Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 188

Search results for: Bibhya Sharma

188 Swarm Navigation in a Complex Environment

Authors: Jai Raj, Jito Vanualailai, Bibhya Sharma, Shonal Singh

Abstract:

This paper proposes a solution to the motion planning and control problem of car-like mobile robots which is required to move safely to a designated target in a priori known workspace cluttered with swarm of boids exhibiting collective emergent behaviors. A generalized algorithm for target convergence and swarm avoidance is proposed that will work for any number of swarms. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensures practical stability of the system. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws are demonstrated via computer simulations of an emergent behavior.

Keywords: Swarm, practical stability, motion planning, emergent.

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187 Motion Planning and Control of Autonomous Robots in a Two-dimensional Plane

Authors: Avinesh Prasad, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

This paper proposes a solution to the motion planning and control problem of a point-mass robot which is required to move safely to a designated target in a priori known workspace cluttered with fixed elliptical obstacles of arbitrary position and sizes. A tailored and unique algorithm for target convergence and obstacle avoidance is proposed that will work for any number of fixed obstacles. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensures that the equilibrium point of the given system is asymptotically stable. Computer simulations with the proposed technique and applications to a planar (RP) manipulator will be presented.

Keywords: Point-mass Robot, Asymptotic stability, Motionplanning, Planar Robot Arm.

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186 Autonomous Control of Multiple Mobile Manipulators

Authors: Shonal Singh, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai, Avinesh Prasad

Abstract:

This paper considers the autonomous navigation problem of multiple n-link nonholonomic mobile manipulators within an obstacle-ridden environment. We present a set of nonlinear acceleration controllers, derived from the Lyapunov-based control scheme, which generates collision-free trajectories of the mobile manipulators from initial configurations to final configurations in a constrained environment cluttered with stationary solid objects of different shapes and sizes. We demonstrate the efficiency of the control scheme and the resulting acceleration controllers of the mobile manipulators with results through computer simulations of an interesting scenario.

Keywords: Artificial potential fields, kinodynamic constraints, Lyapunov-based control scheme, Lyapunov stability, minimum distance technique, nonholonomic manipulator.

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185 Autonomous Control of a Mobile Manipulator

Authors: Shonal Singh, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

This paper considers the design of a motion planner that will simultaneously accomplish control and motion planning of a n-link nonholonomic mobile manipulator, wherein, a n-link holonomic manipulator is coupled with a nonholonomic mobile platform, within an obstacle-ridden environment. This planner, derived from the Lyapunov-based control scheme, generates collision-free trajectories from an initial configuration to a final configuration in a constrained environment cluttered with stationary solid objects of different shapes and sizes. We demonstrate the efficiency of the control scheme and the resulting acceleration controllers of the mobile manipulator with results through computer simulations of an interesting scenario.

Keywords: Artificial potential fields, Lyapunov-based control scheme, Lyapunov stability, nonholonomic manipulator, minimum distance technique, kinodynamic constraints.

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184 Obstacle and Collision Avoidance Control Laws of a Swarm of Boids

Authors: Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai, Jai Raj

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new obstacle and collision avoidance control laws for a three-dimensional swarm of boids. The swarm exhibit collective emergent behaviors whilst avoiding the obstacles in the workspace. While flocking, animals group up in order to do various tasks and even a greater chance of evading predators. A generalized algorithms for attraction to the centroid, inter-individual swarm avoidance and obstacle avoidance is designed in this paper. We present a set of new continuous time-invariant velocity control laws is presented which is formulated via the Lyapunov-based control scheme. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensures practical stability of the system. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws is demonstrated via computer simulations

 

Keywords: Lyapunov-based Control Scheme, Motion planning, Practical stability, Swarm.

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183 Motion Control of a 2-link Revolute Manipulator in an Obstacle-Ridden Workspace

Authors: Avinesh Prasad, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a solution to the motion control problem of a 2-link revolute manipulator arm. We require the end-effector of the arm to move safely to its designated target in a priori known workspace cluttered with fixed circular obstacles of arbitrary position and sizes. Firstly a unique velocity algorithm is used to move the end-effector to its target. Secondly, for obstacle avoidance a turning angle is designed, which when incorporated into the control laws ensures that the entire robot arm avoids any number of fixed obstacles along its path enroute the target. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensure that the equilibrium point of the system is asymptotically stable. Computer simulations of the proposed technique are presented.

Keywords: 2-link revolute manipulator, motion control, obstacle avoidance, asymptotic stability.

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182 Intelligent Home: SMS Based Home Security System with Immediate Feedback

Authors: Sheikh I. Azid, Bibhya Sharma

Abstract:

A low cost Short Message System (SMS) based Home security system equipped with motion, smoke, temperature, humidity and light sensors has been studied and tested. The sensors are controlled by a microprocessor PIC 18F4520 through the SMS having password protection code for the secure operation. The user is able to switch light and the appliances and get instant feedback. Also in cases of emergencies such as fire or robbery the system will send alert message to occupant and relevant civil authorities. The operation of the home security has been tested on Vodafone- Fiji network and Digicel Fiji Network for emergency and feedback responses for 25 samples. The experiment showed that it takes about 8-10s for the security system to respond in case of emergency. It takes about 18-22s for the occupant to switch and monitor lights and appliances and then get feedback depending upon the network traffic.

Keywords: Smart Home, SMS, Sensors, Microprocessor.

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181 Motion Planning and Control of a Swarm of Boids in a 3-Dimensional Space

Authors: Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai, Jai Raj

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a solution to the motion planning and control problem for a swarm of three-dimensional boids. The swarm exhibit collective emergent behaviors within the vicinity of the workspace. The capability of biological systems to autonomously maneuver, track and pursue evasive targets in a cluttered environment is vastly superior to any engineered system. It is considered an emergent behavior arising from simple rules that are followed by individuals and may not involve any central coordination. A generalized, yet scalable algorithm for attraction to the centroid and inter-individual swarm avoidance is proposed. We present a set of new continuous time-invariant velocity control laws, formulated via the Lyapunov-based control scheme for target attraction and collision avoidance. The controllers provide a collision-free trajectory. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensures practical stability of the system. The effectiveness of the control laws is demonstrated via computer simulations.

Keywords: Swarm, Practical stability, Motion planning.

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180 A Cohesive Lagrangian Swarm and Its Application to Multiple Unicycle-like Vehicles

Authors: Jito Vanualailai, Bibhya Sharma

Abstract:

Swarm principles are increasingly being used to design controllers for the coordination of multi-robot systems or, in general, multi-agent systems. This paper proposes a two-dimensional Lagrangian swarm model that enables the planar agents, modeled as point masses, to swarm whilst effectively avoiding each other and obstacles in the environment. A novel method, based on an extended Lyapunov approach, is used to construct the model. Importantly, the Lyapunov method ensures a form of practical stability that guarantees an emergent behavior, namely, a cohesive and wellspaced swarm with a constant arrangement of individuals about the swarm centroid. Computer simulations illustrate this basic feature of collective behavior. As an application, we show how multiple planar mobile unicycle-like robots swarm to eventually form patterns in which their velocities and orientations stabilize.

Keywords: Attractive-repulsive swarm model, individual-based swarm model, Lagrangian swarm model, Lyapunov stability, Lyapunov-like function, practical stability, unicycle.

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179 Lane Changing and Merging Maneuvers of Carlike Robots

Authors: Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai, Ravindra Rai

Abstract:

This research paper designs a unique motion planner of multiple platoons of nonholonomic car-like robots as a feasible solution to the lane changing/merging maneuvers. The decentralized planner with a leaderless approach and a path-guidance principle derived from the Lyapunov-based control scheme generates collision free avoidance and safe merging maneuvers from multiple lanes to a single lane by deploying a split/merge strategy. The fixed obstacles are the markings and boundaries of the road lanes, while the moving obstacles are the robots themselves. Real and virtual road lane markings and the boundaries of road lanes are incorporated into a workspace to achieve the desired formation and configuration of the robots. Convergence of the robots to goal configurations and the repulsion of the robots from specified obstacles are achieved by suitable attractive and repulsive potential field functions, respectively. The results can be viewed as a significant contribution to the avoidance algorithm of the intelligent vehicle systems (IVS). Computer simulations highlight the effectiveness of the split/merge strategy and the acceleration-based controllers.

Keywords: Lane merging, Lyapunov-based control scheme, path-guidance principle, split/merge strategy.

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178 Some Third Order Methods for Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Janak Raj Sharma, Rajni Sharma

Abstract:

Based on Traub-s methods for solving nonlinear equation f(x) = 0, we develop two families of third-order methods for solving system of nonlinear equations F(x) = 0. The families include well-known existing methods as special cases. The stability is corroborated by numerical results. Comparison with well-known methods shows that the present methods are robust. These higher order methods may be very useful in the numerical applications requiring high precision in their computations because these methods yield a clear reduction in number of iterations.

Keywords: Nonlinear equations and systems, Newton's method, fixed point iteration, order of convergence.

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177 Dynamical Analysis of a Harvesting Model of Phytoplankton-Zooplankton Interaction

Authors: Anuj K. Sharma, Amit Sharma, Kulbhushan Agnihotri

Abstract:

In this work, we propose and analyze a model of Phytoplankton-Zooplankton interaction with harvesting considering that some species are exploited commercially for food. Criteria for local stability, instability and global stability are derived and some threshold harvesting levels are explored to maintain the population at an appropriate equilibrium level even if the species are exploited continuously.Further,biological and bionomic equilibria of the system are obtained and an optimal harvesting policy is also analysed using the Pantryagin’s Maximum Principle.Finally analytical findings are also supported by some numerical simulations.

Keywords: Phytoplankton-Zooplankton, Global stability, Bionomic Equilibrium, Pontrying-Maximum Principal.

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176 Performance Analysis of Load Balancing Algorithms

Authors: Sandeep Sharma, Sarabjit Singh, Meenakshi Sharma

Abstract:

Load balancing is the process of improving the performance of a parallel and distributed system through a redistribution of load among the processors [1] [5]. In this paper we present the performance analysis of various load balancing algorithms based on different parameters, considering two typical load balancing approaches static and dynamic. The analysis indicates that static and dynamic both types of algorithm can have advancements as well as weaknesses over each other. Deciding type of algorithm to be implemented will be based on type of parallel applications to solve. The main purpose of this paper is to help in design of new algorithms in future by studying the behavior of various existing algorithms.

Keywords: Load balancing (LB), workload, distributed systems, Static Load balancing, Dynamic Load Balancing

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175 Bifurcation Analysis of a Plankton Model with Discrete Delay

Authors: Anuj Kumar Sharma, Amit Sharma, Kulbhushan Agnihotri

Abstract:

In this paper, a delayed plankton-nutrient interaction model consisting of phytoplankton, zooplankton and dissolved nutrient is considered. It is assumed that some species of phytoplankton releases toxin (known as toxin producing phytoplankton (TPP)) which is harmful for zooplankton growth and this toxin releasing process follows a discrete time variation. Using delay as bifurcation parameter, the stability of interior equilibrium point is investigated and it is shown that time delay can destabilize the otherwise stable non-zero equilibrium state by inducing Hopf-bifurcation when it crosses a certain threshold value. Explicit results are derived for stability and direction of the bifurcating periodic solution by using normal form theory and center manifold arguments. Finally, outcomes of the system are validated through numerical simulations.

Keywords: Plankton, Time delay, Hopf-bifurcation, Normal form theory, Center manifold theorem.

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174 Modeling Reflection and Transmission of Elastodiffussive Wave Sata Semiconductor Interface

Authors: A. A. Sharma, B. J. N. Sharma

Abstract:

This paper deals with the study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor half-space and elastic solid. The amplitude ratios (reflection and transmission coefficients) of reflected and transmitted waves to that of incident wave varying with the incident angles have been examined for the case of quasi-longitudinal wave. The special cases of normal and grazing incidence have also been derived with the help of Gauss elimination method. The mathematical model consisting of governing partial differential equations of motion and charge carriers’ diffusion of n-type semiconductors and elastic solid has been solved both analytically and numerically in the study. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients has been carried out by using MATLAB programming software for silicon (Si) semiconductor and copper elastic solid. The computer simulated results have been plotted graphically for Si semiconductors. The study may be useful in semiconductors, geology, and seismology in addition to surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

Keywords: Quasilongitudinal, reflection and transmission, semiconductors, acoustics.

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173 Bandwidth Efficient Diversity Scheme Using STTC Concatenated With STBC: MIMO Systems

Authors: Sameru Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Derick Engles

Abstract:

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are widely in use to improve quality, reliability of wireless transmission and increase the spectral efficiency. However in MIMO systems, multiple copies of data are received after experiencing various channel effects. The limitations on account of complexity due to number of antennas in case of conventional decoding techniques have been looked into. Accordingly we propose a modified sphere decoder (MSD-1) algorithm with lower complexity and give rise to system with high spectral efficiency. With the aim to increase signal diversity we apply rotated quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellation in multi dimensional space. Finally, we propose a new architecture involving space time trellis code (STTC) concatenated with space time block code (STBC) using MSD-1 at the receiver for improving system performance. The system gains have been verified with channel state information (CSI) errors.

Keywords: Channel State Information , Diversity, Multi-Antenna, Rotated Constellation, Space Time Codes.

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172 Cell Phone: A Vital Clue

Authors: Meenakshi Mahajan, Arun Sharma, Navendu Sharma

Abstract:

Increasing use of cell phone as a medium of human interaction is playing a vital role in solving riddles of crime as well. A young girl went missing from her home late in the evening in the month of August, 2008 when her enraged relatives and villagers physically assaulted and chased her fiancée who often frequented her home. Two years later, her mother lodged a complaint against the relatives and the villagers alleging that after abduction her daughter was either sold or killed as she had failed to trace her. On investigation, a rusted cell phone with partial visible IMEI number, clothes, bangles, human skeleton etc. recovered from abandoned well in the month of May, 2011 were examined in the lab. All hopes pinned on identity of cell phone, for only linking evidence to fix the scene of occurrence supported by call detail record (CDR) and to dispel doubts about mode of sudden disappearance or death as DNA technology did not help in establishing identity of the deceased. The conventional scientific methods were used without success and international mobile equipment identification number of the cell phone could be generated by using statistical analysis followed by online verification. 

Keywords: Call detail record, Luhn algorithm, stereomicroscope.

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171 Structural Characteristics of HPDSP Concrete on Beam Column Joints

Authors: Sushil Kumar Swar, Sanjay Kumar Sharma, Hari Krishan Sharma, Sushil Kumar

Abstract:

The seriously damaged structures during earthquakes show the need and importance of design of reinforced concrete structures with high ductility. Reinforced concrete beam-column joints have an important function in all structures. Under seismic excitation, the beam column joint region is subjected to horizontal and vertical shear forces whose magnitude is many times higher than the adjacent beam and column. Strength and ductility of structures depends mainly on proper detailing of the reinforcement in beamcolumn joints and the old structures were found ductility deficient. DSP materials are obtained by using high quantities of super plasticizers and high volumes of micro silica. In the case of High Performance Densified Small Particle Concrete (HPDSPC), since concrete is dense even at the micro-structure level, tensile strain would be much higher than that of the conventional SFRC, SIFCON & SIMCON. This in turn will improve cracking behaviour, ductility and energy absorption capacity of composites in addition to durability. The fine fibers used in our mix are 0.3mm diameter and 10 mm which can be easily placed with high percentage. These fibers easily transfer stresses and act as a composite concrete unit to take up extremely high loads with high compressive strength. HPDSPC placed in the beam column joints helps in safety of human life due to prolonged failure.

Keywords: High Performance Densified Small Particle Concrete (HPDSPC), Steel Fıber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC), Slurry Infiltrated Concrete (SIFCON), Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete (SIMCON).

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170 Estimation and Removal of Chlorophenolic Compounds from Paper Mill Waste Water by Electrochemical Treatment

Authors: R. Sharma, S. Kumar, C. Sharma

Abstract:

A number of toxic chlorophenolic compounds are formed during pulp bleaching. The nature and concentration of these chlorophenolic compounds largely depends upon the amount and nature of bleaching chemicals used. These compounds are highly recalcitrant and difficult to remove but are partially removed by the biochemical treatment processes adopted by the paper industry. Identification and estimation of these chlorophenolic compounds has been carried out in the primary and secondary clarified effluents from the paper mill by GCMS. Twenty-six chorophenolic compounds have been identified and estimated in paper mill waste waters. Electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for oxidation of pollutants and has successfully been used to treat textile and oil waste water. Electrochemical treatment using less expensive anode material, stainless steel electrodes has been tried to study their removal. The electrochemical assembly comprised a DC power supply, a magnetic stirrer and stainless steel (316 L) electrode. The optimization of operating conditions has been carried out and treatment has been performed under optimized treatment conditions. Results indicate that 68.7% and 83.8% of cholorphenolic compounds are removed during 2 h of electrochemical treatment from primary and secondary clarified effluent respectively. Further, there is a reduction of 65.1, 60 and 92.6% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for primary clarified and 83.8%, 75.9% and 96.8% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for secondary clarified effluent. EC treatment has also been found to increase significantly the biodegradability index of wastewater because of conversion of non- biodegradable fraction into biodegradable fraction. Thus, electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for the degradation of cholorophenolic compounds, removal of color, AOX and other recalcitrant organic matter present in paper mill waste water.

Keywords: Chlorophenolics, effluent, electrochemical treatment, wastewater.

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169 On Generalized Exponential Fuzzy Entropy

Authors: Rajkumar Verma, Bhu Dev Sharma

Abstract:

In the present communication, the existing measures of fuzzy entropy are reviewed. A generalized parametric exponential fuzzy entropy is defined.Our study of the four essential and some other properties of the proposed measure, clearly establishes the validity of the measure as an entropy.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, exponential entropy, exponential fuzzy entropy.

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168 Low Complexity, High Performance LDPC Codes Based on Defected Fullerene Graphs

Authors: Ashish Goswami, Rakesh Sharma

Abstract:

In this paper, LDPC Codes based on defected fullerene graphs have been generated. And it is found that the codes generated are fast in encoding and better in terms of error performance on AWGN Channel.

Keywords: LDPC Codes, Fullerene Graphs, Defected Fullerene Graphs.

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167 Some Static Isotropic Perfect Fluid Spheres in General Relativity

Authors: Sachin Kumar, Y. K. Gupta, J. R. Sharma

Abstract:

In the present article, a new class of solutions of Einstein field equations is investigated for a spherically symmetric space-time when the source of gravitation is a perfect fluid. All the solutions have been derived by making some suitable arrangements in the field equations. The solutions so obtained have been seen to describe Schwarzschild interior solutions. Most of the solutions are subjected to the reality conditions. As far as the authors are aware the solutions are new.

Keywords: Einstein's equations, General Relativity, PerfectFluid, Spherical symmetric.

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166 An Improved Design of Area Efficient Two Bit Comparator

Authors: Shashank Gautam, Pramod Sharma

Abstract:

In present era, development of digital circuits, signal processors and other integrated circuits, magnitude comparators are challenged by large area and more power consumption. Comparator is most basic circuit that performs comparison. This paper presents a technique to design a two bit comparator which consumes less area and power. DSCH and MICROWIND version 3 are used to design the schematic and design the layout of the schematic, observe the performance parameters at different nanometer technologies respectively.

Keywords: Chip design, consumed power, layout area, two bit comparator.

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165 Nonfactorizable Contributions to Weak D →ππ Decay Modes

Authors: K. K. Sharma, A. C. Katoch

Abstract:

We investigate nonfactorizable contributions to D → ¤Ç¤Ç decay modes. We perform isospin analysis of the nonfactorizable contributions to these decays. Obtaining the factorizable contributions from spectator-quark diagrams using = 3 C N , we determine nonfactorizable amplitudes for these decays and predict their branching ratios.

Keywords: Mesons, Branching Ratios, Decay Amplitudes, Heavy Flavor Mesons, Nonfactorizable Contributions, Weak Decays.

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164 True Detective as a Southern Gothic: A Study of Its Music-Lyrics

Authors: Divya Sharma

Abstract:

Nic Pizzolatto’s True Detective offers profound mythological and philosophical ramblings for audiences with literary sensibilities. An American Sothern Gothic with its Bayon landscape of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, where two detectives Rustin Cohle and Martin Hart begin investigating the isolated murder of Dora Lange, only to discover an entrenched network of perversion and corruption, offers an existential outlook. The proposed research paper shall attempt to investigate the pervasive themes of gothic and existentialism in the music of the first season of the series.

Keywords: Existentialism, Gothic, Music, Mythology, Philosophy.

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163 Best Proximity Point Theorems for MT-K and MT-C Rational Cyclic Contractions in Metric Spaces

Authors: M. R. Yadav, A. K. Sharma, B. S. Thakur

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present a best proximity point theorems through rational expression for a combination of contraction condition, Kannan and Chatterjea nonlinear cyclic contraction in what we call MT-K and MT-C rational cyclic contraction. Some best proximity point theorems for a mapping satisfy these conditions have been established in metric spaces. We also give some examples to support our work.

Keywords: Cyclic contraction, rational cyclic contraction, best proximity point and complete metric space.

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162 Analysis of Bit Error Rate Improvement in MFSK Communication Link

Authors: O. P. Sharma, V. Janyani, S. Sancheti

Abstract:

Data rate, tolerable bit error rate or frame error rate and range & coverage are the key performance requirement of a communication link. In this paper performance of MFSK link is analyzed in terms of bit error rate, number of errors and total number of data processed. In the communication link model proposed, which is implemented using MATLAB block set, an improvement in BER is observed. Different parameters which effects and enables to keep BER low in M-ary communication system are also identified.

Keywords: Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), Bit Error Rate (BER), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Orthogonal Signaling.

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161 Analysis of Modified Heap Sort Algorithm on Different Environment

Authors: Vandana Sharma, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Satwinder Singh, Baljit Saini

Abstract:

In field of Computer Science and Mathematics, sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order i.e. ascending or descending. Sorting is perhaps the most widely studied problem in computer science and is frequently used as a benchmark of a system-s performance. This paper presented the comparative performance study of four sorting algorithms on different platform. For each machine, it is found that the algorithm depends upon the number of elements to be sorted. In addition, as expected, results show that the relative performance of the algorithms differed on the various machines. So, algorithm performance is dependent on data size and there exists impact of hardware also.

Keywords: Algorithm, Analysis, Complexity, Sorting.

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160 A Resistorless High Input Impedance First Order All-Pass Filter Using CCCIIs

Authors: Kapil Dev Sharma, Kirat Pal, Costas Psychalinos

Abstract:

A new first order all-pass filter topology realized using current controlled current conveyors (CCCIIs) is introduced in this paper. Offered benefits are the high-impedance of the input node, the absence of external resistors because of the usage of CCCIIs with positive and negative intrinsic resistances, the presence of only grounded capacitors, and the capability of electronic adjustment of the phase shift through a single bias current. The correct operation of the introduced topology is conformed through simulation results, while its behavior is evaluated through comparison results.

Keywords: Active filters, All-pass filters, Analog signal processing, Current conveyors.

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159 Distributed Load Flow Analysis using Graph Theory

Authors: D. P. Sharma, A. Chaturvedi, G.Purohit , R.Shivarudraswamy

Abstract:

In today scenario, to meet enhanced demand imposed by domestic, commercial and industrial consumers, various operational & control activities of Radial Distribution Network (RDN) requires a focused attention. Irrespective of sub-domains research aspects of RDN like network reconfiguration, reactive power compensation and economic load scheduling etc, network performance parameters are usually estimated by an iterative process and is commonly known as load (power) flow algorithm. In this paper, a simple mechanism is presented to implement the load flow analysis (LFA) algorithm. The reported algorithm utilizes graph theory principles and is tested on a 69- bus RDN.

Keywords: Radial Distribution network, Graph, Load-flow, Array.

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