Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Conformally invariance

22 Conformal Invariance in F (R, T) Gravity

Authors: Pyotr Tsyba, Olga Razina, Ertan Güdekli, Ratbay Myrzakulov

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the equation of motion for the F (R, T) gravity on their property of conformal invariance. It is shown that in the general case, such a theory is not conformal invariant. Studied special cases for the functions v and u in which can appear properties of the theory. Also we consider cosmological aspects F (R, T) theory of gravity, having considered particular case F (R, T) = μR+νT^2. Showed that in this case there is a nonlinear dependence of the parameter equation of state from time to time, which affects its evolution.

Keywords: Conformally invariance, F (R, T) gravity, metric FRW, equation of motion, dark energy.

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21 On Quasi Conformally Flat LP-Sasakian Manifolds with a Coefficient α

Authors: Jay Prakash Singh

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to study properties of Quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifolds with a coefficient α. In this paper, we prove that a Quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifold M (n > 3) with a constant coefficient α is an η−Einstein and in a quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifold M (n > 3) with a constant coefficient α if the scalar curvature tensor is constant then M is of constant curvature.

Keywords: LP-Sasakian manifolds, coefficient α, quasi conformal curvature tensor, concircular vector field, torse forming vector field, η-Einstein manifold.

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20 An Efficient Classification Method for Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

Authors: Sang-Hong Park

Abstract:

This paper proposes an efficient method to classify inverse synthetic aperture (ISAR) images. Because ISAR images can be translated and rotated in the 2-dimensional image place, invariance to the two factors is indispensable for successful classification. The proposed method achieves invariance to translation and rotation of ISAR images using a combination of two-dimensional Fourier transform, polar mapping and correlation-based alignment of the image. Classification is conducted using a simple matching score classifier. In simulations using the real ISAR images of five scaled models measured in a compact range, the proposed method yields classification ratios higher than 97 %.

Keywords: Radar, ISAR, radar target classification, radar imaging.

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19 The Use of Complex Contourlet Transform on Fusion Scheme

Authors: Dipeng Chen, Qi Li

Abstract:

Image fusion aims to enhance the perception of a scene by combining important information captured by different sensors. Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet (DT-CWT) has been thouroughly investigated for image fusion, since it takes advantages of approximate shift invariance and direction selectivity. But it can only handle limited direction information. To allow a more flexible directional expansion for images, we propose a novel fusion scheme, referred to as complex contourlet transform (CCT). It successfully incorporates directional filter banks (DFB) into DT-CWT. As a result it efficiently deal with images containing contours and textures, whereas it retains the property of shift invariance. Experimental results demonstrated that the method features high quality fusion performance and can facilitate many image processing applications.

Keywords: Complex contourlet transform, Complex wavelettransform, Fusion.

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18 A Feature-based Invariant Watermarking Scheme Using Zernike Moments

Authors: Say Wei Foo, Qi Dong

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel feature-based image watermarking scheme is proposed. Zernike moments which have invariance properties are adopted in the scheme. In the proposed scheme, feature points are first extracted from host image and several circular patches centered on these points are generated. The patches are used as carriers of watermark information because they can be regenerated to locate watermark embedding positions even when watermarked images are severely distorted. Zernike transform is then applied to the patches to calculate local Zernike moments. Dither modulation is adopted to quantize the magnitudes of the Zernike moments followed by false alarm analysis. Experimental results show that quality degradation of watermarked image is visually transparent. The proposed scheme is very robust against image processing operations and geometric attacks.

Keywords: Image watermarking, Zernike moments, Featurepoint, Invariance, Robustness.

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17 Shift Invariant Support Vector Machines Face Recognition System

Authors: J. Ruiz-Pinales, J. J. Acosta-Reyes, A. Salazar-Garibay, R. Jaime-Rivas

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new method for incorporating global shift invariance in support vector machines. Unlike other approaches which incorporate a feature extraction stage, we first scale the image and then classify it by using the modified support vector machines classifier. Shift invariance is achieved by replacing dot products between patterns used by the SVM classifier with the maximum cross-correlation value between them. Unlike the normal approach, in which the patterns are treated as vectors, in our approach the patterns are treated as matrices (or images). Crosscorrelation is computed by using computationally efficient techniques such as the fast Fourier transform. The method has been tested on the ORL face database. The tests indicate that this method can improve the recognition rate of an SVM classifier.

Keywords: Face recognition, support vector machines, shiftinvariance, image registration.

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16 Enhanced Multi-Intensity Analysis in Multi-Scenery Classification-Based Macro and Micro Elements

Authors: R. Bremananth

Abstract:

Several computationally challenging issues are encountered while classifying complex natural scenes. In this paper, we address the problems that are encountered in rotation invariance with multi-intensity analysis for multi-scene overlapping. In the present literature, various algorithms proposed techniques for multi-intensity analysis, but there are several restrictions in these algorithms while deploying them in multi-scene overlapping classifications. In order to resolve the problem of multi-scenery overlapping classifications, we present a framework that is based on macro and micro basis functions. This algorithm conquers the minimum classification false alarm while pigeonholing multi-scene overlapping. Furthermore, a quadrangle multi-intensity decay is invoked. Several parameters are utilized to analyze invariance for multi-scenery classifications such as rotation, classification, correlation, contrast, homogeneity, and energy. Benchmark datasets were collected for complex natural scenes and experimented for the framework. The results depict that the framework achieves a significant improvement on gray-level matrix of co-occurrence features for overlapping in diverse degree of orientations while pigeonholing multi-scene overlapping.

Keywords: Automatic classification, contrast, homogeneity, invariant analysis, multi-scene analysis, overlapping.

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15 Toward Indoor and Outdoor Surveillance Using an Improved Fast Background Subtraction Algorithm

Authors: A. El Harraj, N. Raissouni

Abstract:

The detection of moving objects from a video image sequences is very important for object tracking, activity recognition, and behavior understanding in video surveillance. The most used approach for moving objects detection / tracking is background subtraction algorithms. Many approaches have been suggested for background subtraction. But, these are illumination change sensitive and the solutions proposed to bypass this problem are time consuming. In this paper, we propose a robust yet computationally efficient background subtraction approach and, mainly, focus on the ability to detect moving objects on dynamic scenes, for possible applications in complex and restricted access areas monitoring, where moving and motionless persons must be reliably detected. It consists of three main phases, establishing illumination changes invariance, background/foreground modeling and morphological analysis for noise removing. We handle illumination changes using Contrast Limited Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), which limits the intensity of each pixel to user determined maximum. Thus, it mitigates the degradation due to scene illumination changes and improves the visibility of the video signal. Initially, the background and foreground images are extracted from the video sequence. Then, the background and foreground images are separately enhanced by applying CLAHE. In order to form multi-modal backgrounds we model each channel of a pixel as a mixture of K Gaussians (K=5) using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Finally, we post process the resulting binary foreground mask using morphological erosion and dilation transformations to remove possible noise. For experimental test, we used a standard dataset to challenge the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method on a diverse set of dynamic scenes.

Keywords: Video surveillance, background subtraction, Contrast Limited Histogram Equalization, illumination invariance, object tracking, object detection, behavior understanding, dynamic scenes.

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14 Group Invariant Solutions of Nonlinear Time-Fractional Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equation

Authors: Anupma Bansal, Rajeev Budhiraja, Manoj Pandey

Abstract:

In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear time-fractional hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) for its symmetries and invariance properties. With the application of this method, we have tried to reduce it to time-fractional ordinary differential equation (ODE) which has been further studied for exact solutions.

Keywords: Nonlinear time-fractional hyperbolic PDE, Lie Classical method, exact solutions.

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13 The Image as an Initial Element of the Cognitive Understanding of Words

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

An analysis of word semantics focusing on the invariance of advanced imagery in several pressing problems. Interest in the language of imagery is caused by the introduction, in the linguistics sphere, of a new paradigm, the center of which is the personality of the speaker (the subject of the language). Particularly noteworthy is the question of the place of the image when discussing the lexical, phraseological values ​​and the relationship of imagery and metaphors. In part, the formation of a metaphor, as an interaction between two intellective entities, occurs at a cognitive level, and it is the category of the image, having cognitive roots, which aides in the correct interpretation of the results of this process on the lexical-semantic level.

Keywords: Image, metaphor, concept, creation of a metaphor, cognitive linguistics, erased image, vivid image.

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12 Image Segment Matching Using Affine- Invariant Regions

Authors: Ibrahim El rube'

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for matching image segments using triangle-based (geometrical) regions is proposed. Triangular regions are formed from triples of vertex points obtained from a keypoint detector (SIFT). However, triangle regions are subject to noise and distortion around the edges and vertices (especially acute angles). Therefore, these triangles are expanded into parallelogramshaped regions. The extracted image segments inherit an important triangle property; the invariance to affine distortion. Given two images, matching corresponding regions is conducted by computing the relative affine matrix, rectifying one of the regions w.r.t. the other one, then calculating the similarity between the reference and rectified region. The experimental tests show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm against geometrical distortion.

Keywords: Image matching, key point detection, affine invariant, triangle-shaped segments.

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11 Face Recognition Using Discrete Orthogonal Hahn Moments

Authors: Fatima Akhmedova, Simon Liao

Abstract:

One of the most critical decision points in the design of a face recognition system is the choice of an appropriate face representation. Effective feature descriptors are expected to convey sufficient, invariant and non-redundant facial information. In this work we propose a set of Hahn moments as a new approach for feature description. Hahn moments have been widely used in image analysis due to their invariance, nonredundancy and the ability to extract features either globally and locally. To assess the applicability of Hahn moments to Face Recognition we conduct two experiments on the Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) database and University of Notre-Dame (UND) X1 biometric collection. Fusion of the global features along with the features from local facial regions are used as an input for the conventional k-NN classifier. The method reaches an accuracy of 93% of correctly recognized subjects for the ORL database and 94% for the UND database.

Keywords: Face Recognition, Hahn moments, Recognition-by-parts, Time-lapse.

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10 Mining Image Features in an Automatic Two-Dimensional Shape Recognition System

Authors: R. A. Salam, M.A. Rodrigues

Abstract:

The number of features required to represent an image can be very huge. Using all available features to recognize objects can suffer from curse dimensionality. Feature selection and extraction is the pre-processing step of image mining. Main issues in analyzing images is the effective identification of features and another one is extracting them. The mining problem that has been focused is the grouping of features for different shapes. Experiments have been conducted by using shape outline as the features. Shape outline readings are put through normalization and dimensionality reduction process using an eigenvector based method to produce a new set of readings. After this pre-processing step data will be grouped through their shapes. Through statistical analysis, these readings together with peak measures a robust classification and recognition process is achieved. Tests showed that the suggested methods are able to automatically recognize objects through their shapes. Finally, experiments also demonstrate the system invariance to rotation, translation, scale, reflection and to a small degree of distortion.

Keywords: Image mining, feature selection, shape recognition, peak measures.

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9 Automatic Lip Contour Tracking and Visual Character Recognition for Computerized Lip Reading

Authors: Harshit Mehrotra, Gaurav Agrawal, M.C. Srivastava

Abstract:

Computerized lip reading has been one of the most actively researched areas of computer vision in recent past because of its crime fighting potential and invariance to acoustic environment. However, several factors like fast speech, bad pronunciation, poor illumination, movement of face, moustaches and beards make lip reading difficult. In present work, we propose a solution for automatic lip contour tracking and recognizing letters of English language spoken by speakers using the information available from lip movements. Level set method is used for tracking lip contour using a contour velocity model and a feature vector of lip movements is then obtained. Character recognition is performed using modified k nearest neighbor algorithm which assigns more weight to nearer neighbors. The proposed system has been found to have accuracy of 73.3% for character recognition with speaker lip movements as the only input and without using any speech recognition system in parallel. The approach used in this work is found to significantly solve the purpose of lip reading when size of database is small.

Keywords: Contour Velocity Model, Lip Contour Tracking, LipReading, Visual Character Recognition.

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8 Automated Service Scene Detection for Badminton Game Analysis Using CHLAC and MRA

Authors: Fumito Yoshikawa, Takumi Kobayashi, Kenji Watanabe, Nobuyuki Otsu

Abstract:

Extracting in-play scenes in sport videos is essential for quantitative analysis and effective video browsing of the sport activities. Game analysis of badminton as of the other racket sports requires detecting the start and end of each rally period in an automated manner. This paper describes an automatic serve scene detection method employing cubic higher-order local auto-correlation (CHLAC) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). CHLAC can extract features of postures and motions of multiple persons without segmenting and tracking each person by virtue of shift-invariance and additivity, and necessitate no prior knowledge. Then, the specific scenes, such as serve, are detected by linear regression (MRA) from the CHLAC features. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, the experiment was conducted on video sequences of five badminton matches captured by a single ceiling camera. The averaged precision and recall rates for the serve scene detection were 95.1% and 96.3%, respectively.

Keywords: Badminton, CHLAC, MRA, Video-based motiondetection

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7 A Local Invariant Generalized Hough Transform Method for Integrated Circuit Visual Positioning

Authors: Fei Long Wei, Hua Yang, Hai Tao Zhang, Zhou Ping Yin

Abstract:

In this study, an local invariant generalized Houghtransform (LI-GHT) method is proposed for integrated circuit (IC) visual positioning. The original generalized Hough transform (GHT) is robust to external noise; however, it is not suitable for visual positioning of IC chips due to the four-dimensionality (4D) of parameter space which leads to the substantial storage requirement and high computational complexity. The proposed LI-GHT method can reduce the dimensionality of parameter space to 2D thanks to the rotational invariance of local invariant geometric feature and it can estimate the accuracy position and rotation angle of IC chips in real-time under noise and blur influence. The experiment results show that the proposed LI-GHT can estimate position and rotation angle of IC chips with high accuracy and fast speed. The proposed LI-GHT algorithm was implemented in IC visual positioning system of radio frequency identification (RFID) packaging equipment.

Keywords: Integrated Circuit Visual Positioning, Generalized Hough Transform, Local invariant Generalized Hough Transform, ICpacking equipment.

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6 Implicit Lyapunov Control of Multi-Control Hamiltonians Systems Based On the State Error

Authors: Fangfang Meng, Shuang Cong

Abstract:

In the closed quantum system, if the control system is strongly regular and all other eigenstates are directly coupled to the target state, the control system can be asymptotically stabilized at the target eigenstate by the Lyapunov control based on the state error. However, if the control system is not strongly regular or as long as there is one eigenstate not directly coupled to the target state, the situations will become complicated. In this paper, we propose an implicit Lyapunov control method based on the state error to solve the convergence problems for these two degenerate cases. And at the same time, we expand the target state from the eigenstate to the arbitrary pure state. Especially, the proposed method is also applicable in the control system with multi-control Hamiltonians. On this basis, the convergence of the control systems is analyzed using the LaSalle invariance principle. Furthermore, the relation between the implicit Lyapunov functions of the state distance and the state error is investigated. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed implicit Lyapunov control method. The comparisons of the control effect using the implicit Lyapunov control method based on the state distance with that of the state error are given.

Keywords: Implicit Lyapunov control, state error, degenerate cases, convergence.

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5 Moving Object Detection Using Histogram of Uniformly Oriented Gradient

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Yu-Siang Su, Pau-Choo Chung, Jar-Ferr Yang

Abstract:

Moving object detection (MOD) is an important issue in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). There are two important moving objects, pedestrians and scooters in ADAS. In real-world systems, there exist two important challenges for MOD, including the computational complexity and the detection accuracy. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features can easily detect the edge of object without invariance to changes in illumination and shadowing. However, to reduce the execution time for real-time systems, the image size should be down sampled which would lead the outlier influence to increase. For this reason, we propose the histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient (HUG) features to get better accurate description of the contour of human body. In the testing phase, the support vector machine (SVM) with linear kernel function is involved. Experimental results show the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method. With SVM classifiers, the real testing results show the proposed HUG features achieve better than classification performance than the HOG ones.

Keywords: Moving object detection, histogram of oriented gradient histogram of oriented gradient, histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient, linear support vector machine.

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4 Multi-Layer Multi-Feature Background Subtraction Using Codebook Model Framework

Authors: Yun-Tao Zhang, Jong-Yeop Bae, Whoi-Yul Kim

Abstract:

Background modeling and subtraction in video analysis has been widely used as an effective method for moving objects detection in many computer vision applications. Recently, a large number of approaches have been developed to tackle different types of challenges in this field. However, the dynamic background and illumination variations are the most frequently occurred problems in the practical situation. This paper presents a favorable two-layer model based on codebook algorithm incorporated with local binary pattern (LBP) texture measure, targeted for handling dynamic background and illumination variation problems. More specifically, the first layer is designed by block-based codebook combining with LBP histogram and mean value of each RGB color channel. Because of the invariance of the LBP features with respect to monotonic gray-scale changes, this layer can produce block wise detection results with considerable tolerance of illumination variations. The pixel-based codebook is employed to reinforce the precision from the output of the first layer which is to eliminate false positives further. As a result, the proposed approach can greatly promote the accuracy under the circumstances of dynamic background and illumination changes. Experimental results on several popular background subtraction datasets demonstrate very competitive performance compared to previous models.

Keywords: Background subtraction, codebook model, local binary pattern, dynamic background, illumination changes.

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3 Jeffrey's Prior for Unknown Sinusoidal Noise Model via Cramer-Rao Lower Bound

Authors: Samuel A. Phillips, Emmanuel A. Ayanlowo, Rasaki O. Olanrewaju, Olayode Fatoki

Abstract:

This paper employs the Jeffrey's prior technique in the process of estimating the periodograms and frequency of sinusoidal model for unknown noisy time variants or oscillating events (data) in a Bayesian setting. The non-informative Jeffrey's prior was adopted for the posterior trigonometric function of the sinusoidal model such that Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) inference was used in carving-out the minimum variance needed to curb the invariance structure effect for unknown noisy time observational and repeated circular patterns. An average monthly oscillating temperature series measured in degree Celsius (0C) from 1901 to 2014 was subjected to the posterior solution of the unknown noisy events of the sinusoidal model via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). It was not only deduced that two minutes period is required before completing a cycle of changing temperature from one particular degree Celsius to another but also that the sinusoidal model via the CRLB-Jeffrey's prior for unknown noisy events produced a miniature posterior Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) compare to a known noisy events.

Keywords: Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), Jeffrey's prior, Sinusoidal, Maximum A Posteriori (MAP), Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Periodograms.

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2 Rotation Invariant Fusion of Partial Image Parts in Vista Creation using Missing View Regeneration

Authors: H. B. Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade

Abstract:

The automatic construction of large, high-resolution image vistas (mosaics) is an active area of research in the fields of photogrammetry [1,2], computer vision [1,4], medical image processing [4], computer graphics [3] and biometrics [8]. Image stitching is one of the possible options to get image mosaics. Vista Creation in image processing is used to construct an image with a large field of view than that could be obtained with a single photograph. It refers to transforming and stitching multiple images into a new aggregate image without any visible seam or distortion in the overlapping areas. Vista creation process aligns two partial images over each other and blends them together. Image mosaics allow one to compensate for differences in viewing geometry. Thus they can be used to simplify tasks by simulating the condition in which the scene is viewed from a fixed position with single camera. While obtaining partial images the geometric anomalies like rotation, scaling are bound to happen. To nullify effect of rotation of partial images on process of vista creation, we are proposing rotation invariant vista creation algorithm in this paper. Rotation of partial image parts in the proposed method of vista creation may introduce some missing region in the vista. To correct this error, that is to fill the missing region further we have used image inpainting method on the created vista. This missing view regeneration method also overcomes the problem of missing view [31] in vista due to cropping, irregular boundaries of partial image parts and errors in digitization [35]. The method of missing view regeneration generates the missing view of vista using the information present in vista itself.

Keywords: Vista, Overlap Estimation, Rotation Invariance, Missing View Regeneration.

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1 Enhanced Disk-Based Databases Towards Improved Hybrid In-Memory Systems

Authors: Samuel Kaspi, Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

Abstract:

In-memory database systems are becoming popular due to the availability and affordability of sufficiently large RAM and processors in modern high-end servers with the capacity to manage large in-memory database transactions. While fast and reliable inmemory systems are still being developed to overcome cache misses, CPU/IO bottlenecks and distributed transaction costs, disk-based data stores still serve as the primary persistence. In addition, with the recent growth in multi-tenancy cloud applications and associated security concerns, many organisations consider the trade-offs and continue to require fast and reliable transaction processing of diskbased database systems as an available choice. For these organizations, the only way of increasing throughput is by improving the performance of disk-based concurrency control. This warrants a hybrid database system with the ability to selectively apply an enhanced disk-based data management within the context of inmemory systems that would help improve overall throughput. The general view is that in-memory systems substantially outperform disk-based systems. We question this assumption and examine how a modified variation of access invariance that we call enhanced memory access, (EMA) can be used to allow very high levels of concurrency in the pre-fetching of data in disk-based systems. We demonstrate how this prefetching in disk-based systems can yield close to in-memory performance, which paves the way for improved hybrid database systems. This paper proposes a novel EMA technique and presents a comparative study between disk-based EMA systems and in-memory systems running on hardware configurations of equivalent power in terms of the number of processors and their speeds. The results of the experiments conducted clearly substantiate that when used in conjunction with all concurrency control mechanisms, EMA can increase the throughput of disk-based systems to levels quite close to those achieved by in-memory system. The promising results of this work show that enhanced disk-based systems facilitate in improving hybrid data management within the broader context of in-memory systems.

Keywords: Concurrency control, disk-based databases, inmemory systems, enhanced memory access (EMA).

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