Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3036

Search results for: energy balance.

3036 Periodic Solutions for Some Strongly Nonlinear Oscillators by He's Energy Balance Method

Authors: Meng Hu, Lili Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, applying He-s energy balance method to determine frequency formulation relations of nonlinear oscillators with discontinuous term or fractional potential. By calculation and computer simulations, compared with the exact solutions show that the results obtained are of high accuracy.

Keywords: He's energy balance method, periodic solution, nonlinear oscillator, discontinuous, fractional potential.

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3035 Modeling Converters during the Warm-up Period for Hydrocarbon Oxidation

Authors: Sanchita Chauhan, V.K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Catalytic converters are used for minimizing the release of pollutants to the atmosphere. It is during the warm-up period that hydrocarbons are seen to be released in appreciable quantities from these converters. In this paper the conversion of a fast oxidizing hydrocarbon propylene is analysed using two numerical methods. The quasi steady state method assumes the accumulation terms to be negligible in the gas phase mass and energy balance equations, however this term is present in the solid phase energy balance. The unsteady state model accounts for the accumulation term to be present in the gas phase mass and energy balance and in the solid phase energy balance. The results derived from the two models for gas concentration, gas temperature and solid temperature are compared.

Keywords: Propylene, catalyst, quasi steady state, unsteady state.

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3034 Assessment of the Energy Balance Method in the Case of Masonry Domes

Authors: M. M. Sadeghi, S. Vahdani

Abstract:

Masonry dome structures had been widely used for covering large spans in the past. The seismic assessment of these historical structures is very complicated due to the nonlinear behavior of the material, their rigidness, and special stability configuration. The assessment method based on energy balance concept, as well as the standard pushover analysis, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods in the case of masonry dome structures. The Soltanieh dome building is used as an example to which two methods are applied. The performance points are given from superimposing the capacity, and demand curves in Acceleration Displacement Response Spectra (ADRS) and energy coordination are compared with the nonlinear time history analysis as the exact result. The results show a good agreement between the dynamic analysis and the energy balance method, but standard pushover method does not provide an acceptable estimation.

Keywords: Energy balance method, pushover analysis, time history analysis, masonry dome.

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3033 Developing the Methods for the Study of Static and Dynamic Balance

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, J. Ezarrugh, M. Agila

Abstract:

Static and dynamic balance are essential in daily and sports life. Many factors have been identified as influencing static balance control. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the (XCoM) method and other relevant variables (CoP, CoM, Fh, KE, P, Q, and, AI) to investigate sport related activities such as hopping and jumping. Many studies have represented the CoP data without mentioning its accuracy so several experiments were done to establish the agreement between the CoP and the projected CoM in a static condition. 5 healthy male were participated in this study (Mean ± SD:- age 24.6 years ±4.5, height 177cm ± 6.3, body mass 72.8kg ± 6.6).Results found that the implementation of the XCoM method was found to be practical for evaluating both static and dynamic balance. The general findings were that the CoP, the CoM, the XCoM, Fh, and Q were more informative than the other variables (e.g. KE, P, and AI) during static and dynamic balance. The XCoM method was found to be applicable to dynamic balance as well as static balance.

Keywords: Centre of Mass, static balance, Dynamic balance, extrapolated Centre of Mass

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3032 Active Power Filtering Implementation Using Photovoltaic System with Reduced Energy Storage Capacitor

Authors: Horng-Yuan Wu, Chin-Yuan Hsu, Tsair-Fwu Lee

Abstract:

A novel three-phase active power filter (APF) circuit with photovoltaic (PV) system to improve the quality of service and to reduce the capacity of energy storage capacitor is presented. The energy balance concept and sampling technique were used to simplify the calculation algorithm for the required utility source current and to control the voltage of the energy storage capacitor. The feasibility was verified by using the Pspice simulations and experiments. When the APF mode was used during non-operational period, not only the utilization rate, power factor and power quality could be improved, but also the capacity of energy storage capacitor could sparing. As the results, the advantages of the APF circuit are simplicity of control circuits, low cost, and good transient response.

Keywords: active power filter, sampling, energy-storagecapacitor, harmonic current, energy balance.

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3031 Bowen Ratio in Western São Paulo State, Brazil

Authors: Elaine C. Barboza, Antonio J. Machado

Abstract:

This paper discusses micrometeorological aspects of the urban climate in three cities in Western São Paulo State: Presidente Prudente, Assis and Iepê. Particular attention is paid to the method used to estimate the components of the energy balance at the surface. Estimates of convective fluxes showed that the Bowen ratio was an indicator of the local climate and that its magnitude varied between 0.3 and 0.7. Maximum values for the Bowen ratio occurred earlier in Iepê (11:00 am) than in Presidente Prudente (4:00 pm). The results indicate that the Bowen ratio is modulated by the radiation balance at the surface and by different clusters of vegetation.

Keywords: Bowen ratio, medium-sized cities, surface energy balance, urban climate.

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3030 Design and Research of a New Kind Balance Adjusting System of Centrifuge

Authors: Li Xinyao, Hong Jianzhong, Wu Wenkai

Abstract:

In order to make environmental test centrifuge balance automatically and accurately, reduce unbalance centrifugal force, balance adjusting system of centrifuge is designed. The new balance adjusting system comprises motor-reducer, timing belt, screw pair, slider-guideway and four rocker force sensors. According to information obtained by the four rocker force sensors, unbalanced value at both ends of the big arm is computed and heavy block is moved to achieve balance adjusting. In this paper, motor power and torque to move the heavy block is calculated. In full load running progress of centrifuge, the stress-strain of screw pair composed by adjusting nut and big arm are analyzed. A successful application of the balance adjusting system is also put forwarded. The results show that the balance adjusting system can satisfy balance require of environmental test centrifuge.

Keywords: balance adjusting system, centrifuge, screw pair, timing belt

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3029 The Effect of Static Balance Enhance by Table Tennis Training Intervening on Deaf Children

Authors: Yi-Chun Chang, Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho, Yueh-Tung Kuo

Abstract:

Children with hearing impairment have deficits of balance and motors. Although most of parents teach deaf children communication skills in early life, but rarely teach the deficits of balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether static balance improved after table tennis training. Table tennis training was provided four times a week for eight weeks to two 12-year-old deaf children. The table tennis training included crossover footwork, sideway attack, backhand block-sideways-flutter forehand attack, and one-on-one tight training. Data were gathered weekly and statistical comparisons were made with a paired t-test. We observed that the dominant leg is better than the non-dominant leg in static balance and girl balance ability is better than boy. The final result shows that table tennis training significantly improves the deaf children’s static balance performance. It indicates that table tennis training on deaf children helps the static balance ability.

Keywords: Deaf children, static balance, table tennis, vestibular structure.

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3028 Evaluating the Baseline Characteristics of Static Balance in Young Adults

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, K. Zarug

Abstract:

The objectives of this study (baseline study, n = 20) were to implement Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static  balance variables, establish baseline data of selected variables which characterize static balance activities in a population of healthy young adult males, and to examine any trial effects on these variables. The results indicated that the implementation of Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static balance variables was practical and enabled baseline data to be established for selected variables. There was no significant trial effect. Recommendations were made for suitable tests to be used in later studies. Specifically it was found that one foot-tiptoes tests either in static balance is too challenging for most participants in normal circumstances. A one foot-flat eyes open test was considered to be representative and challenging for static balance.

Keywords: Static Balance, Base of support, Baseline Data.

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3027 To Study the Parametric Effects on Optimality of Various Feeding Sequences of a Multieffect Evaporators in Paper Industry using Mathematical Modeling and Simulation with MATLAB

Authors: Deepak Kumar, Vivek Kumar, V. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper describes a steady state model of a multiple effect evaporator system for simulation and control purposes. The model includes overall as well as component mass balance equations, energy balance equations and heat transfer rate equations for area calculations for all the effects. Each effect in the process is represented by a number of variables which are related by the energy and material balance equations for the feed, product and vapor flow for backward, mixed and split feed. For simulation 'fsolve' solver in MATLAB source code is used. The optimality of three sequences i.e. backward, mixed and splitting feed is studied by varying the various input parameters.

Keywords: MATLAB "fsolve" solver, multiple effectevaporators, black liquor, feeding sequences.

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3026 Electroencephalography Activity during Sensory Organization Balance Test

Authors: Tariq Ali Gujar, Anita Hökelmann

Abstract:

Postural balance plays essential role throughout life in daily activities. Somatosensory, visual and vestibular inputs play the fundamental role in maintaining body equilibrium to balance the posture. The aim of this study was to find out electroencephalography (EEG) responses during balance activity of young people during Sensory Organization Balance Test. The outcome of this study will help to create the fitness and neurorehabilitation plan. 25 young people (25 ± 3.1 years) have been analyzed on Balance Master NeuroCom® with the coupling of Brain Vision 32 electrode wireless EEG system during the Sensory Organization Test. From the results it has been found that the balance score of samples is significantly higher under the influence of somatosensory input as compared to visual and vestibular input (p < 0.05). The EEG between somatosensory and visual input to balance the posture showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha and beta activities during somatosensory input in somatosensory, attention and visual functions of the cortex whereas executive and motor functions of the cerebral cortex showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha EEG activity during the visual input. The results suggest that somatosensory and attention function of the cerebral cortex has alpha and beta activity, respectively high during somatosensory and vestibular input in maintaining balance. In patients with balance impairments both physical and cognitive training, including neurofeedback will be helpful to improve balance abilities.

Keywords: Balance, electroencephalography activity, somatosensory, visual, vestibular.

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3025 Numerical Analysis of Wave and Hydrodynamic Models for Energy Balance and Primitive Equations

Authors: Worachat Wannawong, Usa W. Humphries, Prungchan Wongwises, Suphat Vongvisessomjai, Wiriya Lueangaram

Abstract:

A numerical analysis of wave and hydrodynamic models is used to investigate the influence of WAve and Storm Surge (WASS) in the regional and coastal zones. The numerical analyzed system consists of the WAve Model Cycle 4 (WAMC4) and the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) which used to solve the energy balance and primitive equations respectively. The results of both models presented the incorporated surface wave in the regional zone affected the coastal storm surge zone. Specifically, the results indicated that the WASS generally under the approximation is not only the peak surge but also the coastal water level drop which can also cause substantial impact on the coastal environment. The wave–induced surface stress affected the storm surge can significantly improve storm surge prediction. Finally, the calibration of wave module according to the minimum error of the significant wave height (Hs) is not necessarily result in the optimum wave module in the WASS analyzed system for the WASS prediction.

Keywords: energy balance equation, numerical analysis, primitiveequation, storm surge, wave.

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3024 Analysis of Normal Penetration of Ogive -Nose Projectiles into Thin Metallic Plates

Authors: M. H. Pol, A. Bidi, A.V. Hoseini, G.H. Liaghat

Abstract:

In this note, a theoretical model for analyzing of normal penetration of the ogive – nose projectile into metallic targets is presented .The failure is assumed to be asymmetry petalling and the analysis is performed by using the energy balance and work done .The work done consist of the work required for plastic deformation Wp, the work for transferring the matter to new position Wd and the work for bending of the petals Wb. In several studies, it has been shown that we can neglect the loss of energy by temperature. In this present study, in first, by assuming the crater formation after perforation, the value of work done is calculated during the normal penetration of conical projectiles into thin metallic targets. Then the value of residual velocity and ballistic limit of the projectile is predicated by using the energy balance. In final, theoretical and experimental results is compared.

Keywords: Ogive Projectile, normal impact, penetration, thinmetallic target.

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3023 Using Knowledge Management and Critical Thinking to Understand Thai Perceptions and Decisions towards Work-Life Balance in a Multinational Software Development Firm

Authors: N. Mantalay, N. Chakpitak, W. Janchai, P. Sureepong

Abstract:

Work-life balance has been acknowledged and promoted for the sake of employee retention. It is essential for a manager to realize the human resources situation within a company to help employees work happily and perform at their best. This paper suggests knowledge management and critical thinking are useful to motivate employees to think about their work-life balance. A qualitative case study is presented, which aimed to discover the meaning of work-life balance-s meaning from the perspective of Thai knowledge workers and how it affects their decision-making towards work resignation. Results found three types of work-life balance dimensions; a work- life balance including a workplace and a private life setting, an organizational working life balance only, and a worklife balance only in a private life setting. These aspects all influenced the decision-making of the employees. Factors within a theme of an organizational work-life balance were involved with systematic administration, fair treatment, employee recognition, challenging assignments to gain working experience, assignment engagement, teamwork, relationship with superiors, and working environment, while factors concerning private life settings were about personal demands such as an increasing their salary or starting their own business.

Keywords: knowledge management, work-life balance, knowledge workers, decision-making, critical thinking, diverse workforce

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3022 Feasibility of Integrating Heating Valve Drivers with KNX-standard for Performing Dynamic Hydraulic Balance in Domestic Buildings

Authors: Tobias Teich, Danny Szendrei, Markus Schrader, Franziska Jahn, Susan Franke

Abstract:

The increasing demand for sufficient and clean energy forces industrial and service companies to align their strategies towards efficient consumption. This trend refers also to the residential building sector. There, large amounts of energy consumption are caused by house and facility heating. Many of the operated hot water heating systems lack hydraulic balanced working conditions for heat distribution and –transmission and lead to inefficient heating. Through hydraulic balancing of heating systems, significant energy savings for primary and secondary energy can be achieved. This paper addresses the use of KNX-technology (Smart Buildings) in residential buildings to ensure a dynamic adaption of hydraulic system's performance, in order to increase the heating system's efficiency. In this paper, the procedure of heating system segmentation into hydraulically independent units (meshes) is presented. Within these meshes, the heating valve are addressed and controlled by a central facility server. Feasibility criteria towards such drivers will be named. The dynamic hydraulic balance is achieved by positioning these valves according to heating loads, that are generated from the temperature settings in the corresponding rooms. The energetic advantages of single room heating control procedures, based on the application FacilityManager, is presented.

Keywords: building automation, dynamic hydraulic balance, energy savings, VPN-networks.

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3021 Mathematical Model of Smoking Time Temperature Effect on Ribbed Smoked Sheets Quality

Authors: Rifah Ediati, Jajang

Abstract:

The quality of Ribbed Smoked Sheets (RSS) primarily based on color, dryness, and the presence or absence of fungus and bubbles. This quality is strongly influenced by the drying and fumigation process namely smoking process. Smoking that is held in high temperature long time will result scorched dark brown sheets, whereas if the temperature is too low or slow drying rate would resulted in less mature sheets and growth of fungus. Therefore need to find the time and temperature for optimum quality of sheets. Enhance, unmonitored heat and mass transfer during smoking process lead to high losses of energy balance. This research aims to generate simple empirical mathematical model describing the effect of smoking time and temperature to RSS quality of color, water content, fungus and bubbles. The second goal of study was to analyze energy balance during smoking process. Experimental study was conducted by measuring temperature, residence time and quality parameters of 16 sheets sample in smoking rooms. Data for energy consumption balance such as mass of fuel wood, mass of sheets being smoked, construction temperature, ambient temperature and relative humidity were taken directly along the smoking process. It was found that mathematical model correlating smoking temperature and time with color is Color = -169 - 0.184 T4 - 0.193 T3 - 0.160 0.405 T1 + T2 + 0.388 t1 +3.11 t2 + 3.92t3 + 0.215 t4 with R square 50.8% and with moisture is Moisture = -1.40-0.00123 T4 + 0.00032 T3 + 0.00260 T2 - 0.00292 T1 - 0.0105 t1 + 0.0290 t2 + 0.0452 t3 + 0.00061 t4 with R square of 49.9%. Smoking room energy analysis found useful energy was 27.8%. The energy stored in the material construction 7.3%. Lost of energy in conversion of wood combustion, ventilation and others were 16.6%. The energy flowed out through the contact of material construction with the ambient air was found to be the highest contribution to energy losses, it reached 48.3%.

Keywords: RSS quality, temperature, time, smoking room, energy

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3020 Anthropometric Correlates of Balance Performance in Non-Institutionalized Elderly

Authors: Okafor UAC, Ibeabuchimn, Omidina JO, Igwesi-Chidobe CN, Akinbo SRA

Abstract:

Purpose: The fear of falling is a major concern among the elderly. Sixty-five percent of individuals older than 60 years of age experience loss of balance often on a daily basis. Therefore, balance assessment in the elderly deserves special attention due to its importance in functional mobility and safety. This study aimed at assessing balance performance and comparing some anthropometric parameters among a Nigerian non-institutionalized elderly population.

Methods: Sixty one elderly subjects (31 males and 30 females) participated in this study. Their ages ranged between 62 and 84 years. Ability to maintain balance was assessed using Functional Reach Test (FRT) and Sharpened Romberg Test (SRT). Anthropometric data including age, weight, height, arm length, leg length, bi-acromial breadth, foot length and trunk length were also collected. Analysis was done using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Independent T-test, while level of significance was set as p<0.05.

Results: Age-related significant relationship was observed between balance performance and bi-acromial breadth among the elderly population. Gender and visual input also had a significant influence on balance performance. Other anthropometric variables (age, weight, height, arm length, leg length, foot length and trunk length) showed no significant relationship with balance performance among this elderly sample.

Conclusion: Only specific anthropometric variables may affect balance performances among the healthy elderly. The study further highlights the need for routine assessment of both static and dynamic balance to detect and appropriately manage aging-related diseases which could affect balance in the elderly.

Keywords: Balance Performance, Anthropometry, Non-institutionalized Elderly.

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3019 Investigation of Regenerative and Recuperative Burners for Different Sizes of Reheating Furnaces

Authors: Somkiat Tangjitsitcharoen, Suthas Ratanakuakangwan, Matchulika Khonmeak, Nattadate Fuangworawong

Abstract:

This research aims to analyze the regenerative burner and the recuperative burner for the different reheating furnaces in the steel industry. The warm air temperatures of the burners are determined to suit with the sizes of the reheating furnaces by considering the air temperature, the fuel cost and the investment cost. The calculations of the payback period and the net present value are studied to compare the burners for the different reheating furnaces. The energy balance is utilized to calculate and compare the energy used in the different sizes of reheating furnaces for each burner. It is found that the warm air temperature is different if the sizes of reheating furnaces are varied. Based on the considerations of the net present value and the payback period, the regenerative burner is suitable for all plants at the same life of the burner. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of all factors has been discussed in this research.

Keywords: Energy Balance, Recuperative Burner, Regenerative Burner, Reheating Furnace.

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3018 Energy Budget Equation of Superfluid HVBK Model: LES Simulation

Authors: M. Bakhtaoui, L. Merahi

Abstract:

The reliability of the filtered HVBK model is now investigated via some large eddy simulations (LES) of freely decaying isotropic superfluid turbulence. For homogeneous turbulence at very high Reynolds numbers, comparison of the terms in the spectral kinetic energy budget equation indicates, in the energy-containing range, that the production and energy transfer effects become significant except for dissipation. In the inertial range, where the two fluids are perfectly locked, the mutual friction maybe neglected with respect to other terms. Also, the LES results for the other terms of the energy balance are presented.

Keywords: Superfluid turbulence, HVBK, Energy budget, Large Eddy Simulation.

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3017 Diabetes Mellitus and Food Balance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aljabryn Dalal Hamad

Abstract:

The present explanatory study concerns with the relation between Diabetes Mellitus and Food Balance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010, using published data. Results illustrated that Saudi citizen daily protein consumption (DPC) during 2005-2007 (g/capita/day) is higher than the average global consumption level of protein with 15.27%, daily fat consumption (DFC) with 24.56% and daily energy consumption (DEC) with 16.93% and increases than recommended level by International Nutrition Organizations (INO) with 56% for protein, 60.49% for fat and 27.37% for energy. On the other hand, DPC per capita in Saudi Arabia decreased during the period 2008-2010 from 88.3 to 82.36 gram/ day. Moreover, DFC per capita in Saudi Arabia decreased during the period 2008-2010 from 3247.90 to 3176.43 Cal/capita/ day, and daily energy consumption (DEC) of Saudi citizen increases than world consumption with 16.93%, whereas increases with 27.37% than INO. Despite this, DPC, DFC and DEC per capita in Saudi Arabia still higher than world mean. On the other side, results illustrated that the number of diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia during the same period (2005-2010). The curve of diabetic patient’s number in Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010 is regular ascending with increasing level ranged between 7.10% in 2005 and 12.44% in 2010. It is essential to devise Saudi National programs to educate the public about the relation of food balances and diabetes so it could be avoided, and provide citizens with healthy dietary balances tables.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Food Balance, Energy, Fat, Protein, Saudi Arabia.

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3016 Similitude for Thermal Scale-up of a Multiphase Thermolysis Reactor in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production

Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman

Abstract:

The thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is considered as a sustainable and efficient technology for a hydrogen production, when linked with clean-energy systems such as nuclear reactors or solar thermal plants. In the Cu-Cl cycle, water is decomposed thermally into hydrogen and oxygen through a series of intermediate reactions. This paper investigates the thermal scale up analysis of the three phase oxygen production reactor in the Cu-Cl cycle, where the reaction is endothermic and the temperature is about 530 oC. The paper focuses on examining the size and number of oxygen reactors required to provide enough heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. The type of the multiphase reactor used in this paper is the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) that is heated by a half pipe jacket. The thermal resistance of each section in the jacketed reactor system is studied to examine its effect on the heat balance of the reactor. It is found that the dominant contribution to the system thermal resistance is from the reactor wall. In the analysis, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be driven by a nuclear reactor where two types of nuclear reactors are examined as the heat source to the oxygen reactor. These types are the CANDU Super Critical Water Reactor (CANDU-SCWR) and High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR). It is concluded that a better heat transfer rate has to be provided for CANDU-SCWR by 3-4 times than HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also examined in this paper and is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Finally, a comparison between the results of heat balance and existing results of mass balance is performed and is found that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.

Keywords: Clean energy, Cu-Cl cycle, heat transfer, sustainable energy.

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3015 Three Steps of One-way Nested Grid for Energy Balance Equations by Wave Model

Authors: Worachat Wannawong, Usa W. Humphries, Prungchan Wongwises, Suphat Vongvisessomjai

Abstract:

The three steps of the standard one-way nested grid for a regional scale of the third generation WAve Model Cycle 4 (WAMC4) is scrutinized. The model application is enabled to solve the energy balance equation on a coarse resolution grid in order to produce boundary conditions for a smaller area by the nested grid technique. In the present study, the model takes a full advantage of the fine resolution of wind fields in space and time produced by the available U.S. Navy Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) model with 1 degree resolution. The nested grid application of the model is developed in order to gradually increase the resolution from the open ocean towards the South China Sea (SCS) and the Gulf of Thailand (GoT) respectively. The model results were compared with buoy observations at Ko Chang, Rayong and Huahin locations which were obtained from the Seawatch project. In addition, the results were also compared with Satun based weather station which was provided from Department of Meteorology, Thailand. The data collected from this station presented the significant wave height (Hs) reached 12.85 m. The results indicated that the tendency of the Hs from the model in the spherical coordinate propagation with deep water condition in the fine grid domain agreed well with the Hs from the observations.

Keywords: energy balance equation, Gulf of Thailand, nested gridapplication, South China Sea, wave model.

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3014 Normalized Cumulative Spectral Distribution in Music

Authors: Young-Hwan Song, Hyung-Jun Kwon, Myung-Jin Bae

Abstract:

As the remedy used music becomes active and meditation effect through the music is verified, people take a growing interest about psychological balance or remedy given by music. From traditional studies, it is verified that the music of which spectral envelop varies approximately as 1/f (f is frequency) down to a frequency of low frequency bandwidth gives psychological balance. In this paper, we researched signal properties of music which gives psychological balance. In order to find this, we derived the property from voice. Music composed by voice shows large value in NCSD. We confirmed the degree of deference between music by curvature of normalized cumulative spectral distribution. In the music that gives psychological balance, the curvature shows high value, otherwise, the curvature shows low value.

Keywords: Cognitive Psychology, Normalized Cumulative Spectral Distribution, Curvature.

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3013 Performance Analysis of Energy-Efficient Home Femto Base Stations

Authors: Yun Won Chung

Abstract:

The energy consumption of home femto base stations (BSs) can be reduced, by turning off the Wi-Fi radio interface when there is no mobile station (MS) under the coverage of the BSs or MSs do not transmit or receive data packet for long time, especially in late night. In the energy-efficient home femto BSs, if MSs have any data packet to transmit and the Wi-Fi radio interface in off state, MSs wake up the Wi-Fi radio interface of home femto BSs by using additional low power radio interface. In this paper, the performance of the energy-efficient home femto BSs from the aspect of energy consumption and cumulative average delay, and show the effect of various parameters on energy consumption and cumulative average delay. From the results, the tradeoff relationship between energy consumption and cumulative average delay is shown and thus, appropriate operation should be needed to balance the tradeoff.

Keywords: energy consumption, power saving, femto base station.

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3012 Two Wheels Balancing Robot with Line Following Capability

Authors: Nor Maniha Abdul Ghani, Faradila Naim, Tan Piow Yon

Abstract:

This project focuses on the development of a line follower algorithm for a Two Wheels Balancing Robot. In this project, ATMEGA32 is chosen as the brain board controller to react towards the data received from Balance Processor Chip on the balance board to monitor the changes of the environment through two infra-red distance sensor to solve the inclination angle problem. Hence, the system will immediately restore to the set point (balance position) through the implementation of internal PID algorithms at the balance board. Application of infra-red light sensors with the PID control is vital, in order to develop a smooth line follower robot. As a result of combination between line follower program and internal self balancing algorithms, we are able to develop a dynamically stabilized balancing robot with line follower function.

Keywords: infra-red sensor, PID algorithms, line followerBalancing robot

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3011 Role of Sequestration of CO2 Due to the Carbonation in Total CO2 Emission Balance in Concrete Life

Authors: P. P. Woyciechowski

Abstract:

Calculation of the carbon footprint of cement concrete is a complex process including consideration of the phase of primary life (components and concrete production processes, transportation, construction works, maintenance of concrete structures) and secondary life, including demolition and recycling. Taking into consideration the effect of concrete carbonation can lead to a reduction in the calculated carbon footprint of concrete. In this paper, an example of CO2 balance for small bridge elements made of Portland cement reinforced concrete was done. The results include the effect of carbonation of concrete in a structure and of concrete rubble after demolition. It was shown that important impact of carbonation on the balance is possible only when rubble carbonation is possible. It was related to the fact that only the sequestration potential in the secondary phase of concrete life has significant value.

Keywords: Carbon footprint, balance of carbon dioxide in nature, concrete carbonation, the sequestration potential of concrete.

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3010 The Effects of Adding External Mass and Localised Fatigue upon Static and Dynamic Balance

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, S. Ali

Abstract:

The influence of physical (external added weight) and neurophysiological (fatigue) factors on static and dynamic balance in sport related activities was typified statically by the Romberg test (one foot flat, eyes open) and dynamically by jumping and hopping in both horizontal and vertical directions. Twenty healthy males were participated in this study. In Static condition, added weight increased body-s inertia and therefore decreased body sway in AP direction though not significantly. Dynamically, added weight significantly increased body sway in both ML and AP directions, indicating instability, and the use of the counter rotating segments mechanism to maintain balance was demonstrated. Fatigue on the other hand significantly increased body sway during static balance as a neurophysiological adaptation primarily to the inverted pendulum mechanism. Dynamically, fatigue significantly increased body sway in both ML and AP directions again indicating instability but with a greater use of counter rotating segments mechanism. Differential adaptations for each of the two balance mechanisms (inverted pendulum and counter rotating segments) were found between one foot flat and two feet flat dynamic conditions, as participants relied more heavily on the first in the one foot flat conditions and relied more on the second in the two feet flat conditions.

Keywords: Adding external mass, Dynamic balance, Localised fatigue, Static balance.

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3009 Nonlinear Evolution of Electron Density Under High-Energy-Density Conditions

Authors: Shi Chen, Zi Y. Chen, Jian K. Dan, Jian F. Li

Abstract:

Evolution of one-dimensional electron system under high-energy-density (HED) conditions is investigated, using the principle of least-action and variational method. In a single-mode modulation model, the amplitude and spatial wavelength of the modulation are chosen to be general coordinates. Equations of motion are derived by considering energy conservation and force balance. Numerical results show that under HED conditions, electron density modulation could exist. Time dependences of amplitude and wavelength are both positively related to the rate of energy input. Besides, initial loading speed has a significant effect on modulation amplitude, while wavelength relies more on loading duration.

Keywords: Electron density modulation, HED, nonlinearevolution, plasmas.

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3008 Using ANSYS to Realize a Semi-Analytical Method for Predicting Temperature Profile in Injection/Production Well

Authors: N. Tarom, M.M. Hossain

Abstract:

Determination of wellbore problems during a production/injection process might be evaluated thorough temperature log analysis. Other applications of this kind of log analysis may also include evaluation of fluid distribution analysis along the wellbore and identification of anomalies encountered during production/injection process. While the accuracy of such prediction is paramount, the common method of determination of a wellbore temperature log includes use of steady-state energy balance equations, which hardly describe the real conditions as observed in typical oil and gas flowing wells during production operation; and thus increase level of uncertainties. In this study, a practical method has been proposed through development of a simplified semianalytical model to apply for predicting temperature profile along the wellbore. The developed model includes an overall heat transfer coefficient accounting all modes of heat transferring mechanism, which has been focused on the prediction of a temperature profile as a function of depth for the injection/production wells. The model has been validated with the results obtained from numerical simulation.

Keywords: Energy balance equation, reservoir and well performance, temperature log, overall heat transfer coefficient.

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3007 Wireless Transmission of Big Data Using Novel Secure Algorithm

Authors: K. Thiagarajan, K. Saranya, A. Veeraiah, B. Sudha

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm for secure, reliable and flexible transmission of big data in two hop wireless networks using cooperative jamming scheme. Two hop wireless networks consist of source, relay and destination nodes. Big data has to transmit from source to relay and from relay to destination by deploying security in physical layer. Cooperative jamming scheme determines transmission of big data in more secure manner by protecting it from eavesdroppers and malicious nodes of unknown location. The novel algorithm that ensures secure and energy balance transmission of big data, includes selection of data transmitting region, segmenting the selected region, determining probability ratio for each node (capture node, non-capture and eavesdropper node) in every segment, evaluating the probability using binary based evaluation. If it is secure transmission resume with the two- hop transmission of big data, otherwise prevent the attackers by cooperative jamming scheme and transmit the data in two-hop transmission.

Keywords: Big data, cooperative jamming, energy balance, physical layer, two-hop transmission, wireless security.

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