Search results for: Robot Motion Planning.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1964

Search results for: Robot Motion Planning.

1964 Motion Planning of SCARA Robots for Trajectory Tracking

Authors: Giovanni Incerti

Abstract:

The paper presents a method for a simple and immediate motion planning of a SCARA robot, whose end-effector has to move along a given trajectory; the calculation procedure requires the user to define in analytical form or by points the trajectory to be followed and to assign the curvilinear abscissa as function of the time. On the basis of the geometrical characteristics of the robot, a specifically developed program determines the motion laws of the actuators that enable the robot to generate the required movement; this software can be used in all industrial applications for which a SCARA robot has to be frequently reprogrammed, in order to generate various types of trajectories with different motion times.

Keywords: Motion planning, SCARA robot, trajectory tracking.

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1963 Sensor-Based Motion Planning for a Car-like Robot Based On Bug Family Algorithms

Authors: Dong-Hyung Kim, Ji Yeong Lee, Chang-Soo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a sensor-based motion planning algorithm for 3-DOF car-like robots with a nonholonomic constraint. Similar to the classic Bug family algorithms, the proposed algorithm enables the car-like robot to navigate in a completely unknown environment using only the range sensor information. The car-like robot uses the local range sensor view to determine the local path so that it moves towards the goal. To guarantee that the robot can approach the goal, the two modes of motion are repeated, termed motion-to-goal and wall-following. The motion-to-goal behavior lets the robot directly move toward the goal, and the wall-following behavior makes the robot circumnavigate the obstacle boundary until it meets the leaving condition. For each behavior, the nonholonomic motion for the car-like robot is planned in terms of the instantaneous turning radius. The proposed algorithm is implemented to the real robot and the experimental results show the performance of proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Motion planning, car-like robot, bug algorithm, autonomous motion planning, nonholonomic constraint.

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1962 Hybrid Gravity Gradient Inversion-Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Motion Planning of Mobile Robots

Authors: Meng Wu

Abstract:

Motion planning is a common task required to be fulfilled by robots. A strategy combining Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and gravity gradient inversion algorithm is proposed for motion planning of mobile robots. In this paper, in order to realize optimal motion planning strategy, the cost function in ACO is designed based on gravity gradient inversion algorithm. The obstacles around mobile robot can cause gravity gradient anomalies; the gradiometer is installed on the mobile robot to detect the gravity gradient anomalies. After obtaining the anomalies, gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed to calculate relative distance and orientation between mobile robot and obstacles. The relative distance and orientation deduced from gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed as cost function in ACO algorithm to realize motion planning. The proposed strategy is validated by the simulation and experiment results.

Keywords: Motion planning, gravity gradient inversion algorithm, ant colony optimization.

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1961 Study on Robot Trajectory Planning by Robot End-Effector Using Dual Curvature Theory of the Ruled Surface

Authors: Y. S. Oh, P. Abhishesh, B. S. Ryuh

Abstract:

This paper presents the method of trajectory planning by the robot end-effector which accounts for more accurate and smooth differential geometry of the ruled surface generated by tool line fixed with end-effector based on the methods of curvature theory of ruled surface and the dual curvature theory, and focuses on the underlying relation to unite them for enhancing the efficiency for trajectory planning. Robot motion can be represented as motion properties of the ruled surface generated by trajectory of the Tool Center Point (TCP). The linear and angular properties of the six degree-of-freedom motion of end-effector are computed using the explicit formulas and functions from curvature theory and dual curvature theory. This paper explains the complete dualization of ruled surface and shows that the linear and angular motion applied using the method of dual curvature theory is more accurate and less complex.

Keywords: Dual curvature theory, robot end effector, ruled surface, TCP, tool center point.

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1960 Classic and Heuristic Approaches in Robot Motion Planning A Chronological Review

Authors: Ellips Masehian, Davoud Sedighizadeh

Abstract:

This paper reviews the major contributions to the Motion Planning (MP) field throughout a 35-year period, from classic approaches to heuristic algorithms. Due to the NP-Hardness of the MP problem, heuristic methods have outperformed the classic approaches and have gained wide popularity. After surveying around 1400 papers in the field, the amount of existing works for each method is identified and classified. Especially, the history and applications of numerous heuristic methods in MP is investigated. The paper concludes with comparative tables and graphs demonstrating the frequency of each MP method's application, and so can be used as a guideline for MP researchers.

Keywords: Robot motion planning, Heuristic algorithms.

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1959 Adaptive Path Planning for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance

Authors: Rong-Jong Wai, Chia-Ming Liu

Abstract:

Generally speaking, the mobile robot is capable of sensing its surrounding environment, interpreting the sensed information to obtain the knowledge of its location and the environment, planning a real-time trajectory to reach the object. In this process, the issue of obstacle avoidance is a fundamental topic to be challenged. Thus, an adaptive path-planning control scheme is designed without detailed environmental information, large memory size and heavy computation burden in this study for the obstacle avoidance of a mobile robot. In this scheme, the robot can gradually approach its object according to the motion tracking mode, obstacle avoidance mode, self-rotation mode, and robot state selection. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive path-planning control scheme is verified by numerical simulations of a differential-driving mobile robot under the possible occurrence of obstacle shapes.

Keywords: Adaptive Path Planning, Mobile Robot ObstacleAvoidance

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1958 Robot Task-Level Programming Language and Simulation

Authors: M. Samaka

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a software application for Off-line robot task programming and simulation. Such application is designed to assist in robot task planning and to direct manipulator motion on sensor based programmed motion. The concept of the designed programming application is to use the power of the knowledge base for task accumulation. In support of the programming means, an interactive graphical simulation for manipulator kinematics was also developed and integrated into the application as the complimentary factor to the robot programming media. The simulation provides the designer with useful, inexpensive, off-line tools for retain and testing robotics work cells and automated assembly lines for various industrial applications.

Keywords: Robot programming, task-level programming, robot languages, robot simulation, robotics software.

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1957 Trajectory Planning Design Equations and Control of a 4 - axes Stationary Robotic Arm

Authors: T.C. Manjunath,

Abstract:

This paper features the trajectory planning design of a indigenously developed 4-Axis SCARA robot which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in the laboratory. Once, a trajectory is being designed and given as input to the robot, the robot's gripper tip moves along that specified trajectory. Trajectories have to be designed in the work space only. The main idea of this paper is to design a continuous path trajectory model for the indigenously developed SCARA robot arm during its maneuvering from one point to another point (during pick and place operations) in a workspace avoiding all the obstacles in its path of motion.

Keywords: SCARA, Trajectory, Planning.

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1956 Wrap-around View Equipped on Mobile Robot

Authors: Sun Lim, Sewoong Jun, Il-Kyun Jung

Abstract:

This paper presents a wrap-around view system with 4 smart cameras module and remote motion mobile robot control equipped with smart camera module system. The two-level scheme for remote motion control with smart-pad(IPAD) is introduced on this paper. In the low-level, the wrap-around view system is controlled or operated to keep the reference points lying around top view image plane. On the higher level, a robot image based motion controller is utilized to drive the mobile platform to reach the desired position or track the desired motion planning through image feature feedback. The design wrap-around view system equipped on presents such advantages as follows: 1) a satisfactory solution for the FOV and affine problem; 2) free of any complex and constraint with robot pose. The performance of the wrap-around view equipped on mobile robot remote control is proven by experimental results.

Keywords: four smart camera, wrap-around view, remote mobile robot control

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1955 Energy Management Techniques in Mobile Robots

Authors: G. Gurguze, I. Turkoglu

Abstract:

Today, the developing features of technological tools with limited energy resources have made it necessary to use energy efficiently. Energy management techniques have emerged for this purpose. As with every field, energy management is vital for robots that are being used in many areas from industry to daily life and that are thought to take up more spaces in the future. Particularly, effective power management in autonomous and multi robots, which are getting more complicated and increasing day by day, will improve the performance and success. In this study, robot management algorithms, usage of renewable and hybrid energy sources, robot motion patterns, robot designs, sharing strategies of workloads in multiple robots, road and mission planning algorithms are discussed for efficient use of energy resources by mobile robots. These techniques have been evaluated in terms of efficient use of existing energy resources and energy management in robots.

Keywords: Energy management, mobile robot, robot administration, robot management, robot planning.

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1954 Motion Planning and Control of Autonomous Robots in a Two-dimensional Plane

Authors: Avinesh Prasad, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

This paper proposes a solution to the motion planning and control problem of a point-mass robot which is required to move safely to a designated target in a priori known workspace cluttered with fixed elliptical obstacles of arbitrary position and sizes. A tailored and unique algorithm for target convergence and obstacle avoidance is proposed that will work for any number of fixed obstacles. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensures that the equilibrium point of the given system is asymptotically stable. Computer simulations with the proposed technique and applications to a planar (RP) manipulator will be presented.

Keywords: Point-mass Robot, Asymptotic stability, Motionplanning, Planar Robot Arm.

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1953 Modeling and Simulation of Motion of an Underwater Robot Glider for Shallow-water Ocean Applications

Authors: Chen Wang, Amir Anvar

Abstract:

This paper describes the modeling and simulation of an underwater robot glider used in the shallow-water environment. We followed the Equations of motion derived by [2] and simplified dynamic Equations of motion of an underwater glider according to our underwater glider. A simulation code is built and operated in the MATLAB Simulink environment so that we can make improvements to our testing glider design. It may be also used to validate a robot glider design.

Keywords: AUV, underwater glider, robot, modeling, simulation.

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1952 Motion Capture Based Wizard of Oz Technique for Humanoid Robot

Authors: Rafal Stegierski, Krzysztof Dmitruk

Abstract:

The paper focus on robotic telepresence system build around humanoid robot operated with controller-less Wizard of Oz technique. Proposed solution gives possibility to quick start acting as a operator with short, if any, initial training.

Keywords: Robotics, Motion Capture, Wizard of Oz, Humanoid Robots, Human Robot Interaction.

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1951 Neural Network Controller for Mobile Robot Motion Control

Authors: Jasmin Velagic, Nedim Osmic, Bakir Lacevic

Abstract:

In this paper the neural network-based controller is designed for motion control of a mobile robot. This paper treats the problems of trajectory following and posture stabilization of the mobile robot with nonholonomic constraints. For this purpose the recurrent neural network with one hidden layer is used. It learns relationship between linear velocities and error positions of the mobile robot. This neural network is trained on-line using the backpropagation optimization algorithm with an adaptive learning rate. The optimization algorithm is performed at each sample time to compute the optimal control inputs. The performance of the proposed system is investigated using a kinematic model of the mobile robot.

Keywords: Mobile robot, kinematic model, neural network, motion control, adaptive learning rate.

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1950 Geometric Data Structures and Their Selected Applications

Authors: Miloš Šeda

Abstract:

Finding the shortest path between two positions is a fundamental problem in transportation, routing, and communications applications. In robot motion planning, the robot should pass around the obstacles touching none of them, i.e. the goal is to find a collision-free path from a starting to a target position. This task has many specific formulations depending on the shape of obstacles, allowable directions of movements, knowledge of the scene, etc. Research of path planning has yielded many fundamentally different approaches to its solution, mainly based on various decomposition and roadmap methods. In this paper, we show a possible use of visibility graphs in point-to-point motion planning in the Euclidean plane and an alternative approach using Voronoi diagrams that decreases the probability of collisions with obstacles. The second application area, investigated here, is focused on problems of finding minimal networks connecting a set of given points in the plane using either only straight connections between pairs of points (minimum spanning tree) or allowing the addition of auxiliary points to the set to obtain shorter spanning networks (minimum Steiner tree).

Keywords: motion planning, spanning tree, Steiner tree, Delaunay triangulation, Voronoi diagram.

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1949 Dynamic Analyze of Snake Robot

Authors: Seif Dalilsafaei

Abstract:

Crawling movement as a motive mode seen in nature of some animals such as snakes possesses a specific syntactic and dynamic analysis. Serpentine robot designed by inspiration from nature and snake-s crawling motion, is regarded as a crawling robot. In this paper, a serpentine robot with spiral motion model will be analyzed. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the vertical and tangential forces along snake-s body and to determine the parameters affecting on these forces. Two types of serpentine robots have been designed in order to examine the achieved relations explained below.

Keywords: Force, Dynamic analyze, Joint and Snake robot.

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1948 Path Planning of a Robot Manipulator using Retrieval RRT Strategy

Authors: K. Oh, J. P. Hwang, E. Kim, H. Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm which extends the rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT) framework to deal with change of the task environments. This algorithm called the Retrieval RRT Strategy (RRS) combines a support vector machine (SVM) and RRT and plans the robot motion in the presence of the change of the surrounding environment. This algorithm consists of two levels. At the first level, the SVM is built and selects a proper path from the bank of RRTs for a given environment. At the second level, a real path is planned by the RRT planners for the given environment. The suggested method is applied to the control of KUKA™,, a commercial 6 DOF robot manipulator, and its feasibility and efficiency are demonstrated via the cosimulatation of MatLab™, and RecurDyn™,.

Keywords: Path planning, RRT, 6 DOF manipulator, SVM.

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1947 Research and Development of a Biomorphic Robot Driven by Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Y.J. Lai, H.Y. Peng, M.W. Wu, J. Shaw

Abstract:

In this study, we used shape memory alloys as actuators to build a biomorphic robot which can imitate the motion of an earthworm. The robot can be used to explore in a narrow space. Therefore we chose shape memory alloys as actuators. Because of the small deformation of a wire shape memory alloy, spiral shape memory alloys are selected and installed both on the X axis and Y axis (each axis having two shape memory alloys) to enable the biomorphic robot to do reciprocating motion. By the mechanism we designed, the robot can increase the distance as it moves in a duty cycle. In addition, two shape memory alloys are added to the robot head for controlling right and left turns. By sending pulses through the I/O card from the controller, the signals are then amplified by a driver to heat the shape memory alloys in order to make the SMA shrink to pull the mechanism to move.

Keywords: Biomorphic Robot, Shape Memory Alloy.

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1946 Adaptive Motion Planning for 6-DOF Robots Based on Trigonometric Functions

Authors: Jincan Li, Mingyu Gao, Zhiwei He, Yuxiang Yang, Zhongfei Yu, Yuanyuan Liu

Abstract:

Building an appropriate motion model is crucial for trajectory planning of robots and determines the operational quality directly. An adaptive acceleration and deceleration motion planning based on trigonometric functions for the end-effector of 6-DOF robots in Cartesian coordinate system is proposed in this paper. This method not only achieves the smooth translation motion and rotation motion by constructing a continuous jerk model, but also automatically adjusts the parameters of trigonometric functions according to the variable inputs and the kinematic constraints. The results of computer simulation show that this method is correct and effective to achieve the adaptive motion planning for linear trajectories.

Keywords: 6-DOF robots, motion planning, trigonometric function, kinematic constraints

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1945 Motion Control of a Ball Throwing Robot with a Flexible Robotic Arm

Authors: Yizhi Gai, Yukinori Kobayashi, Yohei Hoshino, Takanori Emaru

Abstract:

Motion control of flexible arms is more difficult than that of rigid arms, however utilizing its dynamics enables improved performance such as a fast motion in short operation time. This paper investigates a ball throwing robot with one rigid link and one flexible link. This robot throws a ball at a set speed with a proper control torque. A mathematical model of this ball throwing robot is derived through Hamilton’s principle. Several patterns of torque input are designed and tested through the proposed simulation models. The parameters of each torque input pattern is optimized and determined by chaos embedded vector evaluated particle swarm optimization (CEVEPSO). Then, the residual vibration of the manipulator after throwing is suppressed with input shaping technique. Finally, a real experiment is set up for the model checking.

Keywords: Motion control, flexible robotic arm, CEVEPSO, ball throwing robot.

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1944 Design of an Artificial Intelligence Based Automatic Task Planner or a Robotic System

Authors: T. C. Manjunath, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper deals with the design and the implementation of an automatic task planner for a robot, irrespective of whether it is a stationary robot or a mobile robot. The aim of the task planner nothing but, they are planning systems which are used to plan a particular task and do the robotic manipulation. This planning system is embedded into the system software in the computer, which is interfaced to the computer. When the instructions are given using the computer, this is transformed into real time application using the robot. All the AI based algorithms are written and saved in the control software, which acts as the intelligent task planning system.

Keywords: AI, Robot, Task Planner, RT, Algorithm, Specs, Controller.

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1943 Design and Motion Control of a Two-Wheel Inverted Pendulum Robot

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Su-Shean Chen, Sheam-Chyun Lin

Abstract:

Two-wheel inverted pendulum robot (TWIPR) is designed with two-hub DC motors for human riding and motion control evaluation. In order to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum robot, accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are chosen. The mobile robot’s moving position and velocity were estimated based on DC motor built in hall sensors. The control kernel of this electric mobile robot is designed with embedded Arduino Nano microprocessor. A handle bar was designed to work as steering mechanism. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm for this mobile robot motion monitoring with different control purpose adjustment. The intelligent controllers were designed for balance control, and moving speed control purposes of this robot under different operation conditions and the control performance were evaluated based on experimental results.

Keywords: Balance control, speed control, intelligent controller and two wheel inverted pendulum.

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1942 Application of Wireless Visual Sensor for Semi- Autonomous Mine Navigation System

Authors: Vinay Kumar Pilania, Debashish Chakravarty

Abstract:

The present paper represent the efforts undertaken for the development of an semi-automatic robot that may be used for various post-disaster rescue operation planning and their subsequent execution using one-way communication of video and data from the robot to the controller and controller to the robot respectively. Wireless communication has been used for the purpose so that the robot may access the unapproachable places easily without any difficulties. It is expected that the information obtained from the robot would be of definite help to the rescue team for better planning and execution of their operations.

Keywords: Mine environment, mine navigation, mine rescue robot, video data transmission.

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1941 Robot Path Planning in 3D Space Using Binary Integer Programming

Authors: Ellips Masehian, Golnaz Habibi

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm for path planning of mobile robots in known 3D environments using Binary Integer Programming (BIP). In this approach the problem of path planning is formulated as a BIP with variables taken from 3D Delaunay Triangulation of the Free Configuration Space and solved to obtain an optimal channel made of connected tetrahedrons. The 3D channel is then partitioned into convex fragments which are used to build safe and short paths within from Start to Goal. The algorithm is simple, complete, does not suffer from local minima, and is applicable to different workspaces with convex and concave polyhedral obstacles. The noticeable feature of this algorithm is that it is simply extendable to n-D Configuration spaces.

Keywords: 3D C-space, Binary Integer Programming (BIP), Delaunay Tessellation, Robot Motion Planning.

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1940 A Cognitive Robot Collaborative Reinforcement Learning Algorithm

Authors: Amit Gil, Helman Stern, Yael Edan

Abstract:

A cognitive collaborative reinforcement learning algorithm (CCRL) that incorporates an advisor into the learning process is developed to improve supervised learning. An autonomous learner is enabled with a self awareness cognitive skill to decide when to solicit instructions from the advisor. The learner can also assess the value of advice, and accept or reject it. The method is evaluated for robotic motion planning using simulation. Tests are conducted for advisors with skill levels from expert to novice. The CCRL algorithm and a combined method integrating its logic with Clouse-s Introspection Approach, outperformed a base-line fully autonomous learner, and demonstrated robust performance when dealing with various advisor skill levels, learning to accept advice received from an expert, while rejecting that of less skilled collaborators. Although the CCRL algorithm is based on RL, it fits other machine learning methods, since advisor-s actions are only added to the outer layer.

Keywords: Robot learning, human-robot collaboration, motion planning, reinforcement learning.

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1939 Design and Trajectory Planning of Bipedal Walking Robot with Minimum Sufficient Actuation System

Authors: H. Siswoyo Jo, N. Mir-Nasiri, E. Jayamani

Abstract:

This paper presents a new type of mechanism and trajectory planning strategy for bipedal walking robot. The newly designed mechanism is able to improve the performance of bipedal walking robot in terms of energy efficiency and weight reduction by utilizing minimum number of actuators. The usage of parallelogram mechanism eliminates the needs of having an extra actuator at the knee joint. This mechanism works together with the joint space trajectory planning in order to realize straight legged walking which cannot be achieved by conventional inverse kinematics trajectory planning due to the singularity. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is confirmed by computer simulation results.

Keywords: Bipedal robot, Energy efficiency, Straight legged walking, Trajectory planning.

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1938 Coupling Compensation of 6-DOF Parallel Robot Based on Screw Theory

Authors: Ming Cong, Yinghua Wu, Dong Liu, Haiying Wen, Junfa Yu

Abstract:

In order to improve control performance and eliminate steady, a coupling compensation for 6-DOF parallel robot is presented. Taking dynamic load Tank Simulator as the research object, this paper analyzes the coupling of 6-DOC parallel robot considering the degree of freedom of the 6-DOF parallel manipulator. The coupling angle and coupling velocity are derived based on inverse kinematics model. It uses the mechanism-model combined method which takes practical moving track that considering the performance of motion controller and motor as its input to make the study. Experimental results show that the coupling compensation improves motion stability as well as accuracy. Besides, it decreases the dither amplitude of dynamic load Tank Simulator.

Keywords: coupling compensation, screw theory, parallel robot, mechanism-model combined motion

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1937 An Example of Open Robot Controller Architecture - For Power Distribution Line Maintenance Robot System -

Authors: Yingxin He, Kyouichi Tatsuno

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an architecture for easily constructing a robot controller. The architecture is a multi-agent system which has eight agents: the Man-machine interface, Task planner, Task teaching editor, Motion planner, Arm controller, Vehicle controller, Vision system and CG display. The controller has three databases: the Task knowledge database, the Robot database and the Environment database. Based on this controller architecture, we are constructing an experimental power distribution line maintenance robot system and are doing the experiment for the maintenance tasks, for example, “Bolt insertion task".

Keywords: Robot controller, Software library, Maintenance robot, Robot language, Agent system.

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1936 Robot Cell Planning

Authors: Allan Tubaileh, Ibrahim Hammad, Loay Al Kafafi

Abstract:

A new approach to determine the machine layout in flexible manufacturing cell, and to find the feasible robot configuration of the robot to achieve minimum cycle time is presented in this paper. The location of the input/output location and the optimal robot configuration is obtained for all sequences of work tasks of the robot within a specified period of time. A more realistic approach has been presented to model the problem using the robot joint space. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem and solved using Sequential Quadratic Programming algorithm.

Keywords: Robotics, Layout.

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1935 Robot Motion Planning in Dynamic Environments with Moving Obstacles and Target

Authors: Ellips Masehian, Yalda Katebi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new sensor-based online method for generating collision-free near-optimal paths for mobile robots pursuing a moving target amidst dynamic and static obstacles. At each iteration, first the set of all collision-free directions are calculated using velocity vectors of the robot relative to each obstacle and target, forming the Directive Circle (DC), which is a novel concept. Then, a direction close to the shortest path to the target is selected from feasible directions in DC. The DC prevents the robot from being trapped in deadlocks or local minima. It is assumed that the target's velocity is known, while the speeds of dynamic obstacles, as well as the locations of static obstacles, are to be calculated online. Extensive simulations and experimental results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed method and its success in coping with complex environments and obstacles.

Keywords: Dynamic Environment, Moving Target, RobotMotion Planning.

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