Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 692

Search results for: coupled stepped impedance resonators

692 A New Microstrip Diplexer Using Coupled Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: A. Chinig, J. Zbitou, A. Errkik, L. Elabdellaoui, A. Tajmouati, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a new structure of microstrip band pass filter (BPF) based on coupled stepped impedance resonators. Each filter consists of two coupled stepped impedance resonators connected to microstrip feed lines. The coupled junction is utilized to connect the two BPFs to the antenna. This two band pass filters are designed and simulated to operate for the digital communication system (DCS) and Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands at 1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz respectively. The proposed circuit presents good performances with an insertion loss lower than 2.3 dB and isolation between the two channels greater than 21 dB. The prototype of the optimized diplexer have been investigated numerically by using ADS Agilent and verified with CST microwave software.

Keywords: Band Pass Filter, coupled junction, coupled stepped impedance resonators, diplexer, insertion loss, isolation.

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691 Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based on Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: Yu-Fu Chen, Zih-Jyun Dai, Chen-Te Chiu, Shiue-Chen Chiou, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Ming Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen, Hung-Wei Wu, Hsin-Ying Lee, Yan-Kuin Su, Shoou-Jinn Chang

Abstract:

This paper presents a compact dual-band bandpass filter that involves using the quarter wavelength stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) for achieving simultaneously compact circuit size and good dual-band performance. The filter is designed at 2.4 / 3.5 GHz and constructed by two pairs of quarter wavelength SIRs and source-load lines. By properly tuning the impedance ratio, length ratio and radius of via hole of the SIRs, dual-passbands performance can be easily determined. To improve the passband selectivity, the use of source-load lines is to increase coupling energy between the resonators. The filter is showing simple configuration, effective design method and small circuit size. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: Dual-band, bandpass filter, stepped impedance resonators, SIR.

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690 Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband

Authors: N. Azadi-Tinat, H. Oraizi

Abstract:

Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.

Keywords: Ultra-wideband, method of least square, multilayer microstrip filter, n-coupled transmission lines.

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689 Design of Multiband Microstrip Antenna Using Stepped Cut Method for WLAN/WiMAX and C/Ku-Band Applications

Authors: Ahmed Boutejdar, Bishoy I. Halim, Soumia El Hani, Larbi Bellarbi, Amal Afyf

Abstract:

In this paper, a planar monopole antenna for multi band applications is proposed. The antenna structure operates at three operating frequencies at 3.7, 6.2, and 13.5 GHz which cover different communication frequency ranges. The antenna consists of a quasi-modified rectangular radiating patch with a partial ground plane and two parasitic elements (open-loop-ring resonators) to serve as coupling-bridges. A stepped cut at lower corners of the radiating patch and the partial ground plane are used, to achieve the multiband features. The proposed antenna is manufactured on the FR4 substrate and is simulated and optimized using High Frequency Simulation System (HFSS). The antenna topology possesses an area of 30.5 x 30 x 1.6 mm3. The measured results demonstrate that the candidate antenna has impedance bandwidths for 10 dB return loss and operates from 3.80 – 3.90 GHz, 4.10 – 5.20 GHz, 11.2 – 11.5 GHz and from 12.5 – 14.0 GHz, which meet the requirements of the wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), C- (Uplink) and Ku- (Uplink) band applications. Acceptable agreement is obtained between measurement and simulation results. Experimental results show that the antenna is successfully simulated and measured, and the tri-band antenna can be achieved by adjusting the lengths of the three elements and it gives good gains across all the operation bands.

Keywords: Planar monopole antenna, FR4 substrate, HFSS, WLAN, WiMAX, C & Ku.

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688 Modeling and Design of MPPT Controller Using Stepped P&O Algorithm in Solar Photovoltaic System

Authors: R. Prakash, B. Meenakshipriya, R. Kumaravelan

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) system by using improved mathematical model. The model is used to study different parameter variations and effects on the PV array including operating temperature and solar irradiation level. In this paper stepped P&O algorithm is proposed for MPPT control. This algorithm will identify the suitable duty ratio in which the DC-DC converter should be operated to maximize the power output. Photo voltaic array with proposed stepped P&O-MPPT controller can operate in the maximum power point for the whole range of solar data (irradiance and temperature).

Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Boost converter, Stepped Perturb & Observe method (Stepped P&O).

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687 Increasing Directional Intensity of Output Light Beam from Photonic Crystal Slab Outlet Including Micro Cavity Resonators

Authors: A. Mobini, K. Saghafi, V. Ahmadi

Abstract:

in this paper we modified a simple two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide by creating micro cavity resonators in order to increase the output light emission which can be applicable to photonic integrated circuits. The micro cavity resonators are constructed by removing two tubes close to the waveguide output. Coupling emitted light from waveguide with those micro cavities, results increasing intensity of waveguide output light. Inserting a tube in last row of waveguide, we have improved directionality of output light beam.

Keywords: photonic crystal, waveguide, micro cavity resonators, directional emission

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686 Symbolic Analysis of Power Spectrum of CMOS Cross Couple Oscillator

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch

Abstract:

This paper proposes for the first time symbolic formula of the power spectrum of CMOS Cross Couple Oscillator and its modified circuit. Many principles existed to derived power spectrum in microwave textbook such as impedance, admittance parameters, ABCD, H parameters, etc. It can be compared by graph of power spectrum which methodology is the best from the point of view of practical measurement setup such as condition of impedance parameter which used superposition of current to derived (its current injection at the other port of the circuit is zero, which is impossible in reality). Four graphs of impedance parameters of cross couple oscillator are proposed. After that four graphs of scattering parameters of CMOS cross coupled oscillator will be shown.

Keywords: Optimization, power spectrum, impedance parameter, scattering parameter.

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685 A Low Noise Microwave Filter with Minimum Distortion

Authors: Cheng Yuan Hung, Min Hang Weng, Siang Wen Lan, Wei Yu Chen, Hung Wei Wu, Chun Yueh Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, a low noise microwave bandpass filter (BPF) is presented. This filter is fabricated by modifying the conventional cross-coupled structure. The spurious response is improved by using the end open coupled lines, and the influence of the noise is minimized. Impedance matrix of the open end coupled circuit clarifies the characteristic of the suppression of the spurious response. The rejection of spurious suppression region of the proposed filter is greater than 20 dB from 3-13 GHz. The measured results of the fabricated filter confirm the concepts of the proposed design and exhibits high performance.

Keywords: Low noise, signal transmission, bandpass filter, end open coupled line, communication system.

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684 All-Silicon Raman Laser with Quasi-Phase-Matched Structures and Resonators

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

The principle of all-silicon Raman lasers for an output wavelength of 1.3 μm is presented, which employs quasi-phase-matched structures and resonators to enhance the output power. 1.3-μm laser beams for GE-PONs in FTTH systems generated from a silicon device are very important because such a silicon device can be monolithically integrated with the silicon planar lightwave circuits (Si PLCs) used in the GE-PONs. This reduces the device fabrication processes and time and also optical losses at the junctions between optical waveguides of the Si PLCs and Si laser devices when compared with 1.3-μm III-V semiconductor lasers set on the Si PLCs employed at present. We show that the quasi-phase-matched Si Raman laser with resonators can produce about 174 times larger laser power at 1.3 μm (at maximum) than that without resonators for a Si waveguide of Raman gain 20 cm/GW and optical loss 1.2 dB/cm, pumped at power 10 mW, where the length of the waveguide is 3 mm and its cross-section is (1.5 μm)2.

Keywords: All-silicon raman laser, FTTH, GE-PON, quasi-phase-matched structure, resonator.

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683 A Low Profile Dual Polarized Slot Coupled Patch Antenna

Authors: Mingde Du, Dong Han

Abstract:

A low profile, dual polarized, slot coupled patch antenna is designed and developed in this paper. The antenna has a measured bandwidth of 17.2% for return loss > 15 dB and pair ports isolation >23 dB. The gain of the antenna is over 10 dBi and the half power beam widths (HPBW) of the antenna are 80±3o in the horizontal plane and 39±2o in the vertical plane. The cross polarization discrimination (XPD) is less than 20 dB in HPBW. Within the operating band, the performances of good impedance match, high ports isolation, low cross polarization, and stable radiation patterns are achieved.

Keywords: Dual polarized, patch antenna, slot coupled, base station antenna.

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682 Design and Realization of an Electronic Load for a PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: Arafet Bouaicha, Hatem Allegui, Amar Rouane, El-Hassane Aglzim, Abdelkader Mami

Abstract:

In order to further understand the behavior of PEM fuel cell and optimize their performance, it is necessary to perform measurements in real time. The internal impedance measurement by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is of great importance. In this work, we present the impedance measurement method of a PEM fuel cell by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method and the realization steps of electronic load for this measuring technique implementation. The theoretical results are obtained from the simulation of software PSPICE® and experimental tests are carried out using the Ballard Nexa™ PEM fuel cell system.

Keywords: Electronic load, MOS transistor, PEM fuel cell, Impedance measurement, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS).

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681 Multiple-Channel Piezoelectric Actuated Tunable Optical Filter for WDM Application

Authors: Hailu Dessalegn, T. Srinivas

Abstract:

We propose new multiple-channel piezoelectric (PZT) actuated tunable optical filter based on racetrack multi-ring resonators for wavelength de-multiplexing network applications. We design tunable eight-channel wavelength de-multiplexer consisting of eight cascaded PZT actuated tunable multi-ring resonator filter with a channel spacing of 1.6nm. The filter for each channel is basically structured on a suspended beam, sandwiched with piezoelectric material and built in integrated ring resonators which are placed on the middle of the beam to gain uniform stress and linearly varying longitudinal strain. A reference single mode serially coupled multi stage racetrack ring resonator with the same radii and coupling length is designed with a line width of 0.8974nm with a flat top pass band at 1dB of 0.5205nm and free spectral range of about 14.9nm. In each channel, a small change in the perimeter of the rings is introduced to establish the shift in resonance wavelength as per the defined channel spacing. As a result, when a DC voltage is applied, the beams will elongate, which involves mechanical deformation of the ring resonators that induces a stress and a strain, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift providing the tunability of central wavelength in each channel. Simultaneous wave length shift as high as 45.54pm/

Keywords: Optical MEMS, piezoelectric (PZT) actuation, tunable optical filter, wavelength de-multiplexer.

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680 Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites

Authors: M. G. Smitha, M. V. Murugendrappa

Abstract:

Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 °C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.

Keywords: Polypyrrole, sol gel, impedance, composites.

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679 Numerical Method Based On Initial Value-Finite Differences for Free Vibration of Stepped Thickness Plates

Authors: Ahmed M. Farag, Wael F. Mohamed, Atef A. Ata, Burhamy M. Burhamy

Abstract:

The main objective of the present paper is to derive an easy numerical technique for the analysis of the free vibration through the stepped regions of plates. Based on the utilities of the step by step integration initial values IV and Finite differences FD methods, the present improved Initial Value Finite Differences (IVFD) technique is achieved. The first initial conditions are formulated in convenient forms for the step by step integrations while the upper and lower edge conditions are expressed in finite difference modes. Also compatibility conditions are created due to the sudden variation of plate thickness. The present method (IVFD) is applied to solve the fourth order partial differential equation of motion for stepped plate across two different panels under the sudden step compatibility in addition to different types of end conditions. The obtained results are examined and the validity of the present method is proved showing excellent efficiency and rapid convergence.

Keywords: Vibrations, Step by Step Integration, Stepped plate, Boundary.

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678 Symbolic Analysis of Input Impedance of CMOS Floating Active Inductors with Application in Fully Differential Bandpass Amplifier

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch

Abstract:

This paper proposes a study of input impedance of 2 types of CMOS active inductors. It derives 2 input impedance formulas. The first formula is the input impedance of the grounded active inductor. The second formula is the input impedance of the floating active inductor. After that, these formulas can be used to simulate magnitude and phase response of input impedance as a function of current consumption with MATLAB. Common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the fully differential bandpass amplifier is derived based on superposition principle. CMRR as a function of input frequency is plotted as a function of current consumption. 

Keywords: Grounded active inductor, floating active inductor, Fully differential bandpass amplifier.

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677 Numerical Study of Some Coupled PDEs by using Differential Transformation Method

Authors: Reza Abazari, Rasool Abazari

Abstract:

In this paper, the two-dimension differential transformation method (DTM) is employed to obtain the closed form solutions of the three famous coupled partial differential equation with physical interest namely, the coupled Korteweg-de Vries(KdV) equations, the coupled Burgers equations and coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We begin by showing that how the differential transformation method applies to a linear and non-linear part of any PDEs and apply on these coupled PDEs to illustrate the sufficiency of the method for this kind of nonlinear differential equations. The results obtained are in good agreement with the exact solution. These results show that the technique introduced here is accurate and easy to apply.

Keywords: Coupled Korteweg-de Vries(KdV) equation, Coupled Burgers equation, Coupled Schrödinger equation, differential transformation method.

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676 Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Non-Flat Environment

Authors: Norsinnira Zainul Azlan, Hiroshi Yamaura

Abstract:

This paper presents a new adaptive impedance control strategy, based on Function Approximation Technique (FAT) to compensate for unknown non-flat environment shape or time-varying environment location. The target impedance in the force controllable direction is modified by incorporating adaptive compensators and the uncertainties are represented by FAT, allowing the update law to be derived easily. The force error feedback is utilized in the estimation and the accurate knowledge of the environment parameters are not required by the algorithm. It is shown mathematically that the stability of the controller is guaranteed based on Lyapunov theory. Simulation results presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed controller.

Keywords: Adaptive impedance control, Function Approximation Technique (FAT), impedance control, unknown environment position.

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675 Using Electrical Impedance Tomography to Control a Robot

Authors: Shayan Rezvanigilkolaei, Shayesteh Vefaghnematollahi

Abstract:

Electrical impedance tomography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique suitable for medical applications. This paper describes an electrical impedance tomography device with the ability to navigate a robotic arm to manipulate a target object. The design of the device includes various hardware and software sections to perform medical imaging and control the robotic arm. In its hardware section an image is formed by 16 electrodes which are located around a container. This image is used to navigate a 3DOF robotic arm to reach the exact location of the target object. The data set to form the impedance imaging is obtained by having repeated current injections and voltage measurements between all electrode pairs. After performing the necessary calculations to obtain the impedance, information is transmitted to the computer. This data is fed and then executed in MATLAB which is interfaced with EIDORS (Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction Software) to reconstruct the image based on the acquired data. In the next step, the coordinates of the center of the target object are calculated by image processing toolbox of MATLAB (IPT). Finally, these coordinates are used to calculate the angles of each joint of the robotic arm. The robotic arm moves to the desired tissue with the user command.

Keywords: Electrical impedance tomography, EIT, Surgeon robot, image processing of Electrical impedance tomography.

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674 Study of the Transport of Multivalent Metal Cations through Cation-Exchange Membranes by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, M. Pinel, E. M. Ortega, M. García-Gabaldón

Abstract:

In the present work, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrocopy (EIS) is applied to study the transport of different metal cations through a cation-exchange membrane. This technique enables the identification of the ionic-transport characteristics and to distinguish between different transport mechanisms occurring at different current density ranges. The impedance spectra are dependent on the applied dc current density, on the type of cation and on the concentration. When the applied dc current density increases, the diameter of the impedance spectra loops increases because all the components of membrane system resistance increase. The diameter of the impedance plots decreases in the order of Na(I), Ni(II) and Cr(III) due to the increased interactions between the negatively charged sulfonic groups of the membrane and the cations with greater charge. Nyquist plots are shifted towards lower values of the real impedance, and its diameter decreases with the increase of concentration due to the decrease of the solution resistance.

Keywords: Ion-exchange Membranes, Electrochemical Impedance Espectroscopy, Multivalent Metal Cations.

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673 FAT based Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Environment Position

Authors: N. Z. Azlan, H. Yamaura

Abstract:

This paper presents the Function Approximation Technique (FAT) based adaptive impedance control for a robotic finger. The force based impedance control is developed so that the robotic finger tracks the desired force while following the reference position trajectory, under unknown environment position and uncertainties in finger parameters. The control strategy is divided into two phases, which are the free and contact phases. Force error feedback is utilized in updating the uncertain environment position during contact phase. Computer simulations results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Adaptive impedance control, force based impedance control, force control, Function Approximation Technique (FAT), unknown environment position.

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672 The System for Root Canal Length Measurement Based on Multifrequency Impedance Method

Authors: Zheng Zhang, Xin Chen, Guoqing Ding

Abstract:

Electronic apex locators (EAL) has been widely used clinically for measuring root canal working length with high accuracy, which is crucial for successful endodontic treatment. In order to maintain high accuracy in different measurement environments, this study presented a system for root canal length measurement based on multifrequency impedance method. This measuring system can generate a sweep current with frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz through a direct digital synthesizer. Multiple impedance ratios with different combinations of frequencies were obtained and transmitted by an analog-to-digital converter and several of them with representatives will be selected after data process. The system analyzed the functional relationship between these impedance ratios and the distance between the file and the apex with statistics by measuring plenty of teeth. The position of the apical foramen can be determined by the statistical model using these impedance ratios. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy of the system based on multifrequency impedance ratios method to determine the position of the apical foramen was higher than the dual-frequency impedance ratio method. Besides that, for more complex measurement environments, the performance of the system was more stable.

Keywords: Root canal length, apex locator, multifrequency impedance, sweep frequency.

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671 High Impedance Fault Detection using LVQ Neural Networks

Authors: Abhishek Bansal, G. N. Pillai

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method to detect high impedance faults in radial distribution systems. Magnitudes of third and fifth harmonic components of voltages and currents are used as a feature vector for fault discrimination. The proposed methodology uses a learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network as a classifier for identifying high impedance arc-type faults. The network learns from the data obtained from simulation of a simple radial system under different fault and system conditions. Compared to a feed-forward neural network, a properly tuned LVQ network gives quicker response.

Keywords: Fault identification, distribution networks, high impedance arc-faults, feature vector, LVQ networks.

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670 Noise Depressed in a Micro Stepping Motor

Authors: Bo-Wun Huang, Jao-Hwa Kuang, J.-G. Tseng, Yan-De Wu

Abstract:

An investigation of noise in a micro stepping motor is considered to study in this article. Because of the trend towards higher precision and more and more small 3C (including Computer, Communication and Consumer Electronics) products, the micro stepping motor is frequently used to drive the micro system or the other 3C products. Unfortunately, noise in a micro stepped motor is too large to accept by the customs. To depress the noise of a micro stepped motor, the dynamic characteristics in this system must be studied. In this article, a Visual Basic (VB) computer program speed controlled micro stepped motor in a digital camera is investigated. Karman KD2300-2S non-contract eddy current displacement sensor, probe microphone, and HP 35670A analyzer are employed to analyze the dynamic characteristics of vibration and noise in a motor. The vibration and noise measurement of different type of bearings and different treatment of coils are compared. The rotating components, bearings, coil, etc. of the motor play the important roles in producing vibration and noise. It is found that the noise will be depressed about 3~4 dB and 6~7 dB, when substitutes the copper bearing with plastic one and coats the motor coil with paraffin wax, respectively.

Keywords: micro motor, noise, vibration

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669 Impedance Matching of Axial Mode Helical Antennas

Authors: Hossein Mardani, Neil Buchanan, Robert Cahill, Vincent Fusco

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas to find an effective way for matching it to 50 Ω. The study is done on the important matching parameters such as like wire diameter and helix to the ground plane gap. It is intended that these parameters control the matching without detrimentally affecting the radiation pattern. Using transmission line theory, a simple broadband technique is proposed, which is applicable for perfect matching of antennas with similar design parameters. We provide design curves to help to choose the proper dimensions of the matching section based on the antenna’s unmatched input impedance. Finally, using the proposed technique, a 4-turn axial mode helix is designed at 2.5 GHz center frequency and the measurement results of the manufactured antenna will be included. This parametric study gives a good insight into the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas and the proposed impedance matching approach provides a simple, useful method for matching these types of antennas.

Keywords: Antenna, helix, helical, axial mode, wireless power transfer, impedance matching.

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668 A Novel Solution to Restricted Earth Fault Low Impedance Relay Maloperation

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

In this paper, various methods of providing restricted earth fault protection are discussed. The proper operation of high and low impedance Restricted Earth Fault (REF) protection for various applications has been discussed. The maloperation of a relay due to improper placement of CTs has been identified and a simple/unique solution has been proposed in this work with a case study. Moreover, it is found that the proper placement of CT in high impedance method will provide the same result with reduced CT. This methodology has been successfully implemented in Al Takreer refinery for a 2000 KVA transformer. The outcome of the paper may be included in IEEEC37.91 standard to give the proper guidance for protection engineers to sort out the issues related to mal functioning of REF relays.

Keywords: Relay maloperation, transformer, low impedance REF, MatLab, 64R, IEEE C37.91.

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667 Electrical Characteristics of Biomodified Electrodes using Nonfaradaic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Yusmeeraz Yusof, Yoshiyuki Yanagimoto, Shigeyasu Uno, Kazuo Nakazato

Abstract:

We demonstrate a nonfaradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement of biochemically modified gold plated electrodes using a two-electrode system. The absence of any redox indicator in the impedance measurements provide more precise and accurate characterization of the measured bioanalyte at molecular resolution. An equivalent electrical circuit of the electrodeelectrolyte interface was deduced from the observed impedance data of saline solution at low and high concentrations. The detection of biomolecular interactions was fundamentally correlated to electrical double-layer variation at modified interface. The investigations were done using 20mer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands without any label. Surface modification was performed by creating mixed monolayer of the thiol-modified single-stranded DNA and a spacer thiol (mercaptohexanol) by a two-step self-assembly method. The results clearly distinguish between the noncomplementary and complementary hybridization of DNA, at low frequency region below several hundreds Hertz.

Keywords: Biosensor, electrical double-layer, impedance spectroscopy, label free DNA.

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666 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari

Abstract:

Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: Density, P-impedance, S-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion.

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665 Performance Evaluation of Complex Electrical Bio-impedance from V/I Four-electrode Measurements

Authors: Towfeeq Fairooz, Salim Istyaq

Abstract:

The passive electrical properties of a tissue depends on the intrinsic constituents and its structure, therefore by measuring the complex electrical impedance of the tissue it might be possible to obtain indicators of the tissue state or physiological activity [1]. Complete bio-impedance information relative to physiology and pathology of a human body and functional states of the body tissue or organs can be extracted by using a technique containing a fourelectrode measurement setup. This work presents the estimation measurement setup based on the four-electrode technique. First, the complex impedance is estimated by three different estimation techniques: Fourier, Sine Correlation and Digital De-convolution and then estimation errors for the magnitude, phase, reactance and resistance are calculated and analyzed for different levels of disturbances in the observations. The absolute values of relative errors are plotted and the graphical performance of each technique is compared.

Keywords: Electrical Impedance, Fast Fourier Transform, Additive White Gaussian Noise, Total Least Square, Digital De-Convolution, Sine-Correlation.

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664 Broadband Annular-Ring Dielectric Resonator Antenna

Authors: Mohammad J. Almalkawi

Abstract:

A broadband wire monopole antenna loaded by inhomogeneous stack of annular dielectric ring resonators (DRRs) is proposed. The proposed antenna exhibits a broad impedance bandwidth from 3 to 30 GHz. This is achieved by adding an external step matching network at the antenna feed point. The matching network is comprised of three annular DRRs possessing different permittivity values and sharing the same axial over a finite ground plane. The antenna performance is characterized using full-wave EM simulation. Compared to previous-reported wire antennas with improved bandwidth achieved by DRRs, the proposed topology provides relatively compact realization and superior broadband performance.

Keywords: Broadband, dielectric ring resonator, wire monopole antenna.

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663 An Approach in the Improvement of the Reliability of Impedance Relay

Authors: D. Ouahdi, R. Ladjeroud, I. Habi

Abstract:

The distance protection mainly the impedance relay which is considered as the main protection for transmission lines can be subjected to impedance measurement error which is, mainly, due to the fault resistance and to the power fluctuation. Thus, the impedance relay may not operate for a short circuit at the far end of the protected line (case of the under reach) or operates for a fault beyond its protected zone (case of overreach). In this paper, an approach to fault detection by a distance protection, which distinguishes between the faulty conditions and the effect of overload operation mode, has been developed. This approach is based on the symmetrical components; mainly the negative sequence, and it is taking into account both the effect of fault resistance and the overload situation which both have an effect upon the reliability of the protection in terms of dependability for the former and security for the latter.

Keywords: Distance Protection, Fault Detection, negative sequence, overload, Transmission line.

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