with internal heat generation is investigated. The fluid layer is bounded above by a realistic free deformable surface and by a plane surface below. Our analysis shows that while the internal heat generation and the relaxation time both destabilize the fluid layer, its stability may be enhanced by an increased retardation time.

Keywords: relaxation time, internal heat generation, Maxwell model, viscoelastic fluid, Jeffreys' model, retardation time

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9 Transient Combined Conduction and Radiation in a Two-Dimensional Participating Cylinder in Presence of Heat Generation

Authors: Raoudha Chaabane, Faouzi Askri, Sassi Ben Nasrallah

Abstract:

Simultaneous transient conduction and radiation heat transfer with heat generation is investigated. Analysis is carried out for both steady and unsteady situations. two-dimensional gray cylindrical enclosure with an absorbing, emitting, and isotropically scattering medium is considered. Enclosure boundaries are assumed at specified temperatures. The heat generation rate is considered uniform and constant throughout the medium. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) was used to solve the energy equation of a transient conduction-radiation heat transfer problem. The control volume finite element method (CVFEM) was used to compute the radiative information. To study the compatibility of the LBM for the energy equation and the CVFEM for the radiative transfer equation, transient conduction and radiation heat transfer problems in 2-D cylindrical geometries were considered. In order to establish the suitability of the LBM, the energy equation of the present problem was also solved using the the finite difference method (FDM) of the computational fluid dynamics. The CVFEM used in the radiative heat transfer was employed to compute the radiative information required for the solution of the energy equation using the LBM or the FDM (of the CFD). To study the compatibility and suitability of the LBM for the solution of energy equation and the CVFEM for the radiative information, results were analyzed for the effects of various parameters such as the boundary emissivity. The results of the LBMCVFEM combination were found to be in excellent agreement with the FDM-CVFEM combination. The number of iterations and the steady state temperature in both of the combinations were found comparable. Results are found for situations with and without heat generation. Heat generation is found to have significant bearing on temperature distribution.

Keywords: heat generation, cylindrical coordinates; RTE;transient; coupled conduction radiation; heat transfer; CVFEM; LBM

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8 Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid in the Presence of Heat Generation

Authors: Abdul Rahman Mohd Kasim, Mohd Ariff Admon, Sharidan Shafie

Abstract:

The present paper considers the steady free convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastics fluid with constant temperature in the presence of heat generation. The boundary layer equations are an order higher than those for the Newtonian (viscous) fluid and the adherence boundary conditions are insufficient to determine the solution of these equations completely. The governing boundary layer equations are first transformed into non-dimensional form by using special dimensionless group. Computations are performed numerically by using Keller-box method by augmenting an extra boundary condition at infinity and the results are displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of viscoelastic K, heat generation γ , and Prandtl Number, Pr parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles. The results of the surface shear stress in terms of the local skin friction and the surface rate of heat transfer in terms of the local Nusselt number for a selection of the heat generation parameterγ (=0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0) are obtained and presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Without effect of the internal heat generation inside the fluid domain for which we take γ = 0.0, the present numerical results show an excellent agreement with previous publication.

Keywords: heat generation, boundary layer, free convection, viscoelastic fluid, CircularCylinder

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7 Unsteady Free Convection Flow Over a Three-Dimensional Stagnation Point With Internal Heat Generation or Absorption

Authors: Mohd Ariff Admon, Abdul Rahman Mohd Kasim, Sharidan Shafie

Abstract:

This paper considers the effect of heat generation proportional l to (T - T∞ )p , where T is the local temperature and T∞ is the ambient temperature, in unsteady free convection flow near the stagnation point region of a three-dimensional body. The fluid is considered in an ambient fluid under the assumption of a step change in the surface temperature of the body. The non-linear coupled partial differential equations governing the free convection flow are solved numerically using an implicit finite-difference method for different values of the governing parameters entering these equations. The results for the flow and heat characteristics when p ≤ 2 show that the transition from the initial unsteady-state flow to the final steadystate flow takes place smoothly. The behavior of the flow is seen strongly depend on the exponent p.

Keywords: heat generation, free convection, boundary layer flow, Stagnationpoint

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6 Two-dimensional Heat Conduction of Direct Cooling in the Rotor of an Electrical Generator(Numerical Analysis)

Authors: A. Kargar, A. Kianifar, H. Mohammadiun

Abstract:

Two-dimensional heat conduction within a composed solid material with a constant internal heat generation has been investigated numerically in a sector of the rotor a generator. The heat transfer between two adjacent materials is assumed to be purely conduction. Boundary conditions are assumed to be forced convection on the fluid side and adiabatic on symmetry lines. The control volume method is applied for the diffusion energy equation. Physical coordinates are transformed to the general curvilinear coordinates. Then by using a line-by-line method, the temperature distribution in a sector of the rotor has been determined. Finally, the results are normalized and the effect of cooling fluid on the maximum temperature of insulation is investigated.

Keywords: Jacobian, general curvilinear coordinates, controlvolume

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5 Free Convection in an Infinite Porous Dusty Medium Induced by Pulsating Point Heat Source

Authors: K. Kannan, V. Venkataraman

Abstract:

Free convection effects and heat transfer due to a pulsating point heat source embedded in an infinite, fluid saturated, porous dusty medium are studied analytically. Both velocity and temperature fields are discussed in the form of series expansions in the Rayleigh number, for both the fluid and particle phases based on the mean heat generation rate from source and on the permeability of the porous dusty medium. This study is carried out by assuming the Rayleigh number small and the validity of Darcy-s law. Analytical expressions for both phases are obtained for second order mean in both velocity and temperature fields and evolution of different wave patterns are observed in the fluctuating part. It has been observed that, at the vicinity of the origin, the second order mean flow is influenced only by relaxation time of dust particles and not by dust concentration.

Keywords: Pulsating point heat source, azimuthal velocity, porous dusty medium, Darcy's law

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4 Cubic Splines and Fourier Series Approach to Study Temperature Variation in Dermal Layers of Elliptical Shaped Human Limbs

Authors: Mamta Agrawal, Neeru Adlakha, K.R. Pardasani

Abstract:

An attempt has been made to develop a seminumerical model to study temperature variations in dermal layers of human limbs. The model has been developed for two dimensional steady state case. The human limb has been assumed to have elliptical cross section. The dermal region has been divided into three natural layers namely epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. The model incorporates the effect of important physiological parameters like blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation, and thermal conductivity of the tissues. The outer surface of the limb is exposed to the environment and it is assumed that heat loss takes place at the outer surface by conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation. The temperature of inner core of the limb also varies at the lower atmospheric temperature. Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on the physical conditions of the problem. Cubic splines approach has been employed along radial direction and Fourier series along angular direction to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been computed for different values of eccentricity resembling with the elliptic cross section of the human limbs. The numerical results have been used to obtain the temperature profile and to study the relationships among the various physiological parameters.

Keywords: Fourier Series, blood mass flow rate, Metabolic Heat Generation, Cubic splines and Thermal Conductivity

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