Search results for: John Kihiu
164 Prediction of Overall Efficiency in Multistage Gear Trains
Authors: James Kuria, John Kihiu
Abstract:A mathematical model for determining the overall efficiency of a multistage tractor gearbox including all gear, lubricant, surface finish related parameters and operating conditions is presented. Sliding friction, rolling friction and windage losses were considered as the main sources of power loss in the gearing system. A computer code in FORTRAN was developed to simulate the model. Sliding friction contributes about 98% of the total power loss for gear trains operating at relatively low speeds (less than 2000 rpm input speed). Rolling frictional losses decrease with increased load while windage losses are only significant for gears running at very high speeds (greater than 3000 rpm). The results also showed that the overall efficiency varies over the path of contact of the gear meshes ranging between 94% to 99.5%.
Keywords: Efficiency, multistage gear train, rolling friction, slidingfriction, windage losses.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3560
163 Bond Graph Modeling of Inter-Actuator Interactions in a Multi-Cylinder Hydraulic System
Authors: Mutuku Muvengei, John Kihiu
Abstract:In this paper, a bond graph dynamic model for a valvecontrolled hydraulic cylinder has been developed. A simplified bond graph model of the inter-actuator interactions in a multi-cylinder hydraulic system has also been presented. The overall bond graph model of a valve-controlled hydraulic cylinder was developed by combining the bond graph sub-models of the pump, spool valve and the actuator using junction structures. Causality was then assigned in order to obtain a computational model which could be simulated. The causal bond graph model of the hydraulic cylinder was verified by comparing the open loop state responses to those of an ODE model which had been developed in literature based on the same assumptions. The results were found to correlate very well both in the shape of the curves, magnitude and the response times, thus indicating that the developed model represents the hydraulic dynamics of a valve-controlled cylinder. A simplified model for interactuator interaction was presented by connecting an effort source with constant pump pressure to the zero-junction from which the cylinders in a multi-cylinder system are supplied with a constant pressure from the pump. On simulating the state responses of the developed model under different situations of cylinder operations, indicated that such a simple model can be used to predict the inter-actuator interactions.
Keywords: Bond graphs, Inter-actuator interactions, Valvecontrolledhydraulic cylinder.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2913
162 Effects of Input Speed on the Dynamic Response of Planar Multi-body Systems with Differently Located Frictionless Revolute Clearance Joints
Authors: Onesmus Muvengei, John Kihiu, Bernard Ikua
Abstract:This paper numerically investigates the effects of input speed on the overall dynamic characteristics of a multi-body system with differently located revolute clearance joints without friction. A typical planar slider-crank mechanism is used as a demonstration case in which the effects of the input speed on the dynamic performance of the mechanism with a revolute clearance joint between the crank and connecting rod, and between the connecting rod and slider are separately investigated with comprehensive observations numerically presented. It is observed that, changing the driving speed of a multibody system makes the behavior of the system to change from either periodic to chaotic, or chaotic to periodic depending on which joint has clearance. The location of the clearance revolute joint and the operating speed of a multi-body system play a crucial role in predicting accurately the dynamic responses of the system. Therefore the dynamic behavior of one clearance revolute joint cannot be used as a general case for a mechanical system.
Keywords: Chaotic behavior, Contact-impact forces, Dynamic response, Multi-body mechanical system, Periodic behavior, Poincare maps, Quasi-periodic behavior, Revolute clearance jointProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1769
161 Modeling Parametric Vibration of Multistage Gear Systems as a Tool for Design Optimization
Authors: James Kuria, John Kihiu
Abstract:This work presents a numerical model developed to simulate the dynamics and vibrations of a multistage tractor gearbox. The effect of time varying mesh stiffness, time varying frictional torque on the gear teeth, lateral and torsional flexibility of the shafts and flexibility of the bearings were included in the model. The model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the vibration and stress levels on the gears. The first design variable, module, had little effect on the vibration levels but a higher module resulted to higher bending stress levels. The second design variable, pressure angle, had little effect on the vibration levels, but had a strong effect on the stress levels on the pinion of a high reduction ratio gear pair. A pressure angle of 25o resulted to lower stress levels for a pinion with 14 teeth than a pressure angle of 20o. The third design variable, contact ratio, had a very strong effect on both the vibration levels and bending stress levels. Increasing the contact ratio to 2.0 reduced both the vibration levels and bending stress levels significantly. For the gear train design used in this study, a module of 2.5 and contact ratio of 2.0 for the various meshes was found to yield the best combination of low vibration levels and low bending stresses. The model can therefore be used as a tool for obtaining the optimum gear design parameters for a given multistage spur gear train.
Keywords: bending stress levels, frictional torque, gear designparameters, mesh stiffness, multistage gear train, vibration levels.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2409
160 Bond Graph Modeling of Mechanical Dynamics of an Excavator for Hydraulic System Analysis and Design
Authors: Mutuku Muvengei, John Kihiu
Abstract:This paper focuses on the development of bond graph dynamic model of the mechanical dynamics of an excavating mechanism previously designed to be used with small tractors, which are fabricated in the Engineering Workshops of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. To develop a mechanical dynamics model of the manipulator, forward recursive equations similar to those applied in iterative Newton-Euler method were used to obtain kinematic relationships between the time rates of joint variables and the generalized cartesian velocities for the centroids of the links. Representing the obtained kinematic relationships in bondgraphic form, while considering the link weights and momenta as the elements led to a detailed bond graph model of the manipulator. The bond graph method was found to reduce significantly the number of recursive computations performed on a 3 DOF manipulator for a mechanical dynamic model to result, hence indicating that bond graph method is more computationally efficient than the Newton-Euler method in developing dynamic models of 3 DOF planar manipulators. The model was verified by comparing the joint torque expressions of a two link planar manipulator to those obtained using Newton- Euler and Lagrangian methods as analyzed in robotic textbooks. The expressions were found to agree indicating that the model captures the aspects of rigid body dynamics of the manipulator. Based on the model developed, actuator sizing and valve sizing methodologies were developed and used to obtain the optimal sizes of the pistons and spool valve ports respectively. It was found that using the pump with the sized flow rate capacity, the engine of the tractor is able to power the excavating mechanism in digging a sandy-loom soil.
Keywords: Actuators, bond graphs, inverse dynamics, recursive equations, quintic polynomial trajectory.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2749
159 Extraction and Analysis of Hypericum perforatum L. from Turkey
Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, Z. Eslek, S. Piskin
Hypericum perforatum L. is a member of the Hypericaceae (Guttiferae) family and commonly known as St. John’s wort. There is a growing interest in this medicinal plant because of the constituents of this genus. A number of species have been shown to possess various biological activities such as antiviral, wound healing, analgesic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and also have therapeutic effects on burns, bruises, swelling, anxiety and mild to moderate depression. In this study, the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. are extracted and the main and effective constituents are determined. The analysis of the extracts was performed by GC-MS and LC-MS. As a next step, it is aimed to investigate the usage of the main constituents of the medicinal plant.
Keywords: Hypericaceae, Hypericum perforatum L., GC-MS, Guttiferae, LC-MS, Medicinal plant, St. John’s wort.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4221
158 Creating a Virtual Perception for Upper Limb Rehabilitation
Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Arthur Ricardo Deps Miguel Ferreira, John Buchanan, Amarnath Banerjee
Abstract:This paper describes the development of a virtual-reality system ARWED, which will be used in physical rehabilitation of patients with reduced upper extremity mobility to increase limb Active Range of Motion (AROM). The ARWED system performs a symmetric reflection and real-time mapping of the patient’s healthy limb on to their most affected limb, tapping into the mirror neuron system and facilitating the initial learning phase. Using the ARWED, future experiments will test the extension of the action-observation priming effect linked to the mirror-neuron system on healthy subjects and then stroke patients.
Keywords: Physical rehabilitation, mirror neuron, virtual reality, stroke therapy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1359
157 Factor Resistance Comparison of a Long Shaft in 955 and 1055 John Deere Grain Combine
Authors: M. Azadbakht, M. E. Shayan, H. Jafari, E. Ghajarjazi, A. Kiapei
Abstract:Transmission shafts are affected by various forces, for example, during acceleration or sudden breaks, bending during transportation, vertical forces that lead to cuts. One of the main failures in combines is breaking shaft which repairmen refer it. Structural resistance of canal against torque is very important in the beginning of the movement. For analyzing stress, a typical sample from a type of combine was selected, called JD955 combine. Long shaft in this combine was analyzed with finite element method by Ansys13 generic package under static load. Conducted analysis showed that there is a maximum stress in contact surfaces of indentations and also in place of changing diameter. Safety factor value is low in parts of the shaft and this increases the probability of failure at these points. To improve the conditions with the least cost and an approach of product improvement, using alternative alloy is important.
Keywords: John Deere, Ansys, Shaft, Stress, Grain Combine harvester, Finite element, Failure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1519
156 Object Motion Tracking Based On Color Detection for Android Devices
Authors: Zacharenia I. Garofalaki, John T. Amorginos, John N. Ellinas
Abstract:This paper presents the development of a robot car that can track the motion of an object by detecting its color through an Android device. The employed computer vision algorithm uses the OpenCV library, which is embedded into an Android application of a smartphone, for manipulating the captured image of the object. The captured image of the object is subjected to color conversion and is transformed to a binary image for further processing after color filtering. The desired object is clearly determined after removing pixel noise by applying image morphology operations and contour definition. Finally, the area and the center of the object are determined so that object’s motion to be tracked. The smartphone application has been placed on a robot car and transmits by Bluetooth to an Arduino assembly the motion directives so that to follow objects of a specified color. The experimental evaluation of the proposed algorithm shows reliable color detection and smooth tracking characteristics.
Keywords: Android, Arduino Uno, Image processing, Object motion detection, OpenCV library.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4327
155 Application of Western and Islamic Philosophy to Business Ethics
Authors: Elmamy Ahmedsalem
The world has witnessed the collapse of many corporate giants as a result of unethical behavior in recent decades. This has induced a series of questions by the global community on why such occurrences could happen, even with corporate governance in place. This paper attempts to propose a philosophical approach from an Islamic perspective to be consolidated with current corporate governance in order to confront contemporary dilemmas. In this paper, ethical theories are presented as a discussion followed by their applications to modern cases of financial collapses. Virtue ethics by Aristotle, justice and fairness by John Rawls, deontology by Immanuel Kant, and utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill, are the four theories which can then be contrasted with the paradigm of Muslim scholars. Despite the differences between the fundamental principles of Islamic and Western worldviews, their ethical theories are aimed at making right decisions and solving ethical dilemmas based on what is good for society. Therefore, Islamic principles should be synthesized with Western philosophy to form a more coherent framework. The integration of Islamic and western ethical theories into business is important for sound corporate governance.
Keywords: Business ethics, Islamic philosophy, western philosophy, Western and Islamic Worldview of Ethics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1763
154 Performance of an Improved Fluidized System for Processing Green Tea
Authors: Nickson Kipng’etich Lang’at, Thomas Thoruwa, John Abraham, John Wanyoko
Green tea is made from the top two leaves and buds of a shrub, Camellia sinensis, of the family Theaceae and the order Theales. The green tea leaves are picked and immediately sent to be dried or steamed to prevent fermentation. Fluid bed drying technique is a common drying method used in drying green tea because of its ease in design and construction and fluidization of fine tea particles. Major problems in this method are significant loss of chemical content of the leaf and green appearance of tea, retention of high moisture content in the leaves and bed channeling and defluidization. The energy associated with the drying technology has been shown to be a vital factor in determining the quality of green tea. As part of the implementation, prototype dryer was built that facilitated sequence of operations involving steaming, cooling, pre-drying and final drying. The major findings of the project were in terms of quality characteristics of tea leaves and energy consumption during processing. The optimal design achieved a moisture content of 4.2 ± 0.84%. With the optimum drying temperature of 100 ºC, the specific energy consumption was 1697.8 kj.Kg-1 and evaporation rate of 4.272 x 10-4 Kg.m-2.s-1. The energy consumption in a fluidized system can be further reduced by focusing on energy saving designs.
Keywords: Evaporation rate, fluid bed dryer, maceration, specific energy consumption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1556
153 Precise Measurement of Displacement using Pixels
Authors: Razif Mahadi, John Billingsley
Abstract:Manufacturing processes demand tight dimensional tolerances. The paper concerns a transducer for precise measurement of displacement, based on a camera containing a linescan chip. When tests were conducted using a track of black and white stripes with a 2mm pitch, errors in measuring on individual cycle amounted to 1.75%, suggesting that a precision of 35 microns is achievable.
Keywords: Linescan, microcontroller, pixels.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1212
152 Churn Prediction: Does Technology Matter?
Authors: John Hadden, Ashutosh Tiwari, Rajkumar Roy, Dymitr Ruta
Abstract:The aim of this paper is to identify the most suitable model for churn prediction based on three different techniques. The paper identifies the variables that affect churn in reverence of customer complaints data and provides a comparative analysis of neural networks, regression trees and regression in their capabilities of predicting customer churn.
Keywords: Churn, Decision Trees, Neural Networks, Regression.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3095
151 Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multisets And Its Application in Medical Diagnosis
Authors: Shinoj T. K, Sunil Jacob John
Abstract:In this paper a new concept named Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiset is introduced. The basic operations on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multisets such as union, intersection, addition, multiplication etc. are discussed. An application of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiset in Medical diagnosis problem using a distance function is discussed in detail.
Keywords: Intuitionistic Fuzzy set, Multiset, Intuitionistic Fuzzy MultisetProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2783
150 Sensor Optimisation via H∞ Applied to a MAGLEV Suspension System
Authors: Konstantinos Michail, Argyrios Zolotas, Roger Goodall, John Pearson
Abstract:In this paper a systematic method via H∞ control design is proposed to select a sensor set that satisfies a number of input criteria for a MAGLEV suspension system. The proposed method recovers a number of optimised controllers for each possible sensor set that satisfies the performance and constraint criteria using evolutionary algorithms.
Keywords: H-infinity, Sensor optimisation, Genetic algorithms, MAGLEV vehiclesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1347
149 An Improved Preprocessing for Biosonar Target Classification
Authors: Turgay Temel, John Hallam
An improved processing description to be employed in biosonar signal processing in a cochlea model is proposed and examined. It is compared to conventional models using a modified discrimination analysis and both are tested. Their performances are evaluated with echo data captured from natural targets (trees).Results indicate that the phase characteristics of low-pass filters employed in the echo processing have a significant effect on class separability for this data.
Keywords: Cochlea model, discriminant analysis, neurospikecoding, classification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1373
148 Simulation of Online Communities Using MAS Social and Spatial Organisations
Authors: Maya Rupert, Salima Hassas, Carlos Li, John Sherwood
Abstract:Online Communities are an example of sociallyaware, self-organising, complex adaptive computing systems. The multi-agent systems (MAS) paradigm coordinated by self-organisation mechanisms has been used as an effective way for the simulation and modeling of such systems. In this paper, we propose a model for simulating an online health community using a situated multi-agent system approach, governed by the co-evolution of the social and spatial organisations of the agents.
Keywords: multi-agent systems, organizations, online communities.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1255
147 Modeling of Co-Cu Elution From Clinoptilolite using Neural Network
Authors: John Kabuba, Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi
The elution process for the removal of Co and Cu from clinoptilolite as an ion-exchanger was investigated using three parameters: bed volume, pH and contact time. The present paper study has shown quantitatively that acid concentration has a significant effect on the elution process. The favorable eluant concentration was found to be 2 M HCl and 2 M H2SO4, respectively. The multi-component equilibrium relationship in the process can be very complex, and perhaps ill-defined. In such circumstances, it is preferable to use a non-parametric technique such as Neural Network to represent such an equilibrium relationship.
Keywords: Clinoptilolite, elution, modeling, neural network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1322
146 Signalling Cost Analysis of PDE-NEMO
Authors: Kamarularifin Abd Jalil, John Dunlop
Abstract:A Personal Distributed Environment (PDE) is an example of an IP-based system architecture designed for future mobile communications. In a single PDE, there exist several Subnetworks hosting devices located across the infrastructure, which will inter-work with one another through the coordination of a Device Management Entity (DME). Some of these Sub-networks are fixed and some are mobile. In order to support Mobile Sub-networks mobility in the PDE, the PDE-NEMO protocol was proposed. This paper discussed the signalling cost analysis of PDE-NEMO by use of a detailed simulation model. The paper started with the introduction of the protocol, followed by the experiments and results and then followed by discussions.
Keywords: Mobile Network, PDE-NEMO, Signallling Cost.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1284
145 Pathology of Explanted Transvaginal Meshes
Authors: Vladimir V. Iakovlev, Erin T. Carey, John Steege
The use of polypropylene mesh devices for Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) spread rapidly during the last decade, yet our knowledge of the mesh-tissue interaction is far from complete. We aimed to perform a thorough pathological examination of explanted POP meshes and describe findings that may explain mechanisms of complications resulting in product excision. We report a spectrum of important findings, including nerve ingrowth, mesh deformation, involvement of detrusor muscle with neural ganglia, and polypropylene degradation. Analysis of these findings may improve and guide future treatment strategies.
Keywords: Transvaginal, mesh, nerves, polypropylene degradation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3929
144 The Importance of Intellectual Property for Universities of Technology in South Africa: Challenges Faced and Proposed Way Forward
Authors: Martha E. Ikome, John M. Ikome
Abstract:Intellectual property should be a day-to-day business decision due to its value, but increasingly, a number of institution are still not aware of the importance. Intellectual Property (IP) and its value are often not adequately appreciated. In the increasingly knowledge-driven economy, IP is a key consideration in day-to-day business decisions because new ideas and products appear almost daily in the market, which results in continuous innovation and research. Therefore, this paper will focus on the importance of IP for universities of technology and also further demonstrates how IP can become an economic tool and the challenges faced by these universities in implementing an IP system.
Keywords: Intellectual property, institutions, challenges, protection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1430
143 Evaluation of Algorithms for Sequential Decision in Biosonar Target Classification
Authors: Turgay Temel, John Hallam
A sequential decision problem, based on the task ofidentifying the species of trees given acoustic echo data collectedfrom them, is considered with well-known stochastic classifiers,including single and mixture Gaussian models. Echoes are processedwith a preprocessing stage based on a model of mammalian cochlearfiltering, using a new discrete low-pass filter characteristic. Stoppingtime performance of the sequential decision process is evaluated andcompared. It is observed that the new low pass filter processingresults in faster sequential decisions.
Keywords: Classification, neuro-spike coding, parametricmodel, Gaussian mixture with EM algorithm, sequential decision.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1439
142 An Evaluation of Algorithms for Single-Echo Biosonar Target Classification
Authors: Turgay Temel, John Hallam
A recent neurospiking coding scheme for feature extraction from biosonar echoes of various plants is examined with avariety of stochastic classifiers. Feature vectors derived are employedin well-known stochastic classifiers, including nearest-neighborhood,single Gaussian and a Gaussian mixture with EM optimization.Classifiers' performances are evaluated by using cross-validation and bootstrapping techniques. It is shown that the various classifers perform equivalently and that the modified preprocessing configuration yields considerably improved results.
Keywords: Classification, neuro-spike coding, non-parametricmodel, parametric model, Gaussian mixture, EM algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1554
141 Indoor Mapping by using Smartphone Device
Authors: Shuib Rambat, Ruzsyahriman Jenal, John Elgy
Abstract:This paper presented the potential of smart phone to provide support on mapping the indoor asset. The advantage of using the smart phone to generate the indoor map is that it has the ability to capture, store and reproduces still or video images; indeed most of us do have this powerful gadget. The captured images usually used by maintenance team to save a record for future reference. Here, these images are used to generate 3D models of an object precisely and accurately for efficient and effective solution in data gathering. Thus, it could be a resource for an informative database in asset management.
Keywords: 3D modeling, Asset Management, Object Extraction, Smart DeviceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2640
140 A Stochastic Approach of Mitochondrial Dynamics
Authors: Athanasios T. Alexiou, Maria M. Psiha, John A. Rekkas, Panayiotis M. Vlamos
Abstract:Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, capable to interact with each other. While the number of mitochondria in a cell varies, their quality and functionality depends on the operation of fusion, fission, motility and mitophagy. Nowadays, several researches declare as an important factor in neurogenerative diseases the disruptions in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. In this paper a stochastic model in BioAmbients calculus is presented, concerning mitochondrial fusion and its distribution in the renewal of mitochondrial population in a cell. This model describes the successive and dependent stages of protein synthesis, protein-s activation and merging of two independent mitochondria.
Keywords: Mitochondrial Dynamics, P-Calculus, StochasticModeling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1363
139 Approximations to the Distribution of the Sample Correlation Coefficient
Authors: John N. Haddad, Serge B. Provost
Abstract:Given a bivariate normal sample of correlated variables, (Xi, Yi), i = 1, . . . , n, an alternative estimator of Pearson’s correlation coefficient is obtained in terms of the ranges, |Xi − Yi|. An approximate confidence interval for ρX,Y is then derived, and a simulation study reveals that the resulting coverage probabilities are in close agreement with the set confidence levels. As well, a new approximant is provided for the density function of R, the sample correlation coefficient. A mixture involving the proposed approximate density of R, denoted by hR(r), and a density function determined from a known approximation due to R. A. Fisher is shown to accurately approximate the distribution of R. Finally, nearly exact density approximants are obtained on adjusting hR(r) by a 7th degree polynomial.
Keywords: Sample correlation coefficient, density approximation, confidence intervals.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2106
138 Using Reservoir Models for Monitoring Geothermal Surface Features
Authors: John P. O’Sullivan, Thomas M. P. Ratouis, Michael J. O’Sullivan
As the use of geothermal energy grows internationally more effort is required to monitor and protect areas with rare and important geothermal surface features. A number of approaches are presented for developing and calibrating numerical geothermal reservoir models that are capable of accurately representing geothermal surface features. The approaches are discussed in the context of cases studies of the Rotorua geothermal system and the Orakei-korako geothermal system, both of which contain important surface features. The results show that models are able to match the available field data accurately and hence can be used as valuable tools for predicting the future response of the systems to changes in use.
Keywords: Geothermal reservoir models, surface features, monitoring, TOUGH2.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1903
137 Application of Neural Network on the Loading of Copper onto Clinoptilolite
Authors: John Kabuba
The study investigated the implementation of the Neural Network (NN) techniques for prediction of the loading of Cu ions onto clinoptilolite. The experimental design using analysis of variance (ANOVA) was chosen for testing the adequacy of the Neural Network and for optimizing of the effective input parameters (pH, temperature and initial concentration). Feed forward, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) NN successfully tracked the non-linear behavior of the adsorption process versus the input parameters with mean squared error (MSE), correlation coefficient (R) and minimum squared error (MSRE) of 0.102, 0.998 and 0.004 respectively. The results showed that NN modeling techniques could effectively predict and simulate the highly complex system and non-linear process such as ionexchange.
Keywords: Clinoptilolite, loading, modeling, Neural network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1471
136 Robust Variogram Fitting Using Non-Linear Rank-Based Estimators
Authors: Hazem M. Al-Mofleh, John E. Daniels, Joseph W. McKean
In this paper numerous robust fitting procedures are considered in estimating spatial variograms. In spatial statistics, the conventional variogram fitting procedure (non-linear weighted least squares) suffers from the same outlier problem that has plagued this method from its inception. Even a 3-parameter model, like the variogram, can be adversely affected by a single outlier. This paper uses the Hogg-Type adaptive procedures to select an optimal score function for a rank-based estimator for these non-linear models. Numeric examples and simulation studies will demonstrate the robustness, utility, efficiency, and validity of these estimates.
Keywords: Asymptotic relative efficiency, non-linear rank-based, robust, rank estimates, variogram.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1458
135 SPH Method used for Flow Predictions at a Turgo Impulse Turbine: Comparison with Fluent
Authors: Phoevos K. Koukouvinis, John S. Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris E. Papantonis
Abstract:This work is an attempt to use the standard Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics methodology for the simulation of the complex unsteady, free-surface flow in a rotating Turgo impulse water turbine. A comparison of two different geometries was conducted. The SPH method due to its mesh-less nature is capable of capturing the flow features appearing in the turbine, without diffusion at the water/air interface. Furthermore results are compared with a commercial CFD package (Fluent®) and the SPH algorithm proves to be capable of providing similar results, in much less time than the mesh based CFD program. A parametric study was also performed regarding the turbine inlet angle.
Keywords: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Mesh-lessmethods, Impulse turbines, Turgo turbine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2475