Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 603

Search results for: kinematic constraints

603 Adaptive Motion Planning for 6-DOF Robots Based on Trigonometric Functions

Authors: Jincan Li, Mingyu Gao, Zhiwei He, Yuxiang Yang, Zhongfei Yu, Yuanyuan Liu

Abstract:

Building an appropriate motion model is crucial for trajectory planning of robots and determines the operational quality directly. An adaptive acceleration and deceleration motion planning based on trigonometric functions for the end-effector of 6-DOF robots in Cartesian coordinate system is proposed in this paper. This method not only achieves the smooth translation motion and rotation motion by constructing a continuous jerk model, but also automatically adjusts the parameters of trigonometric functions according to the variable inputs and the kinematic constraints. The results of computer simulation show that this method is correct and effective to achieve the adaptive motion planning for linear trajectories.

Keywords: 6-DOF robots, motion planning, trigonometric function, kinematic constraints

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602 Kinematic Modelling and Maneuvering of A 5-Axes Articulated Robot Arm

Authors: T.C. Manjunath

Abstract:

This paper features the kinematic modelling of a 5-axis stationary articulated robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. To start with, a 5-axes articulated robot was designed entirely from scratch and from indigenous components and a brief kinematic modelling was performed and using this kinematic model, the pick and place task was performed successfully in the work space of the robot. A user friendly GUI was developed in C++ language which was used to perform the successful robotic manipulation task using the developed mathematical kinematic model. This developed kinematic model also incorporates the obstacle avoiding algorithms also during the pick and place operation.

Keywords: Robot, Sensors, Kinematics, Computer, Control, PNP, LCD, Software.

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601 Kinematic Analysis of an Assistive Robotic Leg for Hemiplegic and Hemiparetic Patients

Authors: M.R. Safizadeh, M. Hussein, K. F. Samat, M.S. Che Kob, M.S. Yaacob, M.Z. Md Zain

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the kinematic analysis and mechanism design of an assistive robotic leg for hemiplegic and hemiparetic patients. In this work, the priority is to design and develop the lightweight, effective and single driver mechanism on the basis of experimental hip and knee angles- data for walking speed of 1 km/h. A mechanism of cam-follower with three links is suggested for this purpose. The kinematic analysis is carried out and analysed using commercialized MATLAB software based on the prototype-s links sizes and kinematic relationships. In order to verify the kinematic analysis of the prototype, kinematic analysis data are compared with the experimental data. A good agreement between them proves that the anthropomorphic design of the lower extremity exoskeleton follows the human walking gait.

Keywords: Kinematic analysis, assistive robotic leg, lower extremity exoskeleton, cam-follower mechanism.

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600 Solutions to Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Concentration Inequalities

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, optimal control problems subject to probabilistic constraints have attracted much attention in many research field. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in optimization problems, several methods haven been proposed to deal with probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are transformed to deterministic constraints that are tractable in optimization problems. This paper examines a method for transforming probabilistic constraints into deterministic constraints for a class of probabilistic constrained optimal control problems.

Keywords: Optimal control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems, probabilistic constraints.

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599 Optimization of Inverse Kinematics of a 3R Robotic Manipulator using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: J. Ramírez A., A. Rubiano F.

Abstract:

In this paper the direct kinematic model of a multiple applications three degrees of freedom industrial manipulator, was developed using the homogeneous transformation matrices and the Denavit - Hartenberg parameters, likewise the inverse kinematic model was developed using the same method, verifying that in the workload border the inverse kinematic presents considerable errors, therefore a genetic algorithm was implemented to optimize the model improving greatly the efficiency of the model.

Keywords: Direct Kinematic, Genetic Algorithm, InverseKinematic, Optimization, Robot Manipulator

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598 Prediction of Kinematic Viscosity of Binary Mixture of Poly (Ethylene Glycol) in Water using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: M. Mohagheghian, A. M. Ghaedi, A. Vafaei

Abstract:

An artificial neural network (ANN) model is presented for the prediction of kinematic viscosity of binary mixtures of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) in water as a function of temperature, number-average molecular weight and mass fraction. Kinematic viscosities data of aqueous solutions for PEG (0.55419×10-6 – 9.875×10-6 m2/s) were obtained from the literature for a wide range of temperatures (277.15 - 338.15 K), number-average molecular weight (200 -10000), and mass fraction (0.0 – 1.0). A three layer feed-forward artificial neural network was employed. This model predicts the kinematic viscosity with a mean square error (MSE) of 0.281 and the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.983. The results show that the kinematic viscosity of binary mixture of PEG in water could be successfully predicted using an artificial neural network model.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, kinematic viscosity, poly ethylene glycol (PEG)

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597 From Forbidden States to Linear Constraints

Authors: M. Zareiee, A. Dideban, P. Nazemzadeh

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of constructing constraints in non safe Petri Nets and then reducing the number of the constructed constraints. In a system, assigning some linear constraints to forbidden states is possible. Enforcing these constraints on the system prevents it from entering these states. But there is no a systematic method for assigning constraints to forbidden states in non safe Petri Nets. In this paper a useful method is proposed for constructing constraints in non safe Petri Nets. But when the number of these constraints is large enforcing them on the system may complicate the Petri Net model. So, another method is proposed for reducing the number of constructed constraints.

Keywords: discrete event system, Supervisory control, Petri Net, Constraint

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596 Neural Network Controller for Mobile Robot Motion Control

Authors: Jasmin Velagic, Nedim Osmic, Bakir Lacevic

Abstract:

In this paper the neural network-based controller is designed for motion control of a mobile robot. This paper treats the problems of trajectory following and posture stabilization of the mobile robot with nonholonomic constraints. For this purpose the recurrent neural network with one hidden layer is used. It learns relationship between linear velocities and error positions of the mobile robot. This neural network is trained on-line using the backpropagation optimization algorithm with an adaptive learning rate. The optimization algorithm is performed at each sample time to compute the optimal control inputs. The performance of the proposed system is investigated using a kinematic model of the mobile robot.

Keywords: Mobile robot, kinematic model, neural network, motion control, adaptive learning rate.

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595 Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton

Authors: Tawakal Hasnain Baluch, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umer Izhar, Umar Shahbaz Khan

Abstract:

This paper will provide the kinematic and dynamic analysis of a lower limb exoskeleton. The forward and inverse kinematics of proposed exoskeleton is performed using Denevit and Hartenberg method. The torques required for the actuators will be calculated using Lagrangian formulation technique. This research can be used to design the control of the proposed exoskeleton.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, Exoskeleton, Kinematic Analysis, Lower Limb, Rehabilitation Robotics

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594 Design and Analysis of Flexible Slider Crank Mechanism

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents the optimal design and formulation of a kinematic model of a flexible slider crank mechanism. The objective of the proposed innovative design is to take extra advantage of the compliant mechanism and maximize the fatigue life by applying the Taguchi method. A formulated kinematic model is developed using a pseudo-rigid-body model (PRBM). By means of mathematic models, the kinematic behaviors of the flexible slider crank mechanism are captured using MATLAB software. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to show the stress distribution. The results show that the optimal shape of the flexible hinge includes a force of 8.5N, a width of 9mm and a thickness of 1.1mm. Analysis of variance shows that the thickness of the proposed hinge is the most significant parameter, with an F test of 15.5. Finally, a prototype is manufactured to prepare for testing the kinematic and dynamic behaviors.

Keywords: Kinematic behavior, fatigue life, pseudo-rigid-body model, flexible slider crank mechanism.

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593 Kinematic Parameters for Asa River Routing

Authors: A. O. Ogunlela, B. Adelodun

Abstract:

Flood routing is used in estimating the travel time and attenuation of flood waves as they move downstream a river or channel. The routing procedure is usually classified as hydrologic or hydraulic. Hydraulic methods utilize the equations of continuity and motion. Kinematic routing, a hydraulic technique was used in routing Asa River at Ilorin. The river is of agricultural and industrial importance to Ilorin, the capital of Kwara State, Nigeria. This paper determines the kinematic parameters of kinematic wave velocity, time step, time required to traverse, weighting factor and change in length. Values obtained were 4.67 m/s, 19 secs, 21 secs, 0.75 and 100 m, respectively. These parameters adequately reflect the watershed and flow characteristics essential for the routing. The synthetic unit hydrograph was developed using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) method. 24-hr 10yr, 25yr, 50yr and 100yr storm hydrographs were developed from the unit hydrograph using convolution procedures and the outflow hydrographs were obtained for each of 24-hr 10yr, 25yr, 50yr and 100yr indicating 0.11 m3/s, 0.10 m3/s, 0.10 m3/s and 0.10 m3/s attenuations respectively.

Keywords: Asa River, Kinematic parameters, Routing

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592 Kinematic Optimal Design on a New Robotic Platform for Stair Climbing

Authors: Byung Hoon Seo, Hyun Gyu Kim, Tae Won Seo

Abstract:

Stair climbing is one of critical issues for field robots to widen applicable areas. This paper presents optimal design on kinematic parameters of a new robotic platform for stair climbing. The robotic platform climbs various stairs by body flip locomotion with caterpillar type main platform. Kinematic parameters such as platform length, platform height, and caterpillar rotation speed are optimized to maximize stair climbing stability. Three types of stairs are used to simulate typical user conditions. The optimal design process is conducted based on Taguchi methodology, and resulting parameters with optimized objective function are presented. In near future, a prototype is assembled for real environment testing.

Keywords: Stair climbing robot, Optimal design, Taguchi methodology, Caterpillar, Kinematic parameters.

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591 New Design Constraints of FIR Filter on Magnitude and Phase of Error Function

Authors: Raghvendra Kumar, Lillie Dewan

Abstract:

Exchange algorithm with constraints on magnitude and phase error separately in new way is presented in this paper. An important feature of the algorithms presented in this paper is that they allow for design constraints which often arise in practical filter design problems. Meeting required minimum stopband attenuation or a maximum deviation from the desired magnitude and phase responses in the passbands are common design constraints that can be handled by the methods proposed here. This new algorithm may have important advantages over existing technique, with respect to the speed and stability of convergence, memory requirement and low ripples.

Keywords: Least square estimation, Constraints, Exchange algorithm.

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590 Conservativeness of Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Method for Unknown Probability Distribution

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

In recent decades, probabilistic constrained optimal control problems have attracted much attention in many research fields. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in an optimization problem, several tractable methods haven been proposed to handle probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are reduced to deterministic constraints that are tractable in an optimization problem. However, there is a gap between the transformed deterministic constraints in case of known and unknown probability distribution. This paper examines the conservativeness of probabilistic constrained optimization method for unknown probability distribution. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative assessment of the conservatism for tractable constraints in probabilistic constrained optimization with unknown probability distribution.

Keywords: Optimal control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems, probabilistic constraints.

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589 A Feasible Path Selection QoS Routing Algorithm with two Constraints in Packet Switched Networks

Authors: P.S.Prakash, S.Selvan

Abstract:

Over the past several years, there has been a considerable amount of research within the field of Quality of Service (QoS) support for distributed multimedia systems. One of the key issues in providing end-to-end QoS guarantees in packet networks is determining a feasible path that satisfies a number of QoS constraints. The problem of finding a feasible path is NPComplete if number of constraints is more than two and cannot be exactly solved in polynomial time. We proposed Feasible Path Selection Algorithm (FPSA) that addresses issues with pertain to finding a feasible path subject to delay and cost constraints and it offers higher success rate in finding feasible paths.

Keywords: feasible path, multiple constraints, path selection, QoS routing

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588 Optimal SSSC Placement to ATC Enhancing in Power Systems

Authors: Sh. Javadi, A. Alijani, A.H. Mazinan

Abstract:

This paper reviews the optimization available transmission capability (ATC) of power systems using a device of FACTS named SSSC equipped with energy storage devices. So that, emplacement and improvement of parameters of SSSC will be illustrated. Thus, voltage magnitude constraints of network buses, line transient stability constraints and voltage breakdown constraints are considered. To help the calculations, a comprehensive program in DELPHI is provided, which is able to simulate and trace the parameters of SSSC has been installed on a specific line. Furthermore, the provided program is able to compute ATC, TTC and maximum value of their enhancement after using SSSC.

Keywords: available transmission capability (ATC), total transmission capability (TTC), voltage constraints, stability constraints, FACTS, SSSC.

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587 Perceived Constraints on Sport Participation among Young Koreans in Australia

Authors: Jae Won Kang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine a broader range of sport constraints perceived by young Koreans in Australia who may need to adjust to changing behavioral expectations due to the socio-cultural transitions. Regardless of gender, in terms of quantitative findings, the most important participation constraints within the seven categories were resources, access, interpersonal, affective, religious, socio-cultural, and physical in that order. The most important constraining items were a lack of time, access, information, adaptive skills, and parental and family support in that order. Qualitative research found young Korean’s participation constraints among three categories (time, parental control and interpersonal constraints). It is possible that different ethnic groups would be constrained by different factors; however, this is outside the scope of this study.

Keywords: Constraints, cultural adjustment, Sport, Young Koreans in Australia.

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586 Reducing the Number of Constraints in Non Safe Petri Net

Authors: M. Zareiee, A. Dideban

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of forbidden states in non safe Petri Nets. In the system, for preventing it from entering the forbidden states, some linear constraints can be assigned to them. Then these constraints can be enforced on the system using control places. But when the number of constraints in the system is large, a large number of control places must be added to the model of system. This concept complicates the model of system. There are some methods for reducing the number of constraints in safe Petri Nets. But there is no a systematic method for non safe Petri Nets. In this paper we propose a method for reducing the number of constraints in non safe Petri Nets which is based on solving an integer linear programming problem.

Keywords: discrete event system, Supervisory control, Petri Net, Constraint

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585 Fundamental Concepts of Theory of Constraints: An Emerging Philosophy

Authors: Ajay Gupta, Arvind Bhardwaj, Arun Kanda

Abstract:

Dr Eliyahu Goldratt has done the pioneering work in the development of Theory of Constraints. Since then, many more researchers around the globe are working to enhance this body of knowledge. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compile the salient features of this theory from the work done by Goldratt and other researchers. This paper will provide a good starting point to the potential researchers interested to work in Theory of Constraints. The paper will also help the practicing managers by clarifying their concepts on the theory and will facilitate its successful implementation in their working areas.

Keywords: Drum-Buffer-Rope, Goldratt, ProductionScheduling, Theory of Constraints.

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584 Development of a GPS Buoy for Ocean Surface Monitoring: Initial Results

Authors: Anuar Mohd Salleh, Mohd Effendi Daud

Abstract:

This study presents a kinematic positioning approach that uses a global positioning system (GPS) buoy for precise ocean surface monitoring. The GPS buoy data from the two experiments are processed using an accurate, medium-range differential kinematic technique. In each case, the data from a nearby coastal site are collected at a high rate (1 Hz) for more than 24 hours, and measurements are conducted in neighboring tidal stations to verify the estimated sea surface heights. The GPS buoy kinematic coordinates are estimated using epoch-wise pre-elimination and a backward substitution algorithm. Test results show that centimeterlevel accuracy can be successfully achieved in determining sea surface height using the proposed technique. The centimeter-level agreement between the two methods also suggests the possibility of using this inexpensive and more flexible GPS buoy equipment to enhance (or even replace) current tidal gauge stations.

Keywords: Global positioning system, kinematic GPS, sea surface height, GPS buoy, tide gauge.

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583 Kinematic Parameter-Independent Modeling and Measuring of Three-Axis Machine Tools

Authors: Yung-Yuan Hsu

Abstract:

The primary objective of this paper was to construct a “kinematic parameter-independent modeling of three-axis machine tools for geometric error measurement" technique. Improving the accuracy of the geometric error for three-axis machine tools is one of the machine tools- core techniques. This paper first applied the traditional method of HTM to deduce the geometric error model for three-axis machine tools. This geometric error model was related to the three-axis kinematic parameters where the overall errors was relative to the machine reference coordinate system. Given that the measurement of the linear axis in this model should be on the ideal motion axis, there were practical difficulties. Through a measurement method consolidating translational errors and rotational errors in the geometric error model, we simplified the three-axis geometric error model to a kinematic parameter-independent model. Finally, based on the new measurement method corresponding to this error model, we established a truly practical and more accurate error measuring technique for three-axis machine tools.

Keywords: Three-axis machine tool, Geometric error, HTM, Error measuring

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582 Coerced Delay and Multi Additive Constraints QoS Routing Schemes

Authors: P.S. Prakash, S. Selvan

Abstract:

IP networks are evolving from data communication infrastructure into many real-time applications such as video conferencing, IP telephony and require stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. A rudimentary issue in QoS routing is to find a path between a source-destination pair that satisfies two or more endto- end constraints and termed to be NP hard or complete. In this context, we present an algorithm Multi Constraint Path Problem Version 3 (MCPv3), where all constraints are approximated and return a feasible path in much quicker time. We present another algorithm namely Delay Coerced Multi Constrained Routing (DCMCR) where coerce one constraint and approximate the remaining constraints. Our algorithm returns a feasible path, if exists, in polynomial time between a source-destination pair whose first weight satisfied by the first constraint and every other weight is bounded by remaining constraints by a predefined approximation factor (a). We present our experimental results with different topologies and network conditions.

Keywords: Routing, Quality-of-Service (QoS), additive constraints, shortest path, delay coercion.

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581 A Knee Modular Orthosis Design Based on Kinematic Considerations

Authors: C. Copilusi, C. Ploscaru

Abstract:

This paper addresses attention to a research regarding the design of a knee orthosis in a modular form used on children walking rehabilitation. This research is focused on the human lower limb kinematic analysis which will be used as input data on virtual simulations and prototype validation. From this analysis, important data will be obtained and used as input for virtual simulations of the knee modular orthosis. Thus, a knee orthosis concept was obtained and validated through virtual simulations by using MSC Adams software. Based on the obtained results, the modular orthosis prototype will be manufactured and presented in this article.

Keywords: Human lower limb, children orthoses, kinematic analysis, knee orthosis.

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580 A Logic Approach to Database Dynamic Updating

Authors: Daniel Stamate

Abstract:

We introduce a logic-based framework for database updating under constraints. In our framework, the constraints are represented as an instantiated extended logic program. When performing an update, database consistency may be violated. We provide an approach of maintaining database consistency, and study the conditions under which the maintenance process is deterministic. We show that the complexity of the computations and decision problems presented in our framework is in each case polynomial time.

Keywords: Databases, knowledge bases, constraints, updates, minimal change, consistency.

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579 Performance Evaluation for Weightlifting Lifter by Barbell Trajectory

Authors: Ying-Chen Lin, Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the kinematic characteristics and differences of the snatch barbell trajectory of 53 kg class female weight lifters. We take the 2014 Taiwan College Cup players as examples, and tend to make kinematic applications through the proven weightlifting barbell track system. The competition videos are taken by consumer camcorder with a tripod which set up at the side of the lifter. The results will be discussed in three parts, the first part is various lifting phase, the second part is the compare lifting between success and unsuccessful, and the third part is to compare the outstanding player with the general. Conclusion through the barbell can be used to observe the trajectories of our players lifting the usual process cannot be observed in the presence of malfunction or habits, so that the coach can find the problem and guide the players more accurately. Our system can be applied in practice and competition to increase the resilience of the lifter on the field.

Keywords: Computer aided sport training, Kinematic, Trajectory, Weightlifting.

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578 Discovery of Time Series Event Patterns based on Time Constraints from Textual Data

Authors: Shigeaki Sakurai, Ken Ueno, Ryohei Orihara

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method that discovers time series event patterns from textual data with time information. The patterns are composed of sequences of events and each event is extracted from the textual data, where an event is characteristic content included in the textual data such as a company name, an action, and an impression of a customer. The method introduces 7 types of time constraints based on the analysis of the textual data. The method also evaluates these constraints when the frequency of a time series event pattern is calculated. We can flexibly define the time constraints for interesting combinations of events and can discover valid time series event patterns which satisfy these conditions. The paper applies the method to daily business reports collected by a sales force automation system and verifies its effectiveness through numerical experiments.

Keywords: Text mining, sequential mining, time constraints, daily business reports.

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577 Kinematic Analysis and Software Development of a Seven Degree of Freedom Inspection Robot

Authors: G. Shanmugasundar, R. Sivaramakrishnan, S. Venugopal

Abstract:

Robots are booming as an essential substituent in the field of inspection. In hazardous environments like nuclear waste disposal, robots are really a necessitate one. In a view to meet such demands, this paper presents the seven degree of freedom articulated inspection robot. To design such a robot the kinematic analysis of seven Degree of freedom robot which can inspect the hazardous nuclear waste storage tanks is done. The effective utilization of universal joints for arms and screw jack mechanisms at the base gives the higher order of degree of freedom to the newly designed robot. The analytical method of deriving the manipulator forward as well as inverse kinematics is explained elaborately using the Denavit-Hartenberg Approach for the purpose of calculating the robot joints, links and end-effector parameters. The comparison of the geometric and the analytical approach is stated. The self-developed kinematic model gives the accurate positions of the end effector. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed in Visual Basic language for the manipulation of kinematic results easily. This software gives the expected position of the end-effector accurately at short time compared to manual manipulations.

Keywords: Robot kinematics, screw jack mechanisms, Denavit-Hartenberg approach, universal joints.

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576 A Predictive Rehabilitation Software for Cerebral Palsy Patients

Authors: J. Bouchard, B. Prosperi, G. Bavre, M. Daudé, E. Jeandupeux

Abstract:

Young patients suffering from Cerebral Palsy are facing difficult choices concerning heavy surgeries. Diagnosis settled by surgeons can be complex and on the other hand decision for patient about getting or not such a surgery involves important reflection effort. Proposed software combining prediction for surgeries and post surgery kinematic values, and from 3D model representing the patient is an innovative tool helpful for both patients and medicine professionals. Beginning with analysis and classification of kinematics values from Data Base extracted from gait analysis in 3 separated clusters, it is possible to determine close similarity between patients. Prediction surgery best adapted to improve a patient gait is then determined by operating a suitable preconditioned neural network. Finally, patient 3D modeling based on kinematic values analysis, is animated thanks to post surgery kinematic vectors characterizing the closest patient selected from patients clustering.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, Clustering, Crouch Gait, 3-D Modeling.

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575 Relaxing Convergence Constraints in Local Priority Hysteresis Switching Logic

Authors: Mubarak Alhajri

Abstract:

This paper addresses certain inherent limitations of local priority hysteresis switching logic. Our main result establishes that under persistent excitation assumption, it is possible to relax constraints requiring strict positivity of local priority and hysteresis switching constants. Relaxing these constraints allows the adaptive system to reach optimality which implies the performance improvement. The unconstrained local priority hysteresis switching logic is examined and conditions for global convergence are derived.

Keywords: Adaptive control, convergence, hysteresis constant, hysteresis switching.

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574 Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based On Kinematic Hardening Model

Authors: Isa Ahmadi, Ramin Khamedi

Abstract:

In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.

Keywords: Cyclic Loading, Finite Element Analysis, Prager Kinematic Hardening Model, Torsion of shaft.

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