Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: Josephson junction

59 Size Dependence of 1D Superconductivity in NbN Nanowires on Suspended Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: T. Hashimoto, N. Miki, H. Maki

Abstract:

We report the size dependence of 1D superconductivity in ultrathin (10-130 nm) nanowires produced by coating suspended carbon nanotubes with a superconducting NbN thin film. The resistance-temperature characteristic curves for samples with ≧25 nm wire width show the superconducting transition. On the other hand, for the samples with 10-nm width, the superconducting transition is not exhibited owing to the quantum size effect. The differential resistance vs. current density characteristic curves show some peak, indicating that Josephson junctions are formed in nanowires. The presence of the Josephson junctions is well explained by the measurement of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current. These understanding allow for the further expansion of the potential application of NbN, which is utilized for single photon detectors and so on.

Keywords: NbN nanowire, carbon nanotube, quantum size effect, Josephson junction

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58 Physical Parameters for Reliability Evaluation

Authors: Tazibt W., Mialhe P.

Abstract:

This paper presents ageing experiments controlled by the evolution of junction parameters. The deterioration of the device is related to high injection effects which modified the transport mechanisms in the space charge region of the junction. Physical phenomena linked to the degradation of junction parameters that affect the devices reliability are reported and discussed. We have used the method based on numerical analysis of experimental current-voltage characteristic of the junction, in order to extract the electrical parameters. The simultaneous follow-up of the evolutions of the series resistance and of the transition voltage allow us to introduce a new parameter for reliability evaluation.

Keywords: High injection, junction, parameters, reliability

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57 Dissimilar Materials Joint and Effect of Angle Junction on Stress Distribution at Interface

Authors: Ali Baladi, Alireza Fallahi Arezoodar

Abstract:

in dissimilar material joints, failure often occurs along the interface between two materials due to stress singularity. Stress distribution and its concentration depend on materials and geometry of the junction. Inhomogenity of stress distribution at the interface of junction of two materials with different elastic modules and stress concentration in this zone are the main factors resulting in rupture of the junction. Effect of joining angle in the interface of aluminum-polycarbonate will be discussed in this paper. Computer simulation and finite element analysis by ABAQUS showed that convex interfacial joint leads to stress reduction at junction corners in compare with straight joint. This finding is confirmed by photoelastic experimental results.

Keywords: Elastic Modules, Stress Concentration, JoiningAngle, Photoelastic.

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56 Theory of Nanowire Radial p-n-Junction

Authors: Stepan Petrosyan, Ashkhen Yesayan, Suren Nersesyan

Abstract:

We have developed an analytic model for the radial pn-junction in a nanowire (NW) core-shell structure utilizing as a new building block in different semiconductor devices. The potential distribution through the p-n-junction is calculated and the analytical expressions are derived to compute the depletion region widths. We show that the widths of space charge layers, surrounding the core, are the functions of core radius, which is the manifestation of so called classical size effect. The relationship between the depletion layer width and the built-in potential in the asymptotes of infinitely large core radius transforms to square-root dependence specific for conventional planar p-n-junctions. The explicit equation is derived to compute the capacitance of radial p-n-junction. The current-voltage behavior is also carefully determined taking into account the “short base" effects.

Keywords: Snanowire, p-n- junction, barrier capacitance, high injection.

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55 Comparison between the Efficiency of Heterojunction Thin Film InGaP\GaAs\Ge and InGaP\GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: F. Djaafar, B. Hadri, G. Bachir

Abstract:

This paper presents the design parameters for a thin film 3J InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 32.11% using Tcad Silvaco. Design parameters include the doping concentration, molar fraction, layers’ thickness and tunnel junction characteristics. An initial dual junction InGaP/GaAs model of a previous published heterojunction cell was simulated in Tcad Silvaco to accurately predict solar cell performance. To improve the solar cell’s performance, we have fixed meshing, material properties, models and numerical methods. However, thickness and layer doping concentration were taken as variables. We, first simulate the InGaP\GaAs dual junction cell by changing the doping concentrations and thicknesses which showed an increase in efficiency. Next, a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was modeled by adding a Ge layer to the previous dual junction InGaP/GaAs model with an InGaP /GaAs tunnel junction.

Keywords: Heterojunction, modeling, simulation, thin film, Tcad Silvaco.

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54 The Effect of a Graded Band Gap Window on the Performance of a Single Junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: Morteza Fathipour, Atousa Elahidoost, Alireza Mojab, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

We have modeled the effect of a graded band gap window on the performance of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell. First, we study the electrical characteristics of a single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell, by employing an optimized structure for this solar cell, we show that grading the band gap of the window can increase the conversion efficiency of the solar cell by about 1.5%, and can also improve the quantum efficiency of the solar cell especially at shorter wavelengths.

Keywords: Conversion efficiency, Graded band gap window, Quantum efficiency, Single junction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs solar cell

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53 Density Functional Calculations of 27Al, 11B,and 14N and NQR Parameters in the (6, 0) BN_AlN Nanotube Junction

Authors: Morteza Farahani, Ahmad Seif, Asadallah Boshra, Hossein Aghaie

Abstract:

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to calculate aluminum-27, boron-11, and nitrogen-14 quadrupole coupling constant (CQ) in the representative considered model of (6, 0) boron nitride-aluminum nitride nanotube junction (BN-AlNNT) for the first time. To this aim, 1.3 nm length of BNAlN consisting of 18 Al, 18 B, and 36 N atoms was selected where the end atoms capped by hydrogen atoms. The calculated CQ values for optimized BN-AlNNT system reveal different electrostatic environment in the mentioned system. The calculations were performed using the Gaussian 98 package of program.

Keywords: Nanotube Junction, Density functional, Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance.

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52 Modeling and Validation of Microspheres Generation in the Modified T-Junction Device

Authors: Lei Lei, Hongbo Zhang, Donald J. Bergstrom, Bing Zhang, K. Y. Song, W. J. Zhang

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for a modified T-junction device for microspheres generation. The numerical model is developed using a commercial software package: COMSOL Multiphysics. In order to test the accuracy of the numerical model, multiple variables, such as the flow rate of cross-flow, fluid properties, structure, and geometry of the microdevice are applied. The results from the model are compared with the experimental results in the diameter of the microsphere generated. The comparison shows a good agreement. Therefore the model is useful in further optimization of the device and feedback control of microsphere generation if any.

Keywords: CFD modeling, validation, microsphere generation, modified T-junction.

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51 Monitorization of Junction Temperature Using a Thermal-Test-Device

Authors: B. Arzhanov, A. Correia, P. Delgado, J. Meireles

Abstract:

Due to the higher power loss levels in electronic components, the thermal design of PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards) of an assembled device becomes one of the most important quality factors in electronics. Nonetheless, some of leading causes of the microelectronic component failures are due to higher temperatures, the leakages or thermal-mechanical stress, which is a concern, is the reliability of microelectronic packages. This article presents an experimental approach to measure the junction temperature of exposed pad packages. The implemented solution is in a prototype phase, using a temperature-sensitive parameter (TSP) to measure temperature directly on the die, validating the numeric results provided by the Mechanical APDL (Ansys Parametric Design Language) under same conditions. The physical device-under-test is composed by a Thermal Test Chip (TTC-1002) and assembly in a QFN cavity, soldered to a test-board according to JEDEC Standards. Monitoring the voltage drop across a forward-biased diode, is an indirectly method but accurate to obtain the junction temperature of QFN component with an applied power range between 0,3W to 1.5W. The temperature distributions on the PCB test-board and QFN cavity surface were monitored by an infra-red thermal camera (Goby-384) controlled and images processed by the Xeneth software. The article provides a set-up to monitorize in real-time the junction temperature of ICs, namely devices with the exposed pad package (i.e. QFN). Presenting the PCB layout parameters that the designer should use to improve thermal performance, and evaluate the impact of voids in solder interface in the device junction temperature.

Keywords: Quad Flat No-Lead packages, exposed pads, junction temperature, thermal management, measurements.

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50 Determination of the Pullout/Holding Strength at the Taper-Trunnion Junction of Hip Implants

Authors: Obinna K. Ihesiulor, Krishna Shankar, Paul Smith, Alan Fien

Abstract:

Excessive fretting wear at the taper-trunnion junction (trunnionosis) apparently contributes to the high failure rates of hip implants. Implant wear and corrosion lead to the release of metal particulate debris and subsequent release of metal ions at the tapertrunnion surface. This results in a type of metal poisoning referred to as metallosis. The consequences of metal poisoning include; osteolysis (bone loss), osteoarthritis (pain), aseptic loosening of the prosthesis and revision surgery. Follow up after revision surgery, metal debris particles are commonly found in numerous locations. Background: A stable connection between the femoral ball head (taper) and stem (trunnion) is necessary to prevent relative motions and corrosion at the taper junction. Hence, the importance of component assembly cannot be over-emphasized. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the influence of head-stem junction assembly by press fitting and the subsequent disengagement/disassembly on the connection strength between the taper ball head and stem. Methods: CoCr femoral heads were assembled with High stainless hydrogen steel stem (trunnion) by Push-in i.e. press fit; and disengaged by pull-out test. The strength and stability of the two connections were evaluated by measuring the head pull-out forces according to ISO 7206-10 standards. Findings: The head-stem junction strength linearly increases with assembly forces.

Keywords: Wear, modular hip prosthesis, taper head-stem, force assembly, force disassembly.

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49 Investigation of 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(3-,5--Di-Tert-Butylphenyl)Porphyrinatocopper(II) for Electronics Applications

Authors: Zubair Ahmad, M. H. Sayyad, M. Yaseen, M. Ali

Abstract:

In this work, an organic compound 5,10,15,20- Tetrakis(3,5-di-tertbutylphenyl)porphyrinatocopper(II) (TDTBPPCu) is studied as an active material for thin film electronic devices. To investigate the electrical properties of TDTBPPCu, junction of TDTBPPCu with heavily doped n-Si and Al is fabricated. TDTBPPCu film was sandwiched between Al and n-Si electrodes. Various electrical parameters of TDTBPPCu are determined. The current-voltage characteristics of the junction are nonlinear, asymmetric and show rectification behavior, which gives the clue of formation of depletion region. This behavior indicates the potential of TDTBPPCu for electronics applications. The current-voltage and capacitance-voltage techniques are used to find the different electronic parameters.

Keywords: P-type, organic semiconductor, Electricalcharacteristics

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48 Geometrical Based Unequal Droplet Splitting Using Microfluidic Y-Junction

Authors: Bahram Talebjedi, Amirmohammad Sattari, Ahmed Zoher Sihorwala, Mina Hoorfar

Abstract:

Among different droplet manipulations, controlled droplet-splitting is of great significance due to its ability to increase throughput and operational capability. Furthermore, unequal droplet-splitting can provide greater flexibility and a wider range of dilution factors. In this study, we developed two-dimensional, time-dependent complex fluid dynamics simulations to model droplet formation in a flow focusing device, followed by splitting in a Y-shaped junction with sub-channels of unequal widths. From the results obtained from the numerical study, we correlated the diameters of the droplets in the sub-channels to the Weber number, thereby demarcating the droplet splitting and non-splitting regimes.

Keywords: Microfluidics, unequal droplet splitting, two phase flow, flow focusing device.

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47 Study of a Fabry-Perot Resonator

Authors: F. Hadjaj, A. Belghachi, A. Halmaoui, M. Belhadj, H. Mazouz

Abstract:

A laser is essentially an optical oscillator consisting of a resonant cavity, an amplifying medium and a pumping source. In semiconductor diode lasers, the cavity is created by the boundary between the cleaved face of the semiconductor crystal and air, and has reflective properties as a result of the differing refractive indices of the two media. For a GaAs-air interface a reflectance of 0.3 is typical and therefore the length of the semiconductor junction forms the resonant cavity. To prevent light being emitted in unwanted directions from the junction, sides perpendicular to the required direction are roughened. The objective of this work is to simulate the optical resonator Fabry-Perot and explore its main characteristics, such as FSR, finesse, linewidth, transmission and so on, that describe the performance of resonator.

Keywords: Fabry-Perot Resonator, laser diode.

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46 Behavior of Droplets in Microfluidic System with T-Junction

Authors: A. Guellati, F-M Lounis, N. Guemras, K. Daoud

Abstract:

Micro droplet formation is considered as a growing emerging area of research due to its wide-range application in chemistry as well as biology. The mechanism of micro droplet formation using two immiscible liquids running through a T-junction has been widely studied. We believe that the flow of these two immiscible phases can be of greater important factor that could have an impact on out-flow hydrodynamic behavior, the droplets generated and the size of the droplets. In this study, the type of the capillary tubes used also represents another important factor that can have an impact on the generation of micro droplets. The tygon capillary tubing with hydrophilic inner surface doesn't allow regular out-flows due to the fact that the continuous phase doesn't adhere to the wall of the capillary inner surface. Teflon capillary tubing, presents better wettability than tygon tubing, and allows to obtain steady and regular regimes of out-flow, and the micro droplets are homogeneoussize. The size of the droplets is directly dependent on the flows of the continuous and dispersed phases. Thus, as increasing the flow of the continuous phase, to flow of the dispersed phase stationary, the size of the drops decreases. Inversely, while increasing the flow of the dispersed phase, to flow of the continuous phase stationary, the size of the droplet increases.

Keywords: Microfluidic system, micro droplets generation, T-junction.

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45 A New Microstrip Diplexer Using Coupled Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: A. Chinig, J. Zbitou, A. Errkik, L. Elabdellaoui, A. Tajmouati, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a new structure of microstrip band pass filter (BPF) based on coupled stepped impedance resonators. Each filter consists of two coupled stepped impedance resonators connected to microstrip feed lines. The coupled junction is utilized to connect the two BPFs to the antenna. This two band pass filters are designed and simulated to operate for the digital communication system (DCS) and Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands at 1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz respectively. The proposed circuit presents good performances with an insertion loss lower than 2.3 dB and isolation between the two channels greater than 21 dB. The prototype of the optimized diplexer have been investigated numerically by using ADS Agilent and verified with CST microwave software.

Keywords: Band Pass Filter, coupled junction, coupled stepped impedance resonators, diplexer, insertion loss, isolation.

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44 Traffic Noise under Stop and Go Conditions in Intersections – A Case Study

Authors: Nima Jahandar, Amin Hosseinpour, Mohammad Ali Sahraei

Abstract:

Whit the increasing of traffic, noise emanated from motor vehicles increases as well, which subsequently causes adding to the stress of modern city. Thus, it is needed to look for most critical areas in terms of environmental and social impact of noise. There are several critical situations for noise emanated from motor vehicles such as stop and go situation which usually occurs near junctions or at-grade intersections. This study was conducted in two locations, most common types of intersections, crossroads and Tjunctions. The highest average noise levels are recorded during Go phase for T-junction, 64.4 dB, and Drive phase for crossroad, 64 dB. It implies that the existence of intersection caused the noise level to increase. The vehicles starting to move produce more sound than when they travel at a constant speed along the intersection. It is suggested that special considerations and priority of allocating funds should be given to these critical spots.

Keywords: Crossroad, T-junction, Traffic Noise, Stop and Go, Urban noise

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43 Optimum Design of Pressure Vessel Subjected to Autofrettage Process

Authors: Abu Rayhan Md. Ali, Nidul Ch. Ghosh, Tanvir-E-Alam

Abstract:

The effect of autofrettage process in strain hardened thick-walled pressure vessels has been investigated theoretically by finite element modeling. Equivalent von Mises stress is used as yield criterion to evaluate the optimum autofrettage pressure and the optimum radius of elastic-plastic junction. It has been observed that the optimum autofrettage pressure increases along with the working pressure. For two different working pressures, the effect of the ratio of outer to inner radius (b/a=k) value on the optimum autofrettage pressure is also noticed. The Optimum autofrettage pressure solely depends on K value rather than on the inner or outer radius. Furthermore, percentage reduction of von Mises stresses is compared for different working pressures and different k values. Maximum von Mises stress developed at different autofrettage pressure is equated for elastic perfectly plastic and elastic-plastic material with different slope of strain hardening segment. Cylinder material having higher slope of strain hardening segment provides better benedictions in the autofrettage process.

Keywords: Autofrettage, elastic plastic junction, pressure vessel, von Mises stress.

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42 A Subjectively Influenced Router for Vehicles in a Four-Junction Traffic System

Authors: Anilkumar Kothalil Gopalakrishnan

Abstract:

A subjectively influenced router for vehicles in a fourjunction traffic system is presented. The router is based on a 3-layer Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN) and a greedy routing procedure. The BPNN detects priorities of vehicles based on the subjective criteria. The subjective criteria and the routing procedure depend on the routing plan towards vehicles depending on the user. The routing procedure selects vehicles from their junctions based on their priorities and route them concurrently to the traffic system. That is, when the router is provided with a desired vehicles selection criteria and routing procedure, it routes vehicles with a reasonable junction clearing time. The cost evaluation of the router determines its efficiency. In the case of a routing conflict, the router will route the vehicles in a consecutive order and quarantine faulty vehicles. The simulations presented indicate that the presented approach is an effective strategy of structuring a subjective vehicle router.

Keywords: Backpropagation Neural Network, Backpropagationalgorithm, Greedy routing procedure, Subjective criteria, Vehiclepriority, Cost evaluation, Route generation

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41 Study of Two Writing Schemes for a Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based On Spin Orbit Torque

Authors: K. Jabeur, L. D. Buda-Prejbeanu, G. Prenat, G. Di Pendina

Abstract:

MRAM technology provides a combination of fast access time, non-volatility, data retention and endurance. While a growing interest is given to two-terminal Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJ) based on Spin-Transfer Torque (STT) switching as the potential candidate for a universal memory, its reliability is dramatically decreased because of the common writing/reading path. Three-terminal MTJ based on Spin-Orbit Torque (SOT) approach revitalizes the hope of an ideal MRAM. It can overcome the reliability barrier encountered in current two-terminal MTJs by separating the reading and the writing path. In this paper, we study two possible writing schemes for the SOT-MTJ device based on recently fabricated samples. While the first is based on precessional switching, the second requires the presence of permanent magnetic field. Based on an accurate Verilog-A model, we simulate the two writing techniques and we highlight advantages and drawbacks of each one. Using the second technique, pioneering logic circuits based on the three-terminal architecture of the SOT-MTJ described in this work are under development with preliminary attractive results.

Keywords: Spin orbit Torque, Magnetic Tunnel Junction, MRAM, Spintronic, Circuit simulation.

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40 Temperature Variation Effects on I-V Characteristics of Cu-Phthalocyanine based OFET

Authors: Q. Zafar, R. Akram, Kh.S. Karimov, T.A. Khan, M. Farooq, M.M. Tahir

Abstract:

In this study we present the effect of elevated temperatures from 300K to 400K on the electrical properties of copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) based organic field effect transistors (OFET). Thin films of organic semiconductor CuPc (40nm) and semitransparent Al (20nm) were deposited in sequence, by vacuum evaporation on a glass substrate with previously deposited Ag source and drain electrodes with a gap of 40 μm. Under resistive mode of operation, where gate was suspended it was observed that drain current of this organic field effect transistor (OFET) show an increase with temperature. While in grounded gate condition metal (aluminum) – semiconductor (Copper Phthalocyanine) Schottky junction dominated the output characteristics and device showed switching effect from low to high conduction states like Zener diode at higher bias voltages. This threshold voltage for switching effect has been found to be inversely proportional to temperature and shows an abrupt decrease after knee temperature of 360K. Change in dynamic resistance (Rd = dV/dI) with respect to temperature was observed to be -1%/K.

Keywords: Copper Phthalocyanine, Metal-Semiconductor Schottky Junction, Organic Field Effect Transistor, Switching effect, Temperature Sensor

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39 Bond Graph Modeling of Inter-Actuator Interactions in a Multi-Cylinder Hydraulic System

Authors: Mutuku Muvengei, John Kihiu

Abstract:

In this paper, a bond graph dynamic model for a valvecontrolled hydraulic cylinder has been developed. A simplified bond graph model of the inter-actuator interactions in a multi-cylinder hydraulic system has also been presented. The overall bond graph model of a valve-controlled hydraulic cylinder was developed by combining the bond graph sub-models of the pump, spool valve and the actuator using junction structures. Causality was then assigned in order to obtain a computational model which could be simulated. The causal bond graph model of the hydraulic cylinder was verified by comparing the open loop state responses to those of an ODE model which had been developed in literature based on the same assumptions. The results were found to correlate very well both in the shape of the curves, magnitude and the response times, thus indicating that the developed model represents the hydraulic dynamics of a valve-controlled cylinder. A simplified model for interactuator interaction was presented by connecting an effort source with constant pump pressure to the zero-junction from which the cylinders in a multi-cylinder system are supplied with a constant pressure from the pump. On simulating the state responses of the developed model under different situations of cylinder operations, indicated that such a simple model can be used to predict the inter-actuator interactions.

Keywords: Bond graphs, Inter-actuator interactions, Valvecontrolledhydraulic cylinder.

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38 Thermal Evaluation of Printed Circuit Board Design Options and Voids in Solder Interface by a Simulation Tool

Authors: B. Arzhanov, A. Correia, P. Delgado, J. Meireles

Abstract:

Quad Flat No-Lead (QFN) packages have become very popular for turners, converters and audio amplifiers, among others applications, needing efficient power dissipation in small footprints. Since semiconductor junction temperature (TJ) is a critical parameter in the product quality. And to ensure that die temperature does not exceed the maximum allowable TJ, a thermal analysis conducted in an earlier development phase is essential to avoid repeated re-designs process with huge losses in cost and time. A simulation tool capable to estimate die temperature of components with QFN package was developed. Allow establish a non-empirical way to define an acceptance criterion for amount of voids in solder interface between its exposed pad and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) to be applied during industrialization process, and evaluate the impact of PCB designs parameters. Targeting PCB layout designer as an end user for the application, a user-friendly interface (GUI) was implemented allowing user to introduce design parameters in a convenient and secure way and hiding all the complexity of finite element simulation process. This cost effective tool turns transparent a simulating process and provides useful outputs after acceptable time, which can be adopted by PCB designers, preventing potential risks during the design stage and make product economically efficient by not oversizing it. This article gathers relevant information related to the design and implementation of the developed tool, presenting a parametric study conducted with it. The simulation tool was experimentally validated using a Thermal-Test-Chip (TTC) in a QFN open-cavity, in order to measure junction temperature (TJ) directly on the die under controlled and knowing conditions. Providing a short overview about standard thermal solutions and impacts in exposed pad packages (i.e. QFN), accurately describe the methods and techniques that the system designer should use to achieve optimum thermal performance, and demonstrate the effect of system-level constraints on the thermal performance of the design.

Keywords: Quad Flat No-Lead packages, exposed pads, junction temperature, thermal management and measurements.

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37 Finite Element Approach to Evaluate Time Dependent Shear Behavior of Connections in Hybrid Steel-PC Girder under Sustained Loading

Authors: Mohammad Najmol Haque, Takeshi Maki, Jun Sasaki

Abstract:

Headed stud shear connections are widely used in the junction or embedded zone of hybrid girder to achieve whole composite action with continuity that can sustain steel-concrete interfacial tensile and shear forces. In Japan, Japan Road Association (JRA) specifications are used for hybrid girder design that utilizes very low level of stud capacity than those of American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) specifications, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) specifications and EURO code. As low design shear strength is considered in design of connections, the time dependent shear behavior due to sustained external loading is not considered, even not fully studied. In this study, a finite element approach was used to evaluate the time dependent shear behavior for headed studs used as connections at the junction. This study clarified, how the sustained loading distinctively impacted on changing the interfacial shear of connections with time which was sensitive to lodging history, positions of flanges, neighboring studs, position of prestress bar and reinforcing bar, concrete strength, etc. and also identified a shear influence area. Stud strength was also confirmed through pushout tests. The outcome obtained from the study may provide an important basis and reference data in designing connections of hybrid girders with enhanced stud capacity with due consideration of their long-term shear behavior.

Keywords: Finite element approach, hybrid girder, headed stud shear connections, sustained loading, time dependent shear behavior.

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36 A Three-Dimensional TLM Simulation Method for Thermal Effect in PV-Solar Cells

Authors: R. Hocine, A. Boudjemai, A. Amrani, K. Belkacemi

Abstract:

Temperature rising is a negative factor in almost all systems. It could cause by self heating or ambient temperature. In solar photovoltaic cells this temperature rising affects on the behavior of cells. The ability of a PV module to withstand the effects of periodic hot-spot heating that occurs when cells are operated under reverse biased conditions is closely related to the properties of the cell semi-conductor material.

In addition, the thermal effect also influences the estimation of the maximum power point (MPP) and electrical parameters for the PV modules, such as maximum output power, maximum conversion efficiency, internal efficiency, reliability, and lifetime. The cells junction temperature is a critical parameter that significantly affects the electrical characteristics of PV modules. For practical applications of PV modules, it is very important to accurately estimate the junction temperature of PV modules and analyze the thermal characteristics of the PV modules. Once the temperature variation is taken into account, we can then acquire a more accurate MPP for the PV modules, and the maximum utilization efficiency of the PV modules can also be further achieved.

In this paper, the three-Dimensional Transmission Line Matrix (3D-TLM) method was used to map the surface temperature distribution of solar cells while in the reverse bias mode. It was observed that some cells exhibited an inhomogeneity of the surface temperature resulting in localized heating (hot-spot). This hot-spot heating causes irreversible destruction of the solar cell structure. Hot spots can have a deleterious impact on the total solar modules if individual solar cells are heated. So, the results show clearly that the solar cells are capable of self-generating considerable amounts of heat that should be dissipated very quickly to increase PV module's lifetime.

Keywords: Thermal effect, Conduction, Heat dissipation, Thermal conductivity, Solar cell, PV module, Nodes, 3D-TLM.

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35 A Convenient Model for I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator as an Active Two-Pole with Self-Limitation of Current

Authors: A. A. Penin, A. S. Sidorenko

Abstract:

A convenient and physically sound mathematical model of the external or I - V characteristic of solar cells generators is presented in this paper. This model is compared with the traditional model of p-n junction. The direct analytical calculation of load regime leads to a quadratic equation, which is importantly to simplify the calculations in the real time.

Keywords: A solar cell generator, I−V characteristic, activetwo-pole.

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34 Steady State of Passive and Active Suspensions in the Physical Domain

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Jorge Madrigal

Abstract:

The steady state response of bond graphs representing passive and active suspension is presented. A bond graph with preferred derivative causality assignment to get the steady state is proposed. A general junction structure of this bond graph is proposed. The proposed methodology to passive and active suspensions is applied.

Keywords: Bond graph, steady state, active suspension.

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33 Perturbation Based Modelling of Differential Amplifier Circuit

Authors: Rahul Bansal, Sudipta Majumdar

Abstract:

This paper presents the closed form nonlinear expressions of bipolar junction transistor (BJT) differential amplifier (DA) using perturbation method. Circuit equations have been derived using Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) and Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL). The perturbation method has been applied to state variables for obtaining the linear and nonlinear terms. The implementation of the proposed method is simple. The closed form nonlinear expressions provide better insights of physical systems. The derived equations can be used for signal processing applications.

Keywords: Differential amplifier, perturbation method, Taylor series.

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32 Finite Element Prediction of Hip Fracture during a Sideways Fall

Authors: M. Ikhwan Z. Ridzwan, Bidyut Pal, Ulrich N. Hansen

Abstract:

Finite element method was applied to model damage development in the femoral neck during a sideways fall. The femoral failure was simulated using the maximum principal strain criterion. The evolution of damage was consistent with previous studies. It was initiated by compressive failure at the junction of the superior aspect of the femoral neck and the greater trochanter. It was followed by tensile failure that occurred at the inferior aspect of the femoral neck before a complete transcervical fracture was observed. The estimated failure line was less than 50° from the horizontal plane (Pauwels type II).

Keywords: Femoral Strength, Finite Element Models, Hip Fracture, Progressive Failure, Sideways Fall.

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31 Impact of Process Variations on the Vertical Silicon Nanowire Tunneling FET (TFET)

Authors: Z. X. Chen, T. S. Phua, X. P. Wang, G. -Q. Lo, D. -L. Kwong

Abstract:

This paper presents device simulations on the vertical silicon nanowire tunneling FET (VSiNW TFET). Simulations show that a narrow nanowire and thin gate oxide is required for good performance, which is expected even for conventional MOSFETs. The gate length also needs to be more than the nanowire diameter to prevent short channel effects. An effect more unique to TFET is the need for abrupt source to channel junction, which is shown to improve the performance. The ambipolar effect suppression by reducing drain doping concentration is also explored and shown to have little or no effect on performance.

Keywords: Device simulation, MEDICI, tunneling FET (TFET), vertical silicon nanowire.

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30 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in ANSYS. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and ANSYS software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, Pressure Vessel, Saddle, Support.

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