Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1726

Search results for: ordinary differential equation

1726 The Global Stability Using Lyapunov Function

Authors: R. Kongnuy, E. Naowanich, T. Kruehong

Abstract:

An important technique in stability theory for differential equations is known as the direct method of Lyapunov. In this work we deal global stability properties of Leptospirosis transmission model by age group in Thailand. First we consider the data from Division of Epidemiology Ministry of Public Health, Thailand between 1997-2011. Then we construct the mathematical model for leptospirosis transmission by eight age groups. The Lyapunov functions are used for our model which takes the forms of an Ordinary Differential Equation system. The globally asymptotically for equilibrium states are analyzed.

Keywords: Age Group, Leptospirosis, Lyapunov Function, Ordinary Differential Equation.

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1725 Stability of Fractional Differential Equation

Authors: Rabha W. Ibrahim

Abstract:

We study a Dirichlet boundary value problem for Lane-Emden equation involving two fractional orders. Lane-Emden equation has been widely used to describe a variety of phenomena in physics and astrophysics, including aspects of stellar structure, the thermal history of a spherical cloud of gas, isothermal gas spheres,and thermionic currents. However, ordinary Lane-Emden equation does not provide the correct description of the dynamics for systems in complex media. In order to overcome this problem and describe dynamical processes in a fractalmedium, numerous generalizations of Lane-Emden equation have been proposed. One such generalization replaces the ordinary derivative by a fractional derivative in the Lane-Emden equation. This gives rise to the fractional Lane-Emden equation with a single index. Recently, a new type of Lane-Emden equation with two different fractional orders has been introduced which provides a more flexible model for fractal processes as compared with the usual one characterized by a single index. The contraction mapping principle and Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem are applied to prove the existence of solutions of the problem in a Banach space. Ulam-Hyers stability for iterative Cauchy fractional differential equation is defined and studied.

Keywords: Fractional calculus, fractional differential equation, Lane-Emden equation, Riemann-Liouville fractional operators, Volterra integral equation.

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1724 An Analytical Method for Solving General Riccati Equation

Authors: Y. Pala, M. O. Ertas

Abstract:

In this paper, the general Riccati equation is analytically solved by a new transformation. By the method developed, looking at the transformed equation, whether or not an explicit solution can be obtained is readily determined. Since the present method does not require a proper solution for the general solution, it is especially suitable for equations whose proper solutions cannot be seen at first glance. Since the transformed second order linear equation obtained by the present transformation has the simplest form that it can have, it is immediately seen whether or not the original equation can be solved analytically. The present method is exemplified by several examples.

Keywords: Riccati Equation, ordinary differential equation, nonlinear differential equation, analytical solution, proper solution.

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1723 Step Method for Solving Nonlinear Two Delays Differential Equation in Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: H. N. Agiza, M. A. Sohaly, M. A. Elfouly

Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous disorder with common age of onset, symptoms, and progression levels. In this paper we will solve analytically the PD model as a non-linear delay differential equation using the steps method. The step method transforms a system of delay differential equations (DDEs) into systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). On some numerical examples, the analytical solution will be difficult. So we will approximate the analytical solution using Picard method and Taylor method to ODEs.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Step method, delay differential equation, simulation.

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1722 Group Invariant Solutions of Nonlinear Time-Fractional Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equation

Authors: Anupma Bansal, Rajeev Budhiraja, Manoj Pandey

Abstract:

In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear time-fractional hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) for its symmetries and invariance properties. With the application of this method, we have tried to reduce it to time-fractional ordinary differential equation (ODE) which has been further studied for exact solutions.

Keywords: Nonlinear time-fractional hyperbolic PDE, Lie Classical method, exact solutions.

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1721 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad

Abstract:

Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: Accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations.

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1720 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order initial value problems (IVP­s­) in ordinary differential equations (ODE­s­) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Block Method, First Order Ordinary Differential Equations, Hybrid, Self starting.

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1719 Seven step Adams Type Block Method With Continuous Coefficient For Periodic Ordinary Differential Equation

Authors: Olusheye Akinfenwa

Abstract:

We consider the development of an eight order Adam-s type method, with A-stability property discussed by expressing them as a one-step method in higher dimension. This makes it suitable for solving variety of initial-value problems. The main method and additional methods are obtained from the same continuous scheme derived via interpolation and collocation procedures. The methods are then applied in block form as simultaneous numerical integrators over non-overlapping intervals. Numerical results obtained using the proposed block form reveals that it is highly competitive with existing methods in the literature.

Keywords: Block Adam's type Method; Periodic Ordinary Differential Equation; Stability.

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1718 Implicit Two Step Continuous Hybrid Block Methods with Four Off-Steps Points for Solving Stiff Ordinary Differential Equation

Authors: O. A. Akinfenwa, N.M. Yao, S. N. Jator

Abstract:

In this paper, a self starting two step continuous block hybrid formulae (CBHF) with four Off-step points is developed using collocation and interpolation procedures. The CBHF is then used to produce multiple numerical integrators which are of uniform order and are assembled into a single block matrix equation. These equations are simultaneously applied to provide the approximate solution for the stiff ordinary differential equations. The order of accuracy and stability of the block method is discussed and its accuracy is established numerically.

Keywords: Collocation and Interpolation, Continuous HybridBlock Formulae, Off-Step Points, Stability, Stiff ODEs.

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1717 Laplace Technique to Find General Solution of Differential Equations without Initial Conditions

Authors: Adil Al-Rammahi

Abstract:

Laplace transformations have wide applications in engineering and sciences. All previous studies of modified Laplace transformations depend on differential equation with initial conditions. The purpose of our paper is to solve the linear differential equations (not initial value problem) and then find the general solution (not particular) via the Laplace transformations without needed any initial condition. The study involves both types of differential equations, ordinary and partial.

Keywords: Differential Equations, Laplace Transformations.

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1716 Existence of Iterative Cauchy Fractional Differential Equation

Authors: Rabha W. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Our main aim in this paper is to use the technique of non expansive operators to more general iterative and non iterative fractional differential equations (Cauchy type ). The non integer case is taken in sense of Riemann-Liouville fractional operators. Applications are illustrated.

Keywords: Fractional calculus, fractional differential equation, Cauchy equation, Riemann-Liouville fractional operators, Volterra integral equation, non-expansive mapping, iterative differential equation.

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1715 On the Approximate Solution of Continuous Coefficients for Solving Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir

Abstract:

This paper derived four newly schemes which are combined in order to form an accurate and efficient block method for parallel or sequential solution of third order ordinary differential equations of the form y''' = f(x, y, y', y''), y(α)=y0, y'(α)=β, y''(α)=η with associated initial or boundary conditions. The implementation strategies of the derived method have shown that the block method is found to be consistent, zero stable and hence convergent. The derived schemes were tested on stiff and non – stiff ordinary differential equations, and the numerical results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: Block Method, Hybrid, Linear Multistep, Self starting, Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations.

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1714 Solution of Density Dependent Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equation Using Differential Quadrature Method

Authors: Gülnihal Meral

Abstract:

In this study, the density dependent nonlinear reactiondiffusion equation, which arises in the insect dispersal models, is solved using the combined application of differential quadrature method(DQM) and implicit Euler method. The polynomial based DQM is used to discretize the spatial derivatives of the problem. The resulting time-dependent nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations(ODE-s) is solved by using implicit Euler method. The computations are carried out for a Cauchy problem defined by a onedimensional density dependent nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation which has an exact solution. The DQM solution is found to be in a very good agreement with the exact solution in terms of maximum absolute error. The DQM solution exhibits superior accuracy at large time levels tending to steady-state. Furthermore, using an implicit method in the solution procedure leads to stable solutions and larger time steps could be used.

Keywords: Density Dependent Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equation, Differential Quadrature Method, Implicit Euler Method.

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1713 Constructing Distinct Kinds of Solutions for the Time-Dependent Coefficients Coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Anupma Bansal

Abstract:

We seek exact solutions of the coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients with the aid of Lie classical approach. By using the Lie classical method, we are able to derive symmetries that are used for reducing the coupled system of partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. From reduced differential equations we have derived some new exact solutions of coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger equations involving some special functions such as Airy wave functions, Bessel functions, Mathieu functions etc.

Keywords: Klein-Gordon-Schödinger Equation, Lie Classical Method, Exact Solutions

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1712 Numerical Study of Some Coupled PDEs by using Differential Transformation Method

Authors: Reza Abazari, Rasool Abazari

Abstract:

In this paper, the two-dimension differential transformation method (DTM) is employed to obtain the closed form solutions of the three famous coupled partial differential equation with physical interest namely, the coupled Korteweg-de Vries(KdV) equations, the coupled Burgers equations and coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We begin by showing that how the differential transformation method applies to a linear and non-linear part of any PDEs and apply on these coupled PDEs to illustrate the sufficiency of the method for this kind of nonlinear differential equations. The results obtained are in good agreement with the exact solution. These results show that the technique introduced here is accurate and easy to apply.

Keywords: Coupled Korteweg-de Vries(KdV) equation, Coupled Burgers equation, Coupled Schrödinger equation, differential transformation method.

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1711 Lagrangian Method for Solving Unsteady Gas Equation

Authors: Amir Taghavi, kourosh Parand, Hosein Fani

Abstract:

In this paper we propose, a Lagrangian method to solve unsteady gas equation which is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation on semi-infnite interval. This approach is based on Modified generalized Laguerre functions. This method reduces the solution of this problem to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. We also compare this work with some other numerical results. The findings show that the present solution is highly accurate.

Keywords: Unsteady gas equation, Generalized Laguerre functions, Lagrangian method, Nonlinear ODE.

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1710 Parallel Block Backward Differentiation Formulas For Solving Large Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Zarina Bibi, I., Khairil Iskandar, O.

Abstract:

In this paper, parallelism in the solution of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) to increase the computational speed is studied. The focus is the development of parallel algorithm of the two point Block Backward Differentiation Formulas (PBBDF) that can take advantage of the parallel architecture in computer technology. Parallelism is obtained by using Message Passing Interface (MPI). Numerical results are given to validate the efficiency of the PBBDF implementation as compared to the sequential implementation.

Keywords: Ordinary differential equations, parallel.

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1709 Traveling Wave Solutions for Shallow Water Wave Equation by (G'/G)-Expansion Method

Authors: Anjali Verma, Ram Jiwari, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding traveling wave solution of a non-linear equation and calls it the (G'/G)-expansion method. The shallow water wave equation is reduced to a non linear ordinary differential equation by using a simple transformation. As a result the traveling wave solutions of shallow water wave equation are expressed in three forms: hyperbolic solutions, trigonometric solutions and rational solutions.

Keywords: Shallow water wave equation, Exact solutions, (G'/G) expansion method.

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1708 On the Efficiency of Five Step Approximation Method for the Solution of General Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: N. M. Kamoh, M. C. Soomiyol

Abstract:

In this work, a five step continuous method for the solution of third order ordinary differential equations was developed in block form using collocation and interpolation techniques of the shifted Legendre polynomial basis function. The method was found to be zero-stable, consistent and convergent. The application of the method in solving third order initial value problem of ordinary differential equations revealed that the method compared favorably with existing methods.

Keywords: Shifted Legendre polynomials, third order block method, discrete method, convergent.

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1707 Adomian Decomposition Method Associated with Boole-s Integration Rule for Goursat Problem

Authors: Mohd Agos Salim Nasir, Ros Fadilah Deraman, Siti Salmah Yasiran

Abstract:

The Goursat partial differential equation arises in linear and non linear partial differential equations with mixed derivatives. This equation is a second order hyperbolic partial differential equation which occurs in various fields of study such as in engineering, physics, and applied mathematics. There are many approaches that have been suggested to approximate the solution of the Goursat partial differential equation. However, all of the suggested methods traditionally focused on numerical differentiation approaches including forward and central differences in deriving the scheme. An innovation has been done in deriving the Goursat partial differential equation scheme which involves numerical integration techniques. In this paper we have developed a new scheme to solve the Goursat partial differential equation based on the Adomian decomposition (ADM) and associated with Boole-s integration rule to approximate the integration terms. The new scheme can easily be applied to many linear and non linear Goursat partial differential equations and is capable to reduce the size of computational work. The accuracy of the results reveals the advantage of this new scheme over existing numerical method.

Keywords: Goursat problem, partial differential equation, Adomian decomposition method, Boole's integration rule.

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1706 Stepsize Control of the Finite Difference Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Davod Khojasteh Salkuyeh

Abstract:

An important task in solving second order linear ordinary differential equations by the finite difference is to choose a suitable stepsize h. In this paper, by using the stochastic arithmetic, the CESTAC method and the CADNA library we present a procedure to estimate the optimal stepsize hopt, the stepsize which minimizes the global error consisting of truncation and round-off error.

Keywords: Ordinary differential equations, optimal stepsize, error, stochastic arithmetic, CESTAC, CADNA.

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1705 Using Hermite Function for Solving Thomas-Fermi Equation

Authors: F. Bayatbabolghani, K. Parand

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose Hermite collocation method for solving Thomas-Fermi equation that is nonlinear ordinary differential equation on semi-infinite interval. This method reduces the solution of this problem to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. We also present the comparison of this work with solution of other methods that shows the present solution is more accurate and faster convergence in this problem.

Keywords: Collocation method, Hermite function, Semi-infinite, Thomas-Fermi equation.

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1704 Simulink Approach to Solve Fuzzy Differential Equation under Generalized Differentiability

Authors: N. Kumaresan , J. Kavikumar, Kuru Ratnavelu

Abstract:

In this paper, solution of fuzzy differential equation under general differentiability is obtained by simulink. The simulink solution is equivalent or very close to the exact solution of the problem. Accuracy of the simulink solution to this problem is qualitatively better. An illustrative numerical example is presented for the proposed method.

Keywords: Fuzzy differential equation, Generalized differentiability, H-difference and Simulink.

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1703 Position Vector of a Partially Null Curve Derived from a Vector Differential Equation

Authors: Süha Yılmaz, Emin Özyılmaz, Melih Turgut, Şuur Nizamoğlu

Abstract:

In this paper, position vector of a partially null unit speed curve with respect to standard frame of Minkowski space-time is studied. First, it is proven that position vector of every partially null unit speed curve satisfies a vector differential equation of fourth order. In terms of solution of the differential equation, position vector of a partially null unit speed curve is expressed.

Keywords: Frenet Equations, Partially Null Curves, Minkowski Space-time, Vector Differential Equation.

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1702 Noise Analysis of Single-Ended Input Differential Amplifier using Stochastic Differential Equation

Authors: Tarun Kumar Rawat, Abhirup Lahiri, Ashish Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the effect of noise in a single- ended input differential amplifier working at high frequencies. Both extrinsic and intrinsic noise are analyzed using time domain method employing techniques from stochastic calculus. Stochastic differential equations are used to obtain autocorrelation functions of the output noise voltage and other solution statistics like mean and variance. The analysis leads to important design implications and suggests changes in the device parameters for improved noise characteristics of the differential amplifier.

Keywords: Single-ended input differential amplifier, Noise, stochastic differential equation, mean and variance.

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1701 Numerical Solution of Linear Ordinary Differential Equations in Quantum Chemistry by Clenshaw Method

Authors: M. Saravi, F. Ashrafi, S.R. Mirrajei

Abstract:

As we know, most differential equations concerning physical phenomenon could not be solved by analytical method. Even if we use Series Method, some times we need an appropriate change of variable, and even when we can, their closed form solution may be so complicated that using it to obtain an image or to examine the structure of the system is impossible. For example, if we consider Schrodinger equation, i.e., We come to a three-term recursion relations, which work with it takes, at least, a little bit time to get a series solution[6]. For this reason we use a change of variable such as or when we consider the orbital angular momentum[1], it will be necessary to solve. As we can observe, working with this equation is tedious. In this paper, after introducing Clenshaw method, which is a kind of Spectral method, we try to solve some of such equations.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomials, Clenshaw method, ODEs, Spectral methods

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1700 Development Partitioning Intervalwise Block Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: K.H.Khairul Anuar, K.I.Othman, F.Ishak, Z.B.Ibrahim, Z.Majid

Abstract:

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) by using Partitioning Block Intervalwise (PBI) technique is our aim in this paper. The PBI technique is based on Block Adams Method and Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF). Block Adams Method only use the simple iteration for solving while BDF requires Newtonlike iteration involving Jacobian matrix of ODEs which consumes a considerable amount of computational effort. Therefore, PBI is developed in order to reduce the cost of iteration within acceptable maximum error

Keywords: Adam Block Method, BDF, Ordinary Differential Equations, Partitioning Block Intervalwise

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1699 Instability of a Nonlinear Differential Equation of Fifth Order with Variable Delay

Authors: Cemil Tunc

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the instability of the zero solution to a nonlinear differential equation with variable delay. By using the Lyapunov functional approach, some sufficient conditions for instability of the zero solution are obtained.

Keywords: Instability, Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, delay differential equation, fifth order.

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1698 Blow up in Polynomial Differential Equations

Authors: Rudolf Csikja, Janos Toth

Abstract:

Methods to detect and localize time singularities of polynomial and quasi-polynomial ordinary differential equations are systematically presented and developed. They are applied to examples taken form different fields of applications and they are also compared to better known methods such as those based on the existence of linear first integrals or Lyapunov functions.

Keywords: blow up, finite escape time, polynomial ODE, singularity, Lotka–Volterra equation, Painleve analysis, Ψ-series, global existence

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1697 Stability Analysis of Two-delay Differential Equation for Parkinson's Disease Models with Positive Feedback

Authors: M. A. Sohaly, M. A. Elfouly

Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous movement disorder that often appears in the elderly. PD is induced by a loss of dopamine secretion. Some drugs increase the secretion of dopamine. In this paper, we will simply study the stability of PD models as a nonlinear delay differential equation. After a period of taking drugs, these act as positive feedback and increase the tremors of patients, and then, the differential equation has positive coefficients and the system is unstable under these conditions. We will present a set of suggested modifications to make the system more compatible with the biodynamic system. When giving a set of numerical examples, this research paper is concerned with the mathematical analysis, and no clinical data have been used.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, stability, simulation, two delay differential equation.

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