Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1120

Search results for: Centre of Mass

1120 Developing the Methods for the Study of Static and Dynamic Balance

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, J. Ezarrugh, M. Agila

Abstract:

Static and dynamic balance are essential in daily and sports life. Many factors have been identified as influencing static balance control. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the (XCoM) method and other relevant variables (CoP, CoM, Fh, KE, P, Q, and, AI) to investigate sport related activities such as hopping and jumping. Many studies have represented the CoP data without mentioning its accuracy so several experiments were done to establish the agreement between the CoP and the projected CoM in a static condition. 5 healthy male were participated in this study (Mean ± SD:- age 24.6 years ±4.5, height 177cm ± 6.3, body mass 72.8kg ± 6.6).Results found that the implementation of the XCoM method was found to be practical for evaluating both static and dynamic balance. The general findings were that the CoP, the CoM, the XCoM, Fh, and Q were more informative than the other variables (e.g. KE, P, and AI) during static and dynamic balance. The XCoM method was found to be applicable to dynamic balance as well as static balance.

Keywords: Centre of Mass, static balance, Dynamic balance, extrapolated Centre of Mass

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1119 Looking for a Favorable Central Place for the Establishment of Educational and Health Care Centre to Equally Facilitate Both Genders in Taluka Kunri of District Umerkot, Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Liaquat Ali, Nasir-uddin Khan, Mushtaq Hussain, Asif Mansoor, Muhammad Shahid

Abstract:

Population in rural areas are scattered in the form of different villages or settlements. The proper selection of land to launch any educational or health activities to equally facilitate both the genders is the sticky situation, both for Govt. and Private organizations. Govt. spends substantial funds for the establishment of education institution/health centre at the place which is feasible and accessible to general public. However for specific gender, the gender population is also considered so that both the gender may be benefited equally. In this research, efforts have been made to illustrate how one can choose or locate the best central place/ area in Taluka Kunri of district Umerkot Sindh Pakistan where the Educational or Health activity is to be initiated. For the purpose the concept of centre of mass theorem is used as a tool to develop mathematical model, subsequently utilize in achieving the objectives.

Keywords: Centre of mass theorem, Establishment of technical/ vocational/ health care centre, Gender population of taluka Kunri of District Umerkot, Graphical interpretation of town committee/villages.

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1118 Centre Of Mass Selection Operator Based Meta-Heuristic For Unbounded Knapsack Problem

Authors: D.Venkatesan, K.Kannan, S. Raja Balachandar

Abstract:

In this paper a new Genetic Algorithm based on a heuristic operator and Centre of Mass selection operator (CMGA) is designed for the unbounded knapsack problem(UKP), which is NP-Hard combinatorial optimization problem. The proposed genetic algorithm is based on a heuristic operator, which utilizes problem specific knowledge. This center of mass operator when combined with other Genetic Operators forms a competitive algorithm to the existing ones. Computational results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of obtaining high quality solutions for problems of standard randomly generated knapsack instances. Comparative study of CMGA with simple GA in terms of results for unbounded knapsack instances of size up to 200 show the superiority of CMGA. Thus CMGA is an efficient tool of solving UKP and this algorithm is competitive with other Genetic Algorithms also.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Unbounded Knapsack Problem, Combinatorial Optimization, Meta-Heuristic, Center of Mass

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1117 The Explanation for Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Richard Lewis

Abstract:

The following assumptions of the Big Bang theory are challenged and found to be false: the cosmological principle, the assumption that all matter formed at the same time and the assumption regarding the cause of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The evolution of the universe is described based on the conclusion that the universe is finite with a space boundary. This conclusion is reached by ruling out the possibility of an infinite universe or a universe which is finite with no boundary. In a finite universe, the centre of the universe can be located with reference to our home galaxy (The Milky Way) using the speed relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) rest frame and Hubble's law. This places our home galaxy at a distance of approximately 26 million light years from the centre of the universe. Because we are making observations from a point relatively close to the centre of the universe, the universe appears to be isotropic and homogeneous but this is not the case. The CMB is coming from a source located within the event horizon of the universe. There is sufficient mass in the universe to create an event horizon at the Schwarzschild radius. Galaxies form over time due to the energy released by the expansion of space. Conservation of energy must consider total energy which is mass (+ve) plus energy (+ve) plus spacetime curvature (-ve) so that the total energy of the universe is always zero. The predominant position of galaxy formation moves over time from the centre of the universe towards the boundary so that today the majority of new galaxy formation is taking place beyond our horizon of observation at 14 billion light years.

Keywords: Cosmic microwave background, dark energy, dark matter, evolution of the universe.

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1116 A Model for Managing Intellectual Property, Commercialisation and Technology Transfer within a Collaborative Research Environment

Authors: J. F. Arthur, R. M. Hodge

Abstract:

The Defence Materials Technology Centre has evolved from the Australian Cooperative Research Centres Program. The Centre receives funding from Government, industry and research sources to fund collaborative research within its participant organisations. The research centre is structured as a company with a small administrative staff and plays the role of the “honest broker” within the collaboration. A corporate culture has been established that is pervasive into the research projects are undertaken. The model is an effective mechanism to deliver outcomes to each of the participant stakeholders.

Keywords: Collaboration, Research Centre.

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1115 A Conceptual Design of a Self-Centering Centre Plate

Authors: Jose A. Romero-Navarrete, Frank Otremba, Gerardo Hurtado-Hurtado

Abstract:

Turning maneuvers originate higher forces exerted on the rail and the loss of locomotive energy, at a rate that is function of several parameters that influence the magnitude of the developed horizontal wheel-rail forces, including the friction at the centre plate and the bogie´s yaw stiffness. However, such a friction at the contact surfaces of the centre plate is needed to mitigate the hunting phenomenon when the train moves on straight track segments. In this paper, a self-centering centre plate is proposed, consisting of a lubricated centre plate, equipped with a spring- and damper-based self-centering mechanism. Simulation results of the proposed mechanism suggest that the energy performance in turns of a train car equipped with such self-centering centre plate is comparatively better, as the peak friction forces linked to the dry friction at the contact surfaces of current centre plate designs, are avoided. The assessment of the hunting performance of the proposed device in straight track segments is proposed as the continuation of this work.

Keywords: Bogie´s yaw stiffness, bogie´s yaw friction, centre plate, self-centering mechanism, turning.

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1114 Research on Modern Semiconductor Converters and the Usage of SiC Devices in the Technology Centre of Ostrava

Authors: P. Vaculík, P. Kaňovský

Abstract:

The following article presents Technology Centre of Ostrava (TCO) in the Czech Republic describing the structure and main research areas realized by the project ENET - Energy Units for Utilization of non Traditional Energy Sources. More details are presented from the research program dealing with transformation, accumulation and distribution of electric energy. Technology Centre has its own energy mix consisting of alternative sources of fuel sources that use of process gases from the storage part and also the energy from distribution network. The article will be focus on the properties and application possibilities SiC semiconductor devices for power semiconductor converter for photovoltaic systems.

Keywords: SiC, Si, Technology Centre of Ostrava, Photovoltaic Systems, DC/DC Converter, Simulation.

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1113 Visitors’ Attitude towards the Service Marketing Mix and Frequency of Visits to Bangpu Recreation Centre, Thailand

Authors: Siri-Orn Champatong

Abstract:

This research paper was aimed to examine the relationship between visitors’ attitude towards the service marketing mix and visitors’ frequency of visit to Bangpu Recreation Centre. Based on a large and uncalculated population, the number of samples was calculated according to the formula to obtain a total of 385 samples. In collecting the samples, systematic random sampling was applied and by using of a Likert five-scale questionnaire for, a total of 21 days to collect the needed information. Mean, Standard Deviation, and Pearson’s basic statistical correlations were utilized in analyzing the data. This study discovered a high level of visitors’ attitude product and service of Bangpu Recreation Centre, price, place, promotional activities, people who provided service and physical evidence of the centre. The attitude towards process of service was discovered to be at a medium level. Additionally, the finding of an examination of a relationship between visitors’ attitude towards service marketing mix and visitors’ frequency of visit to Bangpu Recreation Centre presented that product and service, people, physical evidence and process of service provision showed a relationship with the visitors’ frequency of visit to the centre per year.

Keywords: Frequency of Visit, Visitor, Service Marketing Mix, Bangpu Recreation Centre.

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1112 Old Age Home Organizer

Authors: Vicky Suri, Monika Suri Grover, Raghav Gupta, Shipra Asija, Sulabh Arya, Sushant Jain

Abstract:

With today's fast lifestyles and busy schedule, nuclear families are becoming popular. Thus, the elderly members of these families are often neglected. This has lead to the popularity of the concept of Community living for the aged. The elders reside at a centre, which is controlled by the MANAGER. The manager takes responsibility of the functioning of the centre which includes taking care of 'residents' at the centre along with managing the daily chores of the centre, which he accomplishes with the help of a number of staff members and volunteers Often the Manager is not an employee but a volunteer. In such cases especially, time is an important constraint. A system, which provides an easy and efficient manner of managing the working of an old age home in detail, will prove to be of great benefit. We have developed a P.C. based organizer used to monitor the various activities of an old age home. It is an effective and easy-to-use system which will enable the manager to keep an account of all the residents, their accounts, staff members, volunteers, the centre-s logistic requirements etc. It is thus, a comprehensive 'Organizer' for Old Age Homes.

Keywords: Old Age Home Organizer, HelpAge India.

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1111 Schrödinger Equation with Position-Dependent Mass: Staggered Mass Distributions

Authors: J. J. Peña, J. Morales, J. García-Ravelo, L. Arcos-Díaz

Abstract:

The Point canonical transformation method is applied for solving the Schrödinger equation with position-dependent mass. This class of problem has been solved for continuous mass distributions. In this work, a staggered mass distribution for the case of a free particle in an infinite square well potential has been proposed. The continuity conditions as well as normalization for the wave function are also considered. The proposal can be used for dealing with other kind of staggered mass distributions in the Schrödinger equation with different quantum potentials.

Keywords: Free particle, point canonical transformation method, position-dependent mass, staggered mass distribution.

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1110 Survival of Neutrino Mass Models in Nonthermal Leptogenesis

Authors: Amal Kr Sarma, H Zeen Devi, N Nimai Singh

Abstract:

The Constraints imposed by non-thermal leptogenesis on the survival of the neutrino mass models describing the presently available neutrino mass patterns, are studied numerically. We consider the Majorana CP violating phases coming from right-handed Majorana mass matrices to estimate the baryon asymmetry of the universe, for different neutrino mass models namely quasi-degenerate, inverted hierarchical and normal hierarchical models, with tribimaximal mixings. Considering two possible diagonal forms of Dirac neutrino mass matrix as either charged lepton or up-quark mass matrix, the heavy right-handed mass matrices are constructed from the light neutrino mass matrix. Only the normal hierarchical model leads to the best predictions of baryon asymmetry of the universe, consistent with observations in non-thermal leptogenesis scenario.

Keywords: Thermal leptogenesis, Non-thermal leptogenesis.

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1109 Electromagnetic Tuned Mass Damper Approach for Regenerative Suspension

Authors: S. Kopylov, C. Z. Bo

Abstract:

This study is aimed at exploring the possibility of energy recovery through the suppression of vibrations. The article describes design of electromagnetic dynamic damper. The magnetic part of the device performs the function of a tuned mass damper, thereby providing both energy regeneration and damping properties to the protected mass. According to the theory of tuned mass damper, equations of mathematical models were obtained. Then, under given properties of current system, amplitude frequency response was investigated. Therefore, main ideas and methods for further research were defined.

Keywords: Electromagnetic damper, oscillations with two degrees of freedom, regeneration systems, tuned mass damper.

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1108 Possibilities of Delimitation of City Centers Using GIS

Authors: Jaroslav Burian, Kateřina Sorbiová, Pavel Tuček, Michaela Tučková

Abstract:

The article describes problems of city centers with regard to possibilities of their delimitation in a GIS environment. First the definitions and delimitations of a city centre which are in use are mentioned, furthermore a chosen case study (the historical centre of Olomouc city in the Czech Republic) is employed to describe the methods of delimitation in use. In addition to describing the current state, the article also deals with possibilities of delimitation of a city centre in GIS environment by means of several chosen approaches. The authors describe, compare and discuss the chosen methods and assess the achieved results and also applicability of the designed methods for other cities.

Keywords: analysis, city center, GIS, spatial structures

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1107 Mass Transfer of Palm Kernel Oil under Supercritical Conditions

Authors: I. Norhuda, A. K. Mohd Omar

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to determine the amount of Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) extracted from a packed bed of palm kernels in a supercritical fluid extractor using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as an environmental friendly solvent. Further, the study sought to ascertain the values of the overall mass transfer coefficient (K) of PKO evaluation through a mass transfer model, at constant temperature of 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C and pressures range from 27.6 MPa, 34.5 MPa, 41.4 MPa and 48.3 MPa respectively. Finally, the study also seeks to demonstrate the application of the overall mass transfer coefficient values in relation to temperature and pressure. The overall mass transfer coefficient was found to be dependent pressure at each constant temperature of 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. The overall mass transfer coefficient for PKO in a packed bed of palm kernels was found to be in the range of 1.21X 10-4 m min-1 to 1.72 X 10-4 m min-1 for a constant temperature of 50 °C and in the range of 2.02 X 10-4 m min-1 to 2.43 X 10-4 m min-1 for a constant temperature of 60 °C. Similar increasing trend of the overall mass transfer coefficient from 1.77 X 10-4 m min-1 to 3.64 X 10-4 m min-1 was also observed at constant temperature of 70 °C within the same pressure range from 27.6 MPa to 48.3 MPa.

Keywords: Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient (D), Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2), Palm Kernel Oil (PKO).

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1106 Use of Life Cycle Data for Condition-Oriented Maintenance

Authors: M. Winkens, M. Goerke, P. Nyhuis

Abstract:

This technical contribution treats of a novel approach to condition-oriented maintenance as elaborated by Collaborative Research Centre 653 at the Leibniz University in Hanover. The objective resides in the targeted analysis of information about a component's lifecycle for maintenance purposes. The information in question is collected by means of the Collaborative Research Centre's innovative technologies. This enables preventive maintenance of components on the basis of their condition. This contribution initially explains condition-oriented maintenance, before introducing the Collaborative Research Centre and finally presenting the methodology for analyzing the information. The current state of development is described and an outlook provided for expanding the methodology.

Keywords: Gentelligent Components, Preventive Maintenance, life cycle data.

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1105 Is It Important to Measure the Volumetric Mass Density of Nanofluids?

Authors: Z. Haddad, C. Abid, O. Rahli, O. Margeat, W. Dachraoui, A. Mataoui

Abstract:

The present study aims to measure the volumetric mass density of NiPd-heptane nanofluids synthesized using a one step method known as thermal decomposition of metal-surfactant complexes. The particle concentration is up to 7.55g/l and the temperature range of the experiment is from 20°C to 50°C. The measured values were compared with the mixture theory and good agreement between the theoretical equation and measurement were obtained. Moreover, the available nanofluids volumetric mass density data in the literature is reviewed.

Keywords: NiPd nanoparticles, nanofluids, volumetric mass density, stability.

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1104 The Female Beauty Myth Fostered by the Mass Media

Authors: Yoojin Chung

Abstract:

This paper starts with a critical view of beautiful female images in the mass media being frequently generated by a stereotypical Korean concept of beauty. Several female beauty myths have evolved in Korea during the present decade. Nearly all of them have formed due to a deeply-ingrained androcentric ideology which objectifies women. Mass media causes the public to hold a distorted concept about female beauty. There is a huge gap between women in reality and representative women in the mass media. It is essential to have an unbiased perception of female images presented in the mass media. Due to cosmetic advertisements projecting contemporary images of female beauty to promote products, cosmetics images will be examined in regard to female beauty myths portrayed by the mass media. This paper will analyze features of female beauty myths in Korea and their intrinsic characteristics.

Keywords: Cosmetics Advertisements, Female Beauty Myth, Korean ideologies, Roland Barthes' Mythology Theory

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1103 One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.

Keywords: Reactor, modeling, methanol, steam reforming.

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1102 Mass Transfer Modeling of Nitrate in an Ion Exchange Selective Resin

Authors: A. A. Hekmatzadeh, A. Karimi-Jashani, N. Talebbeydokhti

Abstract:

The rate of nitrate adsorption by a nitrate selective ion exchange resin was investigated in a well-stirred batch experiments. The kinetic experimental data were simulated with diffusion models including external mass transfer, particle diffusion and chemical adsorption. Particle pore volume diffusion and particle surface diffusion were taken into consideration separately and simultaneously in the modeling. The model equations were solved numerically using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. An optimization technique was employed to optimize the model parameters. All nitrate concentration decay data were well described with the all diffusion models. The results indicated that the kinetic process is initially controlled by external mass transfer and then by particle diffusion. The external mass transfer coefficient and the coefficients of pore volume diffusion and surface diffusion in all experiments were close to each other with the average value of 8.3×10-3 cm/S for external mass transfer coefficient. In addition, the models are more sensitive to the mass transfer coefficient in comparison with particle diffusion. Moreover, it seems that surface diffusion is the dominant particle diffusion in comparison with pore volume diffusion.

Keywords: External mass transfer, pore volume diffusion, surface diffusion, mass action law isotherm.

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1101 Plasma Chemical Gasification of Solid Fuel with Mineral Mass Processing

Authors: V. E. Messerle, O. A. Lavrichshev, A. B. Ustimenko

Abstract:

The article presents a plasma chemical technology for processing solid fuels, using examples of bituminous and brown coals. Thermodynamic and experimental investigation of the technology was made. The technology allows producing synthesis gas from the coal organic mass and valuable components (technical silicon, ferrosilicon, aluminum, and carbon silicon, as well as microelements of rare metals, such as uranium, molybdenum, vanadium, etc.) from the mineral mass. The thusly produced highcalorific synthesis gas can be used for synthesis of methanol, as a high-calorific reducing gas instead of blast-furnace coke as well as power gas for thermal power plants.

Keywords: Gasification, mineral mass, organic mass, plasma, processing, solid fuel, synthesis gas, valuable components.

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1100 Automatic Detection of Mass Type Breast Cancer using Texture Analysis in Korean Digital Mammography

Authors: E. B. Jo, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. M. Kim

Abstract:

In this study, we present an advanced detection technique for mass type breast cancer based on texture information of organs. The proposed method detects the cancer areas in three stages. In the first stage, the midpoints of mass area are determined based on AHE (Adaptive Histogram Equalization). In the second stage, we set the threshold coefficient of homogeneity by using MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) to compute the uniformity of texture. Finally, mass type cancer tissues are extracted from the original image. As a result, it was observed that the proposed method shows an improved detection performance on dense breast tissues of Korean women compared with the existing methods. It is expected that the proposed method may provide additional diagnostic information for detection of mass-type breast cancer.

Keywords: Mass Type Breast Cancer, Mammography, Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), Ranklets, SVM

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1099 Mass Transfer Modeling in a Packed Bed of Palm Kernels under Supercritical Conditions

Authors: I. Norhuda, A. K. Mohd Omar

Abstract:

Studies on gas solid mass transfer using Supercritical fluid CO2 (SC-CO2) in a packed bed of palm kernels was investigated at operating conditions of temperature 50 °C and 70 °C and pressures ranges from 27.6 MPa, 34.5 MPa, 41.4 MPa and 48.3 MPa. The development of mass transfer models requires knowledge of three properties: the diffusion coefficient of the solute, the viscosity and density of the Supercritical fluids (SCF). Matematical model with respect to the dimensionless number of Sherwood (Sh), Schmidt (Sc) and Reynolds (Re) was developed. It was found that the model developed was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data within the system studied.

Keywords: Mass Transfer, Palm Kernel, Supercritical fluid.

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1098 Creating Streamribbons Based on Mass Conservative Streamlines

Authors: Zhenquan Li, Niharika Singh

Abstract:

Streamribbon is used to visualize the rotation of the fluid flow. The rotation of flow is useful in fluid mechanics, engineering and geophysics. This paper introduces the construction technique of streamribbon using the streamline which is generated based on the law of mass conservation. The accuracy of constructed streamribbons is shown through two examples.

Keywords: Mass conservation, streamline, streamtube, streamribbon.

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1097 Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin BTS Station

Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julien Dewancker

Abstract:

Access to the mass transit system, including rapid elevated and underground transport has become an outstanding issue for many cities. The mass transit access development should focus on behavioral responses of the different passenger groups. Moreover, it should consider about the appearance of intent-oriented action related accessibility that was explored from user’s satisfaction and attitudes related to services quality. This study aims to evaluate mass transit accessibility from passenger’s satisfaction, therefore, understanding the passenger’s attitudes about mass transit accessibility. The study area of this research is Bangkok Mass Transit system (BTS Skytrain) at Saphan Taksin station. 200 passengers at Saphan Taksin station were asked to rate the questionnaires survey that considers accessibility aspects of convenience, safety, feeder connectivity, and other dimensions. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes and satisfaction for access to the BTS station, and the result shows several factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and passenger’s opinion that needs to concern for the development mass transit system and accessibility performance.

Keywords: Urban transportation, user satisfaction, accessibility, Bangkok mass transit.

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1096 Propagation Model for a Mass-Mailing Worm with Mailing List

Authors: Akira Kanaoka, Eiji Okamoto

Abstract:

Mass-mail type worms have threatened to become a large problem for the Internet. Although many researchers have analyzed such worms, there are few studies that consider worm propagation via mailing lists. In this paper, we present a mass-mailing type worm propagation model including the mailing list effect on the propagation. We study its propagation by simulation with a real e¬mail social network model. We show that the impact of the mailing list on the mass-mail worm propagation is significant, even if the mailing list is not large.

Keywords: Malware, simulation, complex networks

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1095 A Framework for Supply Chain Efficiency Evaluation of Mass Customized Automobiles

Authors: Arshia Khan, Hans-Dietrich Haasis

Abstract:

Different tools of the supply chain should be managed very efficiently in mass customization. In the automobile industry, there are different strategies to manage these tools. We need to investigate which strategies among the different ones are successful and which are not. There is lack in literature regarding such analysis. Keeping this in view, the purpose of this paper is to construct a framework and model which can help to analyze the supply chain of mass customized automobiles quantitatively for future studies. Furthermore, we will also consider that which type of data can be used for the suggested model and where it can be taken from. Such framework can help to bring insight for future analysis.

Keywords: Mass customization, supply chain, inventory, distribution, automobile industry.

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1094 Creating Streamtubes Based on Mass Conservative Streamlines

Authors: Nawin Raj, Zhenquan Li

Abstract:

Streamtube is used to visualize expansion, contraction and various properties of the fluid flow. These are useful in fluid mechanics, engineering and geophysics. The streamtube constructed in this paper only reveals the flow expansion rate along streamline. Based on the mass conservative streamline, we will show how to construct the streamtube.

Keywords: Flow visualization, mass conservative, streamline, streamtube.

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1093 Development a New Model of EEVC/WG17 Lower Legform for Pedestrian Safety

Authors: Alireza Noorpoor, Akbar Abvabi, Mehdi Saeed Kiasat

Abstract:

Development, calibration and validation of a threedimensional model of the Legform impactor for pedestrian crash with bumper are presented. Lower limb injury is becoming an increasingly important concern in vehicle safety for both occupants and pedestrians. In order to prevent lower extremity injuries to a pedestrian when struck by a car, it is important to elucidate the loadings from car front structures on the lower extremities and the injury mechanism caused by these loadings. An impact test procedure with a legform addressing lower limb injuries in car pedestrian accidents has been proposed by EEVC/WG17. In this study a modified legform impactor is introduced and validated against EEVC/WG17 criteria. The finite element model of this legform is developed using LS-DYNA software. Total mass of legform impactor is 13.4 kg.Technical specifications including the mass and location of the center of gravity and moment of inertia about a horizontal axis through the respective centre of gravity in femur and tibia are determined. The obtained results of legform impactor static and dynamic tests are as specified in the EEVC/WG17.

Keywords: Legform impactor, Pedestrian safety, Finite element model, Knee joint, EEVC/WG17.

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1092 Multi-Linear Regression Based Prediction of Mass Transfer by Multiple Plunging Jets

Authors: S. Deswal, M. Pal

Abstract:

The paper aims to compare the performance of vertical and inclined multiple plunging jets and to model and predict their mass transfer capacity by multi-linear regression based approach. The multiple vertical plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 90O; whereas, multiple inclined plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 60O. The results of the study suggests that mass transfer is higher for multiple jets, and inclined multiple plunging jets have up to 1.6 times higher mass transfer than vertical multiple plunging jets under similar conditions. The derived relationship, based on multi-linear regression approach, has successfully predicted the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa) from operational parameters of multiple plunging jets with a correlation coefficient of 0.973, root mean square error of 0.002 and coefficient of determination of 0.946. The results suggests that predicted overall mass transfer coefficient is in good agreement with actual experimental values; thereby, suggesting the utility of derived relationship based on multi-linear regression based approach and can be successfully employed in modeling mass transfer by multiple plunging jets.

Keywords: Mass transfer, multiple plunging jets, multi-linear regression.

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1091 The Effect of Vibration on the Absorption of CO2 with Chemical Reaction in Aqueous Solution of Calcium Hydroxide

Authors: B. Sohbi, M. Emtir, M. Elgarni

Abstract:

An interesting method to produce calcium carbonate is based in a gas-liquid reaction between carbon dioxide and aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide. The design parameters for gas-liquid phase are flow regime, individual mass transfer, gas-liquid specific interfacial area. Most studies on gas-liquid phase were devoted to the experimental determination of some of these parameters, and more specifically, of the mass transfer coefficient, kLa which depends fundamentally on the superficial gas velocity and on the physical properties of absorption phase. The principle investigation was directed to study the effect of the vibration on the mass transfer coefficient kLa in gas-liquid phase during absorption of CO2 in the in aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide. The vibration with a higher frequency increase the mass transfer coefficient kLa, but vibration with lower frequency didn-t improve it, the mass transfer coefficient kLa increase with increase the superficial gas velocity.

Keywords: Environment technology, mass transfer coefficient, absorption, CO2, calcium hydroxide.

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