Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1440

Search results for: mean free path

1440 Geometry Design Supported by Minimizing and Visualizing Collision in Dynamic Packing

Authors: Johan Segeborn, Johan S. Carlson, Robert Bohlin, Rikard Söderberg

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to support dynamic packing in cases when no collision-free path can be found. The method, which is primarily based on path planning and shrinking of geometries, suggests a minimal geometry design change that results in a collision-free assembly path. A supplementing approach to optimize geometry design change with respect to redesign cost is described. Supporting this dynamic packing method, a new method to shrink geometry based on vertex translation, interweaved with retriangulation, is suggested. The shrinking method requires neither tetrahedralization nor calculation of medial axis and it preserves the topology of the geometry, i.e. holes are neither lost nor introduced. The proposed methods are successfully applied on industrial geometries.

Keywords: Dynamic packing, path planning, shrinking.

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1439 Three-Dimensional Off-Line Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Lana Dalawr Jalal

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of offline path planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in complex threedimensional environment with obstacles, which is modelled by 3D Cartesian grid system. Path planning for UAVs require the computational intelligence methods to move aerial vehicles along the flight path effectively to target while avoiding obstacles. In this paper Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) algorithm is applied to generate the optimal collision free 3D flight path for UAV. The simulations results clearly demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in guiding UAV to the final destination by providing optimal feasible path quickly and effectively.

Keywords: Obstacle Avoidance, Particle Swarm Optimization, Three-Dimensional Path Planning Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

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1438 Decomposition of Graphs into Induced Paths and Cycles

Authors: I. Sahul Hamid, Abraham V. M.

Abstract:

A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of subgraphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path or an induced cycle in G, then ψ is called an induced path decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced path decomposition of G is called the induced path decomposition number of G and is denoted by πi(G). In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter.

Keywords: Path decomposition, Induced path decomposition, Induced path decomposition number.

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1437 Memetic Algorithm Based Path Planning for a Mobile Robot

Authors: Neda Shahidi, Hadi Esmaeilzadeh, Marziye Abdollahi, Caro Lucas

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of finding the optimal collision free path for a mobile robot, the path planning problem, is solved using an advanced evolutionary algorithm called memetic algorithm. What is new in this work is a novel representation of solutions for evolutionary algorithms that is efficient, simple and also compatible with memetic algorithm. The new representation makes it possible to solve the problem with a small population and in a few generations. It also makes the genetic operator simple and allows using an efficient local search operator within the evolutionary algorithm. The proposed algorithm is applied to two instances of path planning problem and the results are available.

Keywords: Path planning problem, Memetic Algorithm, Representation.

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1436 The Same or Not the Same - On the Variety of Mechanisms of Path Dependence

Authors: Jürgen Beyer

Abstract:

In association with path dependence, researchers often talk of institutional “lock-in", thereby indicating that far-reaching path deviation or path departure are to be regarded as exceptional cases. This article submits the alleged general inclination for stability of path-dependent processes to a critical review. The different reasons for path dependence found in the literature indicate that different continuity-ensuring mechanisms are at work when people talk about path dependence (“increasing returns", complementarity, sequences etc.). As these mechanisms are susceptible to fundamental change in different ways and to different degrees, the path dependence concept alone is of only limited explanatory value. It is therefore indispensable to identify the underlying continuity-ensuring mechanism as well if a statement-s empirical value is to go beyond the trivial, always true “history matters".

Keywords: path dependence, increasing returns, historicalinstitutionalism, lock-in.

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1435 Retraction Free Motion Approach and Its Application in Automated Robotic Edge Finishing and Inspection Processes

Authors: M. Nemer, E. I. Konukseven

Abstract:

In this paper, a motion generation algorithm for a six Degrees of Freedom (DoF) robotic hand in a static environment is presented. The purpose of developing this method is to be used in the path generation of the end-effector for edge finishing and inspection processes by utilizing the CAD model of the considered workpiece. Nonetheless, the proposed algorithm may be extended to be applicable for other similar manufacturing processes. A software package programmed in the application programming interface (API) of SolidWorks generates tool path data for the robot. The proposed method significantly simplifies the given problem, resulting in a reduction in the CPU time needed to generate the path, and offers an efficient overall solution. The ABB IRB2000 robot is chosen for executing the generated tool path.

Keywords: Offline programming, CAD-based tools, edge deburring, edge scanning, path generation.

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1434 Using Multi-Thread Technology Realize Most Short-Path Parallel Algorithm

Authors: Chang-le Lu, Yong Chen

Abstract:

The shortest path question is in a graph theory model question, and it is applied in many fields. The most short-path question may divide into two kinds: Single sources most short-path, all apexes to most short-path. This article mainly introduces the problem of all apexes to most short-path, and gives a new parallel algorithm of all apexes to most short-path according to the Dijkstra algorithm. At last this paper realizes the parallel algorithms in the technology of C # multithreading.

Keywords: Dijkstra algorithm, parallel algorithms, multi-thread technology, most short-path, ratio.

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1433 An UML Statechart Diagram-Based MM-Path Generation Approach for Object-Oriented Integration Testing

Authors: Ruilian Zhao, Ling Lin

Abstract:

MM-Path, an acronym for Method/Message Path, describes the dynamic interactions between methods in object-oriented systems. This paper discusses the classifications of MM-Path, based on the characteristics of object-oriented software. We categorize it according to the generation reasons, the effect scope and the composition of MM-Path. A formalized representation of MM-Path is also proposed, which has considered the influence of state on response method sequences of messages. .Moreover, an automatic MM-Path generation approach based on UML Statechart diagram has been presented, and the difficulties in identifying and generating MM-Path can be solved. . As a result, it provides a solid foundation for further research on test cases generation based on MM-Path.

Keywords: MM-Path, Message Sequence, Object-Oriented Integration Testing, Response Method Sequence, UML Statechart Diagram.

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1432 Loop-free Local Path Repair Strategy for Directed Diffusion

Authors: Basma M. Mohammad El-Basioni, Sherine M. Abd El-kader, Hussein S. Eissa

Abstract:

This paper proposes an implementation for the directed diffusion paradigm aids in studying this paradigm-s operations and evaluates its behavior according to this implementation. The directed diffusion is evaluated with respect to the loss percentage, lifetime, end-to-end delay, and throughput. From these evaluations some suggestions and modifications are proposed to improve the directed diffusion behavior according to this implementation with respect to these metrics. The proposed modifications reflect the effect of local path repair by introducing a technique called Loop-free Local Path Repair (LLPR) which improves the directed diffusion behavior especially with respect to packet loss percentage by about 92.69%. Also LLPR improves the throughput and end-to-end delay by about 55.31% and 14.06% respectively, while the lifetime decreases by about 29.79%.

Keywords: Attribute-value based naming scheme, data gathering, data-centric routing, energy-efficiency, locality, wireless sensor network.

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1431 Induced Acyclic Path Decomposition in Graphs

Authors: Abraham V. M., I. Sahul Hamid

Abstract:

A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of graphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path in G, then ψ is called an induced acyclic path decomposition of G and if each Hi is a (induced) cycle in G then ψ is called a (induced) cycle decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced acyclic path decomposition of G is called the induced acyclic path decomposition number of G and is denoted by ¤Çia(G). Similarly the cyclic decomposition number ¤Çc(G) is defined. In this paper we begin an investigation of these parameters.

Keywords: Cycle decomposition, Induced acyclic path decomposition, Induced acyclic path decomposition number.

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1430 A Feasible Path Selection QoS Routing Algorithm with two Constraints in Packet Switched Networks

Authors: P.S.Prakash, S.Selvan

Abstract:

Over the past several years, there has been a considerable amount of research within the field of Quality of Service (QoS) support for distributed multimedia systems. One of the key issues in providing end-to-end QoS guarantees in packet networks is determining a feasible path that satisfies a number of QoS constraints. The problem of finding a feasible path is NPComplete if number of constraints is more than two and cannot be exactly solved in polynomial time. We proposed Feasible Path Selection Algorithm (FPSA) that addresses issues with pertain to finding a feasible path subject to delay and cost constraints and it offers higher success rate in finding feasible paths.

Keywords: feasible path, multiple constraints, path selection, QoS routing

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1429 1−Skeleton Resolution of Free Simplicial Algebras with Given CW−Basis

Authors: Ali Mutlu, Berrin Mutlu

Abstract:

In this paper we use the definition of CW basis of a free simplicial algebra. Using the free simplicial algebra, it is shown to construct free or totally free 2−crossed modules on suitable construction data with given a CW−basis of the free simplicial algebra. We give applications free crossed squares, free squared complexes and free 2−crossed complexes by using of 1(one) skeleton resolution of a step by step construction of the free simplicial algebra with a given CW−basis.

Keywords: Free crossed square, Free 2−crossed modules, Free simplicial algebra, Free square complexes, Free 2−crossed complexes CW−basis, 1−skeleton. A. M. S.Classification:[2000] 18D35, 18G30, 18G50, 18G55, 55Q05, 55Q20.

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1428 Robot Path Planning in 3D Space Using Binary Integer Programming

Authors: Ellips Masehian, Golnaz Habibi

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm for path planning of mobile robots in known 3D environments using Binary Integer Programming (BIP). In this approach the problem of path planning is formulated as a BIP with variables taken from 3D Delaunay Triangulation of the Free Configuration Space and solved to obtain an optimal channel made of connected tetrahedrons. The 3D channel is then partitioned into convex fragments which are used to build safe and short paths within from Start to Goal. The algorithm is simple, complete, does not suffer from local minima, and is applicable to different workspaces with convex and concave polyhedral obstacles. The noticeable feature of this algorithm is that it is simply extendable to n-D Configuration spaces.

Keywords: 3D C-space, Binary Integer Programming (BIP), Delaunay Tessellation, Robot Motion Planning.

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1427 Comparison of GSA, SA and PSO Based Intelligent Controllers for Path Planning of Mobile Robot in Unknown Environment

Authors: P. K. Panigrahi, Saradindu Ghosh, Dayal R. Parhi

Abstract:

Now-a-days autonomous mobile robots have found applications in diverse fields. An autonomous robot system must be able to behave in an intelligent manner to deal with complex and changing environment. This work proposes the performance of path planning and navigation of autonomous mobile robot using Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Particle Swarm optimization (PSO) based intelligent controllers in an unstructured environment. The approach not only finds a valid collision free path but also optimal one. The main aim of the work is to minimize the length of the path and duration of travel from a starting point to a target while moving in an unknown environment with obstacles without collision. Finally, a comparison is made between the three controllers, it is found that the path length and time duration made by the robot using GSA is better than SA and PSO based controllers for the same work.

Keywords: Autonomous Mobile Robot, Gravitational Search Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Simulated Annealing Algorithm.

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1426 Module and Comodule Structures on Path Space

Authors: Lili Chen, Chao Yuan

Abstract:

On path space kQ, there is a trivial kQa-module structure determined by the multiplication of path algebra kQa and a trivial kQc-comodule structure determined by the comultiplication of path coalgebra kQc. In this paper, on path space kQ, a nontrivial kQa-module structure is defined, and it is proved that this nontrivial left kQa-module structure is isomorphic to the dual module structure of trivial right kQc-comodule. Dually, on path space kQ, a nontrivial kQc-comodule structure is defined, and it is proved that this nontrivial right kQc-comodule structure is isomorphic to the dual comodule structure of trivial left kQa-module. Finally, the trivial and nontrivial module structures on path space are compared from the aspect of submodule, and the trivial and nontrivial comodule structures on path space are compared from the aspect of subcomodule.

Keywords: Quiver, path space, module, comodule, dual.

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1425 A Review on Comparative Analysis of Path Planning and Collision Avoidance Algorithms

Authors: Divya Agarwal, Pushpendra S. Bharti

Abstract:

Autonomous mobile robots (AMR) are expected as smart tools for operations in every automation industry. Path planning and obstacle avoidance is the backbone of AMR as robots have to reach their goal location avoiding obstacles while traversing through optimized path defined according to some criteria such as distance, time or energy. Path planning can be classified into global and local path planning where environmental information is known and unknown/partially known, respectively. A number of sensors are used for data collection. A number of algorithms such as artificial potential field (APF), rapidly exploring random trees (RRT), bidirectional RRT, Fuzzy approach, Purepursuit, A* algorithm, vector field histogram (VFH) and modified local path planning algorithm, etc. have been used in the last three decades for path planning and obstacle avoidance for AMR. This paper makes an attempt to review some of the path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms used in the field of AMR. The review includes comparative analysis of simulation and mathematical computations of path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms using MATLAB 2018a. From the review, it could be concluded that different algorithms may complete the same task (i.e. with a different set of instructions) in less or more time, space, effort, etc.

Keywords: Autonomous mobile robots, obstacle avoidance, path planning, and processing time.

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1424 The Problem of Using the Calculation of the Critical Path to Solver Instances of the Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Marco Antonio Cruz-Chávez, Juan Frausto-Solís, Fernando Ramos-Quintana

Abstract:

A procedure commonly used in Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) to evaluate the neighborhoods functions that use the non-deterministic algorithms is the calculation of the critical path in a digraph. This paper presents an experimental study of the cost of computation that exists when the calculation of the critical path in the solution for instances in which a JSSP of large size is involved. The results indicate that if the critical path is use in order to generate neighborhoods in the meta-heuristics that are used in JSSP, an elevated cost of computation exists in spite of the fact that the calculation of the critical path in any digraph is of polynomial complexity.

Keywords: Job Shop, CPM, critical path, neighborhood, meta-heuristic.

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1423 An Improved Transfer Logic of the Two-Path Algorithm for Acoustic Echo Cancellation

Authors: Chang Liu, Zishu He

Abstract:

Adaptive echo cancellers with two-path algorithm are applied to avoid the false adaptation during the double-talk situation. In the two-path algorithm, several transfer logic solutions have been proposed to control the filter update. This paper presents an improved transfer logic solution. It improves the convergence speed of the two-path algorithm, and allows the reduction of the memory elements and computational complexity. Results of simulations show the improved performance of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Acoustic echo cancellation, Echo return lossenhancement (ERLE), Two-path algorithm, Transfer logic

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1422 The Effect of Tool Path Strategy on Surface and Dimension in High Speed Milling

Authors: A. Razavykia, A. Esmaeilzadeh, S. Iranmanesh

Abstract:

Many orthopedic implants like proximal humerus cases require lower surface roughness and almost immediate/short lead time surgery. Thus, rapid response from the manufacturer is very crucial. Tool path strategy of milling process has a direct influence on the surface roughness and lead time of medical implant. High-speed milling as promised process would improve the machined surface quality, but conventional or super-abrasive grinding still required which imposes some drawbacks such as additional costs and time. Currently, many CAD/CAM software offers some different tool path strategies to milling free form surfaces. Nevertheless, the users must identify how to choose the strategies according to cutting tool geometry, geometry complexity, and their effects on the machined surface. This study investigates the effect of different tool path strategies for milling a proximal humerus head during finishing operation on stainless steel 316L. Experiments have been performed using MAHO MH700 S vertical milling machine and four machining strategies, namely, spiral outward, spiral inward, and radial as well as zig-zag. In all cases, the obtained surfaces were analyzed in terms of roughness and dimension accuracy compared with those obtained by simulation. The findings provide evidence that surface roughness, dimensional accuracy, and machining time have been affected by the considered tool path strategy.

Keywords: CAD/CAM software, milling, orthopedic implants, tool path strategy.

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1421 An Examination and Validation of the Theoretical Resistivity-Temperature Relationship for Conductors

Authors: Fred Lacy

Abstract:

Electrical resistivity is a fundamental parameter of metals or electrical conductors. Since resistivity is a function of temperature, in order to completely understand the behavior of metals, a temperature dependent theoretical model is needed. A model based on physics principles has recently been developed to obtain an equation that relates electrical resistivity to temperature. This equation is dependent upon a parameter associated with the electron travel time before being scattered, and a parameter that relates the energy of the atoms and their separation distance. Analysis of the energy parameter reveals that the equation is optimized if the proportionality term in the equation is not constant but varies over the temperature range. Additional analysis reveals that the theoretical equation can be used to determine the mean free path of conduction electrons, the number of defects in the atomic lattice, and the ‘equivalent’ charge associated with the metallic bonding of the atoms. All of this analysis provides validation for the theoretical model and provides insight into the behavior of metals where performance is affected by temperatures (e.g., integrated circuits and temperature sensors).

Keywords: Callendar–van Dusen, conductivity, mean free path, resistance temperature detector, temperature sensor.

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1420 Induced Graphoidal Covers in a Graph

Authors: K. Ratan Singh, P. K. Das

Abstract:

An induced graphoidal cover of a graph G is a collection ψ of (not necessarily open) paths in G such that every path in ψ has at least two vertices, every vertex of G is an internal vertex of at most one path in ψ, every edge of G is in exactly one path in ψ and every member of ψ is an induced cycle or an induced path. The minimum cardinality of an induced graphoidal cover of G is called the induced graphoidal covering number of G and is denoted by ηi(G) or ηi. Here we find induced graphoidal cover for some classes of graphs.

Keywords: Graphoidal cover, Induced graphoidal cover, Induced graphoidal covering number.

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1419 An Approach to the Solving Non-Steiner Minimum Link Path Problem

Authors: V. Tereshchenko, A. Tregubenko

Abstract:

In this study we survey the method for fast finding a minimum link path between two arbitrary points within a simple polygon, which can pass only through the vertices, with preprocessing.

Keywords: Minimum link path, simple polygon, Steiner points, optimal algorithm.

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1418 Thermal Analysis of the Current Path from Circuit Breakers Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Adrian T. Plesca

Abstract:

This paper describes a three-dimensional thermal model of the current path included in the low voltage power circuit breakers. The model can be used to analyse the thermal behaviour of the current path during both steady-state and transient conditions. The current path lengthwise temperature distribution and timecurrent characteristic of the terminal connections of the power circuit breaker have been obtained. The influence of the electric current and voltage drop on main electric contact of the circuit breaker has been investigated. To validate the three-dimensional thermal model, some experimental tests have been done. There is a good correlation between experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Current path, power circuit breakers, temperature distribution, thermal analysis.

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1417 Induced Acyclic Graphoidal Covers in a Graph

Authors: K. Ratan Singh, P. K. Das

Abstract:

An induced acyclic graphoidal cover of a graph G is a collection ψ of open paths in G such that every path in ψ has atleast two vertices, every vertex of G is an internal vertex of at most one path in ψ, every edge of G is in exactly one path in ψ and every member of ψ is an induced path. The minimum cardinality of an induced acyclic graphoidal cover of G is called the induced acyclic graphoidal covering number of G and is denoted by ηia(G) or ηia. Here we find induced acyclic graphoidal cover for some classes of graphs.

Keywords: Graphoidal cover, Induced acyclic graphoidal cover, Induced acyclic graphoidal covering number.

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1416 Geometric Data Structures and Their Selected Applications

Authors: Miloš Šeda

Abstract:

Finding the shortest path between two positions is a fundamental problem in transportation, routing, and communications applications. In robot motion planning, the robot should pass around the obstacles touching none of them, i.e. the goal is to find a collision-free path from a starting to a target position. This task has many specific formulations depending on the shape of obstacles, allowable directions of movements, knowledge of the scene, etc. Research of path planning has yielded many fundamentally different approaches to its solution, mainly based on various decomposition and roadmap methods. In this paper, we show a possible use of visibility graphs in point-to-point motion planning in the Euclidean plane and an alternative approach using Voronoi diagrams that decreases the probability of collisions with obstacles. The second application area, investigated here, is focused on problems of finding minimal networks connecting a set of given points in the plane using either only straight connections between pairs of points (minimum spanning tree) or allowing the addition of auxiliary points to the set to obtain shorter spanning networks (minimum Steiner tree).

Keywords: motion planning, spanning tree, Steiner tree, Delaunay triangulation, Voronoi diagram.

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1415 Path Planning of a Robot Manipulator using Retrieval RRT Strategy

Authors: K. Oh, J. P. Hwang, E. Kim, H. Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm which extends the rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT) framework to deal with change of the task environments. This algorithm called the Retrieval RRT Strategy (RRS) combines a support vector machine (SVM) and RRT and plans the robot motion in the presence of the change of the surrounding environment. This algorithm consists of two levels. At the first level, the SVM is built and selects a proper path from the bank of RRTs for a given environment. At the second level, a real path is planned by the RRT planners for the given environment. The suggested method is applied to the control of KUKA™,, a commercial 6 DOF robot manipulator, and its feasibility and efficiency are demonstrated via the cosimulatation of MatLab™, and RecurDyn™,.

Keywords: Path planning, RRT, 6 DOF manipulator, SVM.

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1414 Optimal Path Planning under Priori Information in Stochastic, Time-varying Networks

Authors: Siliang Wang, Minghui Wang, Jun Hu

Abstract:

A novel path planning approach is presented to solve optimal path in stochastic, time-varying networks under priori traffic information. Most existing studies make use of dynamic programming to find optimal path. However, those methods are proved to be unable to obtain global optimal value, moreover, how to design efficient algorithms is also another challenge. This paper employs a decision theoretic framework for defining optimal path: for a given source S and destination D in urban transit network, we seek an S - D path of lowest expected travel time where its link travel times are discrete random variables. To solve deficiency caused by the methods of dynamic programming, such as curse of dimensionality and violation of optimal principle, an integer programming model is built to realize assignment of discrete travel time variables to arcs. Simultaneously, pruning techniques are also applied to reduce computation complexity in the algorithm. The final experiments show the feasibility of the novel approach.

Keywords: pruning method, stochastic, time-varying networks, optimal path planning.

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1413 Optimizing Network Latency with Fast Path Assignment for Incoming Flows

Authors: Qing Lyu, Hang Zhu

Abstract:

Various flows in the network require to go through different types of middlebox. The improper placement of network middlebox and path assignment for flows could greatly increase the network latency and also decrease the performance of network. Minimizing the total end to end latency of all the ows requires to assign path for the incoming flows. In this paper, the flow path assignment problem in regard to the placement of various kinds of middlebox is studied. The flow path assignment problem is formulated to a linear programming problem, which is very time consuming. On the other hand, a naive greedy algorithm is studied. Which is very fast but causes much more latency than the linear programming algorithm. At last, the paper presents a heuristic algorithm named FPA, which takes bottleneck link information and estimated bandwidth occupancy into consideration, and achieves near optimal latency in much less time. Evaluation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Latency, Fast path assignment, Bottleneck link.

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1412 Mobile Robot Path Planning Utilizing Probability Recursive Function

Authors: Ethar H. Khalil, Bahaa I. Kazem

Abstract:

In this work a software simulation model has been proposed for two driven wheels mobile robot path planning; that can navigate in dynamic environment with static distributed obstacles. The work involves utilizing Bezier curve method in a proposed N order matrix form; for engineering the mobile robot path. The Bezier curve drawbacks in this field have been diagnosed. Two directions: Up and Right function has been proposed; Probability Recursive Function (PRF) to overcome those drawbacks. PRF functionality has been developed through a proposed; obstacle detection function, optimization function which has the capability of prediction the optimum path without comparison between all feasible paths, and N order Bezier curve function that ensures the drawing of the obtained path. The simulation results that have been taken showed; the mobile robot travels successfully from starting point and reaching its goal point. All obstacles that are located in its way have been avoided. This navigation is being done successfully using the proposed PRF techniques.

Keywords: Mobile robot, path planning, Bezier curve.

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1411 The Effect of Critical Activity on Critical Path and Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: J. Nisar, S. Halim

Abstract:

The additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activity in Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) provides a more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in the PDM network will have an anomalous effect on the critical path and the project completion date. In this study, we classified the critical activities in two groups i.e., 1. activity on single critical path and 2. activity on multi-critical paths, and six classes i.e., normal, reverse, neutral, perverse, decrease-reverse and increase-normal, based on their effects on project duration in PDM. Furthermore, we determined the maximum float of time by which the duration each type of critical activities can be changed without effecting the project duration. This study would help the project manager to clearly understand the behavior of each critical activity on critical path, and he/she would be able to change the project duration by shortening or lengthening activities based on project budget and project deadline.

Keywords: Construction project management, critical path method, project scheduling, precedence diagram method.

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