Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Delaunay triangulation

51 Optimal Algorithm for Constructing the Delaunay Triangulation in Ed

Authors: V. Tereshchenko, D. Taran

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a new approach to constructing the Delaunay Triangulation and the optimum algorithm for the case of multidimensional spaces (d ≥ 2). Analysing the modern state, it is possible to draw a conclusion, that the ideas for the existing effective algorithms developed for the case of d ≥ 2 are not simple to generalize on a multidimensional case, without the loss of efficiency. We offer for the solving this problem an effective algorithm that satisfies all the given requirements. But theoretical complexity of the problem it is impossible to improve as the Worst - Case Optimality for algorithms of solving such a problem is proved.

Keywords: Delaunay triangulation, multidimensional space, Voronoi Diagram, optimal algorithm.

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50 Performance Evaluation of Parallel Surface Modeling and Generation on Actual and Virtual Multicore Systems

Authors: Nyeng P. Gyang

Abstract:

Even though past, current and future trends suggest that multicore and cloud computing systems are increasingly prevalent/ubiquitous, this class of parallel systems is nonetheless underutilized, in general, and barely used for research on employing parallel Delaunay triangulation for parallel surface modeling and generation, in particular. The performances, of actual/physical and virtual/cloud multicore systems/machines, at executing various algorithms, which implement various parallelization strategies of the incremental insertion technique of the Delaunay triangulation algorithm, were evaluated. T-tests were run on the data collected, in order to determine whether various performance metrics differences (including execution time, speedup and efficiency) were statistically significant. Results show that the actual machine is approximately twice faster than the virtual machine at executing the same programs for the various parallelization strategies. Results, which furnish the scalability behaviors of the various parallelization strategies, also show that some of the differences between the performances of these systems, during different runs of the algorithms on the systems, were statistically significant. A few pseudo superlinear speedup results, which were computed from the raw data collected, are not true superlinear speedup values. These pseudo superlinear speedup values, which arise as a result of one way of computing speedups, disappear and give way to asymmetric speedups, which are the accurate kind of speedups that occur in the experiments performed.

Keywords: Cloud computing systems, multicore systems, parallel delaunay triangulation, parallel surface modeling and generation.

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49 Robot Path Planning in 3D Space Using Binary Integer Programming

Authors: Ellips Masehian, Golnaz Habibi

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm for path planning of mobile robots in known 3D environments using Binary Integer Programming (BIP). In this approach the problem of path planning is formulated as a BIP with variables taken from 3D Delaunay Triangulation of the Free Configuration Space and solved to obtain an optimal channel made of connected tetrahedrons. The 3D channel is then partitioned into convex fragments which are used to build safe and short paths within from Start to Goal. The algorithm is simple, complete, does not suffer from local minima, and is applicable to different workspaces with convex and concave polyhedral obstacles. The noticeable feature of this algorithm is that it is simply extendable to n-D Configuration spaces.

Keywords: 3D C-space, Binary Integer Programming (BIP), Delaunay Tessellation, Robot Motion Planning.

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48 Development of Improved Three Dimensional Unstructured Tetrahedral Mesh Generator

Authors: Ng Yee Luon, Mohd Zamri Yusoff, Norshah Hafeez Shuaib

Abstract:

Meshing is the process of discretizing problem domain into many sub domains before the numerical calculation can be performed. One of the most popular meshes among many types of meshes is tetrahedral mesh, due to their flexibility to fit into almost any domain shape. In both 2D and 3D domains, triangular and tetrahedral meshes can be generated by using Delaunay triangulation. The quality of mesh is an important factor in performing any Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations as the results is highly affected by the mesh quality. Many efforts had been done in order to improve the quality of the mesh. The paper describes a mesh generation routine which has been developed capable of generating high quality tetrahedral cells in arbitrary complex geometry. A few test cases in CFD problems are used for testing the mesh generator. The result of the mesh is compared with the one generated by a commercial software. The results show that no sliver exists for the meshes generated, and the overall quality is acceptable since the percentage of the bad tetrahedral is relatively small. The boundary recovery was also successfully done where all the missing faces are rebuilt.

Keywords: Mesh generation, tetrahedral, CFD, Delaunay.

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47 Coverage Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Nor Azlina Ab. Aziz, Kamarulzaman Ab. Aziz, Wan Zakiah Wan Ismail

Abstract:

Coverage is one of the main research interests in wireless sensor networks (WSN), it is used to determine the quality of service (QoS) of the networks. Therefore this paper aims to review the common strategies use in solving coverage problem in WSN. The strategies studied are used during deployment phase where the coverage is calculated based on the placement of the sensors on the region of interest (ROI). The strategies reviewed are categorized into three groups based on the approaches used, namely; force based, grid based or computational geometry based approach.

Keywords: Computational geometry, coverage, Delaunay triangulation, force, grid, Voronoi diagram, wireless sensor networks.

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46 Applying Bowen’s Theory to Intern Supervision

Authors: Jeff A. Tysinger, Dawn P. Tysinger

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to theoretically apply Bowen’s understanding of triangulation and triads to school psychology intern supervision so that it can assist in the conceptualization of the dynamics of intern supervision and provide some key methods to address common issues. The school psychology internship is the capstone experience for the school psychologist in training. It involves three key participants whose relationships will determine the success of the internship.  To understand the potential effect, Bowen’s family systems theory can be applied to the supervision relationship. He describes a way to resolve stress between two people by triangulating or binging in a third person. He applies this to a nuclear family, but school psychology intern supervision requires the marriage of an intern, field supervisor, and university supervisor; thus, setting all up for possible triangulation. The consequences of triangulation can apply to standards and requirements, direct supervision, and intern evaluation. Strategies from family systems theory to decrease the negative impact of supervision triangulation.

Keywords: Family systems theory, intern supervision, triangulation, school psychology.

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45 Research on the Layout of Ground Control Points in Plain area 1:10000 DLG Production Using POS Technique

Authors: Dong Ming, Chen Haipeng

Abstract:

POS (also been called DGPS/IMU) technique can obtain the Exterior Orientation Elements of aerial photo, so the triangulation and DLG production using POS can save large numbers of ground control points (GCP), and this will improve the produce efficiency of DLG and reduce the cost of collecting GCP. This paper mainly research on POS technique in production of 1:10 000 scale DLG on GCP distribution. We designed 23 kinds of ground control points distribution schemes, using integrated sensor direction method to do the triangulation experiments, based on the results of triangulation, we produce a map with the scale of 1:10 000 and test its accuracy. This paper put forward appropriate GCP distributing schemes by experiments and research above, and made preparations for the application of POS technique on photogrammetry 4D data production.

Keywords: POS, IMU, DGPS, DLG, ground control point, triangulation

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44 Survey on Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Swapnil Singh, Sanjoy Das

Abstract:

Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a network without infrastructure dynamically formed by autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless links. Mobile nodes communicate with each other on the fly. In this network each node also acts as a router. The battery power and the bandwidth are very scarce resources in this network. The network lifetime and connectivity of nodes depend on battery power. Therefore, energy is a valuable constraint which should be efficiently used. In this paper we survey various energy efficient routing protocols. The energy efficient routing protocols are classified on the basis of approaches they use to minimize the energy consumption. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research work and combine the existing solution and to develop a more energy efficient routing mechanism.

Keywords: Delaunay Triangulation, deployment, energy efficiency, MANET.

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43 A New Vision of Fractal Geometry with Triangulati on Algorithm

Authors: Yasser M. Abd El-Latif, Fatma S.Abousaleh, Daoud S. S.

Abstract:

L-system is a tool commonly used for modeling and simulating the growth of fractal plants. The aim of this paper is to join some problems of the computational geometry with the fractal geometry by using the L-system technique to generate fractal plant in 3D. L-system constructs the fractal structure by applying rewriting rules sequentially and this technique depends on recursion process with large number of iterations to get different shapes of 3D fractal plants. Instead, it was reiterated a specific number of iterations up to three iterations. The vertices generated from the last stage of the Lsystem rewriting process are used as input to the triangulation algorithm to construct the triangulation shape of these vertices. The resulting shapes can be used as covers for the architectural objects and in different computer graphics fields. The paper presents a gallery of triangulation forms which application in architecture creates an alternative for domes and other traditional types of roofs.

Keywords: Computational geometry, fractal geometry, L-system, triangulation.

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42 Gabriel-constrained Parametric Surface Triangulation

Authors: Oscar E. Ruiz, Carlos Cadavid, Juan G. Lalinde, Ricardo Serrano, Guillermo Peris-Fajarnes

Abstract:

The Boundary Representation of a 3D manifold contains FACES (connected subsets of a parametric surface S : R2 -! R3). In many science and engineering applications it is cumbersome and algebraically difficult to deal with the polynomial set and constraints (LOOPs) representing the FACE. Because of this reason, a Piecewise Linear (PL) approximation of the FACE is needed, which is usually represented in terms of triangles (i.e. 2-simplices). Solving the problem of FACE triangulation requires producing quality triangles which are: (i) independent of the arguments of S, (ii) sensitive to the local curvatures, and (iii) compliant with the boundaries of the FACE and (iv) topologically compatible with the triangles of the neighboring FACEs. In the existing literature there are no guarantees for the point (iii). This article contributes to the topic of triangulations conforming to the boundaries of the FACE by applying the concept of parameterindependent Gabriel complex, which improves the correctness of the triangulation regarding aspects (iii) and (iv). In addition, the article applies the geometric concept of tangent ball to a surface at a point to address points (i) and (ii). Additional research is needed in algorithms that (i) take advantage of the concepts presented in the heuristic algorithm proposed and (ii) can be proved correct.

Keywords: surface triangulation, conforming triangulation, surfacesampling, Gabriel complex.

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41 Study of Compaction in Hot-Mix Asphalt Using Computer Simulations

Authors: Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Naga Shashidhar, Xiaoxiong Zhong

Abstract:

During the process of compaction in Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) mixtures, the distance between aggregate particles decreases as they come together and eliminate air-voids. By measuring the inter-particle distances in a cut-section of a HMA sample the degree of compaction can be estimated. For this, a calibration curve is generated by computer simulation technique when the gradation and asphalt content of the HMA mixture are known. A two-dimensional cross section of HMA specimen was simulated using the mixture design information (gradation, asphalt content and air-void content). Nearest neighbor distance methods such as Delaunay triangulation were used to study the changes in inter-particle distance and area distribution during the process of compaction in HMA. Such computer simulations would enable making several hundreds of repetitions in a short period of time without the necessity to compact and analyze laboratory specimens in order to obtain good statistics on the parameters defined. The distributions for the statistical parameters based on computer simulations showed similar trends as those of laboratory specimens.

Keywords: Computer simulations, Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA), inter-particle distance, image analysis, nearest neighbor

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40 Geometric Data Structures and Their Selected Applications

Authors: Miloš Šeda

Abstract:

Finding the shortest path between two positions is a fundamental problem in transportation, routing, and communications applications. In robot motion planning, the robot should pass around the obstacles touching none of them, i.e. the goal is to find a collision-free path from a starting to a target position. This task has many specific formulations depending on the shape of obstacles, allowable directions of movements, knowledge of the scene, etc. Research of path planning has yielded many fundamentally different approaches to its solution, mainly based on various decomposition and roadmap methods. In this paper, we show a possible use of visibility graphs in point-to-point motion planning in the Euclidean plane and an alternative approach using Voronoi diagrams that decreases the probability of collisions with obstacles. The second application area, investigated here, is focused on problems of finding minimal networks connecting a set of given points in the plane using either only straight connections between pairs of points (minimum spanning tree) or allowing the addition of auxiliary points to the set to obtain shorter spanning networks (minimum Steiner tree).

Keywords: motion planning, spanning tree, Steiner tree, Delaunay triangulation, Voronoi diagram.

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39 Analytical Studies on Volume Determination of Leg Ulcer using Structured Light and Laser Triangulation Data Acquisition Techniques

Authors: M. Abdul-Rani, K. K. Chong, A. F. M. Hani, Y. B. Yap, A. Jamil

Abstract:

Imaging is defined as the process of obtaining geometric images either two dimensional or three dimensional by scanning or digitizing the existing objects or products. In this research, it applied to retrieve 3D information of the human skin surface in medical application. This research focuses on analyzing and determining volume of leg ulcers using imaging devices. Volume determination is one of the important criteria in clinical assessment of leg ulcer. The volume and size of the leg ulcer wound will give the indication on responding to treatment whether healing or worsening. Different imaging techniques are expected to give different result (and accuracies) in generating data and images. Midpoint projection algorithm was used to reconstruct the cavity to solid model and compute the volume. Misinterpretation of the results can affect the treatment efficacy. The objectives of this paper is to compare the accuracy between two 3D data acquisition method, which is laser triangulation and structured light methods, It was shown that using models with known volume, that structured-light-based 3D technique produces better accuracy compared with laser triangulation data acquisition method for leg ulcer volume determination.

Keywords: Imaging, Laser Triangulation, Structured Light, Volume Determination.

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38 Fast 2.5D Model Reconstruction of Assembled Parts with High Occlusion for Completeness Inspection

Authors: Matteo Munaro, Stefano Michieletto, Edmond So, Daniele Alberton, Emanuele Menegatti

Abstract:

In this work a dual laser triangulation system is presented for fast building of 2.5D textured models of objects within a production line. This scanner is designed to produce data suitable for 3D completeness inspection algorithms. For this purpose two laser projectors have been used in order to considerably reduce the problem of occlusions in the camera movement direction. Results of reconstruction of electronic boards are presented, together with a comparison with a commercial system.

Keywords: 3D quality inspection, 2.5D reconstruction, laser triangulation, occlusions.

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37 Qualification and Provisioning of xDSL Broadband Lines using a GIS Approach

Authors: Mavroidis Athanasios, Karamitsos Ioannis, Saletti Paola

Abstract:

In this paper is presented a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach in order to qualify and monitor the broadband lines in efficient way. The methodology used for interpolation is the Delaunay Triangular Irregular Network (TIN). This method is applied for a case study in ISP Greece monitoring 120,000 broadband lines.

Keywords: GIS loop qualification, GIS xDSL, LLU TIN.

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36 Video-Based Tracking of Laparoscopic Instruments Using an Orthogonal Webcams System

Authors: Fernando Pérez, Humberto Sossa, Rigoberto Martínez, Daniel Lorias, Arturo Minor

Abstract:

This paper presents a system for tracking the movement of laparoscopic instruments which is based on an orthogonal system of webcams and video image processing. The movements are captured with two webcams placed orthogonally inside of the physical trainer. On the image, the instruments were detected by using color markers placed on the distal tip of each instrument. The 3D position of the tip of the instrument within the work space was obtained by linear triangulation method. Preliminary results showed linearity and repeatability in the motion tracking with a resolution of 0.616 mm in each axis; the accuracy of the system showed a 3D instrument positioning error of 1.009 ± 0.101 mm. This tool is a portable and low-cost alternative to traditional tracking devices and a trustable method for the objective evaluation of the surgeon’s surgical skills.

Keywords: Laparoscopic Surgery, Orthogonal Vision, Tracking Instruments, Triangulation.

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35 Target Tracking by Flying Drone with Fixed Camera

Authors: Guilhem Baccialone, Nicolas Delaunay, Juan-Diego Gonzales, Céline Leclercq, Adrien Leroux, Santa Pallier

Abstract:

This paper presents the software conception of a quadrotor UAV, named SKYWATCHER, which is able to follow a target. This capacity can at a long turn time permit to follow another drone and combine their performance in order to military missions for example.

From a low-cost architecture constructed by five students we implemented a software and added a camera to create a visual servoing. This project demonstrates the possibility to associate the technology of stabilization and the technology of visual enslavement.

Keywords: Quadrotor, visual servoing, student project, image processing, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, stabilization.

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34 Optoelectronic Automated System for Length and Profile Measurements

Authors: L. C. Gómez-Pavón, M. A. Rojas Aparicio, E. Juárez Ruiz, M. A. Flores Guerrero, and O. Gómez-de la Fuente

Abstract:

In this work the design and characterization of an optoelectronic automated measurement system it is presented. The optoelectronic devices of this system are an optical transmitter, the optical components and the optical receiver, which were selected for a great precision of the system. The mechanical system allows free displacement of the components as well as the devices that generate the movement. The results, length and profile of the objects are display in Lab View.

Keywords: Automated, optoelectronic, triangulation method.

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33 Visualization and Indexing of Spectral Databases

Authors: Tibor Kulcsar, Gabor Sarossy, Gabor Bereznai, Robert Auer, Janos Abonyi

Abstract:

On-line (near infrared) spectroscopy is widely used to support the operation of complex process systems. Information extracted from spectral database can be used to estimate unmeasured product properties and monitor the operation of the process. These techniques are based on looking for similar spectra by nearest neighborhood algorithms and distance based searching methods. Search for nearest neighbors in the spectral space is an NP-hard problem, the computational complexity increases by the number of points in the discrete spectrum and the number of samples in the database. To reduce the calculation time some kind of indexing could be used. The main idea presented in this paper is to combine indexing and visualization techniques to reduce the computational requirement of estimation algorithms by providing a two dimensional indexing that can also be used to visualize the structure of the spectral database. This 2D visualization of spectral database does not only support application of distance and similarity based techniques but enables the utilization of advanced clustering and prediction algorithms based on the Delaunay tessellation of the mapped spectral space. This means the prediction has not to use the high dimension space but can be based on the mapped space too. The results illustrate that the proposed method is able to segment (cluster) spectral databases and detect outliers that are not suitable for instance based learning algorithms.

Keywords: indexing high dimensional databases, dimensional reduction, clustering, similarity, k-nn algorithm.

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32 Algebraic Riccati Matrix Equation for Eigen- Decomposition of Special Structured Matrices; Applications in Structural Mechanics

Authors: Mahdi Nouri

Abstract:

In this paper Algebraic Riccati matrix equation is used for Eigen-decomposition of special structured matrices. This is achieved by similarity transformation and then using algebraic riccati matrix equation to triangulation of matrices. The process is decomposition of matrices into small and specially structured submatrices with low dimensions for fast and easy finding of Eigenpairs. Numerical and structural examples included showing the efficiency of present method.

Keywords: Riccati, matrix equation, eigenvalue problem, symmetric, bisymmetric, persymmetric, decomposition, canonical forms, Graphs theory, adjacency and Laplacian matrices.

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31 Maximum Norm Analysis of a Nonmatching Grids Method for Nonlinear Elliptic Boundary Value Problem −Δu = f(u)

Authors: Abida Harbi

Abstract:

We provide a maximum norm analysis of a finite element Schwarz alternating method for a nonlinear elliptic boundary value problem of the form -Δu = f(u), on two overlapping sub domains with non matching grids. We consider a domain which is the union of two overlapping sub domains where each sub domain has its own independently generated grid. The two meshes being mutually independent on the overlap region, a triangle belonging to one triangulation does not necessarily belong to the other one. Under a Lipschitz assumption on the nonlinearity, we establish, on each sub domain, an optimal L∞ error estimate between the discrete Schwarz sequence and the exact solution of the boundary value problem.

Keywords: Error estimates, Finite elements, Nonlinear PDEs, Schwarz method.

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30 Visual Object Tracking in 3D with Color Based Particle Filter

Authors: Pablo Barrera, Jose M. Canas, Vicente Matellan

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of determining the current 3D location of a moving object and robustly tracking it from a sequence of camera images. The approach presented here uses a particle filter and does not perform any explicit triangulation. Only the color of the object to be tracked is required, but not any precisemotion model. The observation model we have developed avoids the color filtering of the entire image. That and the Monte Carlotechniques inside the particle filter provide real time performance.Experiments with two real cameras are presented and lessons learned are commented. The approach scales easily to more than two cameras and new sensor cues.

Keywords: Monte Carlo sampling, multiple view, particle filters, visual tracking.

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29 Ads on Social Issues: A Tool for Improving Critical Thinking Skills in a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Fonseca Jully, Chia Maribel, Rodríguez Ilba

Abstract:

This paper is a qualitative research report. A group of students form a public university in a small town in Colombia participated in this study which aimed at describing to what extend the use of social ads, published on the internet, helped to develop their critical thinking skills. Students’ productions, field notes, video recordings and direct observation were the instruments and techniques used by the researches in order to gather the data which was analyzed under the principles of grounded theory and triangulation. The implementation of social ads into the classroom evidenced a noticeable improvement in students’ ability to interpret and argue social issues, as well as, their self-improvement in oral and written production in English, as a foreign language.

Keywords: Ads, critical argumentation, critical thinking, social issues.

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28 An Investigation of Direct and Indirect Geo-Referencing Techniques on the Accuracy of Points in Photogrammetry

Authors: F. Yildiz, S. Y. Oturanc

Abstract:

Advances technology in the field of photogrammetry replaces analog cameras with reflection on aircraft GPS/IMU system with a digital aerial camera. In this system, when determining the position of the camera with the GPS, camera rotations are also determined by the IMU systems. All around the world, digital aerial cameras have been used for the photogrammetry applications in the last ten years. In this way, in terms of the work done in photogrammetry it is possible to use time effectively, costs to be reduced to a minimum level, the opportunity to make fast and accurate. Geo-referencing techniques that are the cornerstone of the GPS / INS systems, photogrammetric triangulation of images required for balancing (interior and exterior orientation) brings flexibility to the process. Also geo-referencing process; needed in the application of photogrammetry targets to help to reduce the number of ground control points. In this study, the use of direct and indirect georeferencing techniques on the accuracy of the points was investigated in the production of photogrammetric mapping.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, GPS/IMU Systems, Geo- Referencing.

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27 Robot Vision Application based on Complex 3D Pose Computation

Authors: F. Rotaru, S. Bejinariu, C. D. Niţâ, R. Luca, I. Pâvâloi, C. Lazâr

Abstract:

The paper presents a technique suitable in robot vision applications where it is not possible to establish the object position from one view. Usually, one view pose calculation methods are based on the correspondence of image features established at a training step and exactly the same image features extracted at the execution step, for a different object pose. When such a correspondence is not feasible because of the lack of specific features a new method is proposed. In the first step the method computes from two views the 3D pose of feature points. Subsequently, using a registration algorithm, the set of 3D feature points extracted at the execution phase is aligned with the set of 3D feature points extracted at the training phase. The result is a Euclidean transform which have to be used by robot head for reorientation at execution step.

Keywords: features correspondence, registration algorithm, robot vision, triangulation method.

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26 EFL Learners- Perceptions of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) to Facilitate Communication in a Foreign Language

Authors: Lin, Huifen, Fang, Yueh-chiu

Abstract:

This study explores perceptions of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners on using computer mediated communication technology in their learner of English. The data consists of observations of both synchronous and asynchronous communication participants engaged in for over a period of 4 months, which included online, and offline communication protocols, open-ended interviews and reflection papers composed by participants. Content analysis of interview data and the written documents listed above, as well as, member check and triangulation techniques are the major data analysis strategies. The findings suggest that participants generally do not benefit from computer-mediated communication in terms of its effect in learning a foreign language. Participants regarded the nature of CMC as artificial, or pseudo communication that did not aid their authentic communicational skills in English. The results of this study sheds lights on insufficient and inconclusive findings, which most quantitative CMC studies previously generated.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication, EFL, writing

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25 Digital Individual Benefit Statement: The Use of a Triangulation Methodology to Design a Digital Platform for Switzerland

Authors: Catherine Equey Balzli

Abstract:

Old age retirement pensions are an important concern among the Swiss but estimating one’s income after retirement is difficult due to the Swiss insurance system’s complexity. This project’s aim is to prepare for developing a digital platform that will allow individuals to plan for retirement in a simplified manner. The main objective of the platform will be to give individuals the tools to check that their savings and retirement benefits will allow them to continue the lifestyle to which they are accustomed once they are retired. The research results from qualitative (focus group) and quantitative (survey) methodologies, recommend the scope and functionalities for a digital platform to be developed. A main outcome is the need to limit the platform’s scope to old-age pension only (excluding survivors’ or disability pensions, for instance). Furthermore, an outcome regarding the functionalities is the proposition of scenarios such as early retirement, changes to income, or modifications to personal status. The development of the digital platform will be a subsequent project.

Keywords: Benefit statement, digital platform, retirement financial planning, social insurances.

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24 Face Image Coding Using Face Prototyping

Authors: Jaroslav Polec, Lenka Krulikovská, Natália Helešová, Tomáš Hirner

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel approach for face image coding. The proposed method makes a use of the features of video encoders like motion prediction. At first encoder selects appropriate prototype from the database and warps it according to features of encoding face. Warped prototype is placed as first I frame. Encoding face is placed as second frame as P frame type. Information about features positions, color change, selected prototype and data flow of P frame will be sent to decoder. The condition is both encoder and decoder own the same database of prototypes. We have run experiment with H.264 video encoder and obtained results were compared to results achieved by JPEG and JPEG2000. Obtained results show that our approach is able to achieve 3 times lower bitrate and two times higher PSNR in comparison with JPEG. According to comparison with JPEG2000 the bitrate was very similar, but subjective quality achieved by proposed method is better.

Keywords: Triangulation, H.264, Model-based coding, Average face

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23 Modernization, Malay Matrimonial Foodways and the Community Social Bonding

Authors: Mohd Zahari, M. S, Kamaruddin, M. S. Y., Muhammad, R., Kutut, M. Z.

Abstract:

Solidarity and kinship has long been an intangible emblem to Malay community especially in the rural area. It is visibly seen through the dependability among each unit of the community either in religious and social events including the matrimonial or wedding. Nevertheless, the inevitable phenomenon, modernization legitimately alters every facets of human life not only the routines, traditions, rituals, norms but also to the daily activities and the specific occasion. Using triangulation approach of interview and self completed questionnaire this study empirically examine the level of alteration of Malays wedding foodways which relate to the preparation and consumption of it and its impact on the community social bonding. Some meaningful insights were obtained whereby modernization through technology (modern equipments) and social factors (education, migration, and high disposal income) significantly contribute to the alteration of wedding foodways from preparation up to consumption stages. The domino effect of this alteration consequently leads to the fragility of social kinship or somehow reduced cohesiveness and interaction among the individual of Malay society in the rural area.

Keywords: Modernization, Malay, Matrimonial, Foodways, Social Bonding

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22 An Evaluation on Fixed Wing and Multi-Rotor UAV Images Using Photogrammetric Image Processing

Authors: Khairul Nizam Tahar, Anuar Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper has introduced a slope photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle. There are two units of UAV has been used in this study; namely; fixed wing and multi-rotor. Both UAVs were used to capture images at the study area. A consumer digital camera was mounted vertically at the bottom of UAV and captured the images at an altitude. The objectives of this study are to obtain three dimensional coordinates of slope area and to determine the accuracy of photogrammetric product produced from both UAVs. Several control points and checkpoints were established Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) in the study area. All acquired images from both UAVs went through all photogrammetric processes such as interior orientation, exterior orientation, aerial triangulation and bundle adjustment using photogrammetric software. Two primary results were produced in this study; namely; digital elevation model and digital orthophoto. Based on results, UAV system can be used to mapping slope area especially for limited budget and time constraints project.

Keywords: Slope mapping, 3D, DEM, UAV, Photogrammetry, image processing.

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