Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 982

Search results for: insertion loss

982 A New Microstrip Diplexer Using Coupled Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: A. Chinig, J. Zbitou, A. Errkik, L. Elabdellaoui, A. Tajmouati, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a new structure of microstrip band pass filter (BPF) based on coupled stepped impedance resonators. Each filter consists of two coupled stepped impedance resonators connected to microstrip feed lines. The coupled junction is utilized to connect the two BPFs to the antenna. This two band pass filters are designed and simulated to operate for the digital communication system (DCS) and Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands at 1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz respectively. The proposed circuit presents good performances with an insertion loss lower than 2.3 dB and isolation between the two channels greater than 21 dB. The prototype of the optimized diplexer have been investigated numerically by using ADS Agilent and verified with CST microwave software.

Keywords: Band Pass Filter, coupled junction, coupled stepped impedance resonators, diplexer, insertion loss, isolation.

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981 Design and Synthesis of Two Tunable Bandpass Filters Based On Varactors and Defected Ground Structure

Authors: M. Boulakroune, M. Challal, H. Louazene, S. Fentiz

Abstract:

This paper presents two types of microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) at microwave frequencies. The first one is a tunable BPF using planar patch resonators based on a varactor diode. The filter is formed by a triple mode circular patch resonator with two pairs of slots, in which the varactor diodes are connected. Indeed, this filter is initially centered at 2.4 GHz; the center frequency of the tunable patch filter could be tuned up to 1.8 GHz simultaneously with the bandwidth, reaching high tuning ranges. Lossless simulations were compared to those considering the substrate dielectric, conductor losses and the equivalent electrical circuit model of the tuning element in order to assess their effects. Within these variations, simulation results showed insertion loss better than 2 dB and return loss better than 10 dB over the passband. The second structure is a BPF for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications based on multiple-mode resonator (MMR) and rectangular-shaped defected ground structure (DGS). This filter, which is compact size of 25.2 x 3.8 mm2, provides in the pass band an insertion loss of 0.57 dB and a return loss greater than 12 dB. The proposed filters presents good performances and the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimentation ones reported elsewhere.

Keywords: Defected ground structure, varactor diode, microstrip bandpass filter, multiple-mode resonator.

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980 Insertion of Thiazolidinediones into Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Behnoush Zare, Mojdeh Akhavan, Ahmad Reza Dehpour

Abstract:

In this study we investigate the insertion of pioglitazone, a Thiazolidinedione, into the two different sizes of Carbon nanotub. It was shown that the insertion of pioglitazone into the carbon nanotube in a water solute environment could be related to the diameter of the nanotube and in the flow of the waters via hydrophilic interactions. This encapsulated drug-carbon nanotube molecule can be further applicable in other investigations in target therapy with these agents regarding to reduce their potential toxic effects.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, MD Simulation, Thiazolidinedions

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979 A Two-Way Wilkinson Power Divider Realized Using One Eighth Wave Transmission Line for GSM Application

Authors: G. Kalpanadevi, S. Ravimaran, M. Shanmugapriya

Abstract:

In this paper, a modified Wilkinson power divider for GSM application is presented. The quarter–wavelength microstrip lines in the conventional Wilkinson power divider (WPD) are replaced by one-eighth wavelength transmission line. Wilkinson power divider is designed using λ/4 and λ/8 transmission line. It has the operating frequency of 915 MHz which is used in the GSM standard. The proposed Wilkinson Power Divider is designed using the simulation tool Advanced Design System. The results of λ/8 transmission line are very close to the results of λ/4 transmission line. The isolation loss of λ/8 transmission line is improved by introducing a capacitor between the output ports. The proposed Wilkinson power divider has the best return loss of greater than -10 dB and isolation loss of -15.25 dB. The λ/8 transmission line Wilkinson power divider has the reduced size of 53.9 percentages than λ/4 transmission line WPD. The proposed design has simple structure, better isolation loss and good insertion loss.

Keywords: Wilkinson Power Divider, Quarter wave line, one eighth wave transmission line, microstrip line.

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978 Real-time Haptic Modeling and Simulation for Prosthetic Insertion

Authors: Catherine A. Todd, Fazel Naghdy

Abstract:

In this work a surgical simulator is produced which enables a training otologist to conduct a virtual, real-time prosthetic insertion. The simulator provides the Ear, Nose and Throat surgeon with real-time visual and haptic responses during virtual cochlear implantation into a 3D model of the human Scala Tympani (ST). The parametric model is derived from measured data as published in the literature and accounts for human morphological variance, such as differences in cochlear shape, enabling patient-specific pre- operative assessment. Haptic modeling techniques use real physical data and insertion force measurements, to develop a force model which mimics the physical behavior of an implant as it collides with the ST walls during an insertion. Output force profiles are acquired from the insertion studies conducted in the work, to validate the haptic model. The simulator provides the user with real-time, quantitative insertion force information and associated electrode position as user inserts the virtual implant into the ST model. The information provided by this study may also be of use to implant manufacturers for design enhancements as well as for training specialists in optimal force administration, using the simulator. The paper reports on the methods for anatomical modeling and haptic algorithm development, with focus on simulator design, development, optimization and validation. The techniques may be transferrable to other medical applications that involve prosthetic device insertions where user vision is obstructed.

Keywords: Haptic modeling, medical device insertion, real-time visualization of prosthetic implantation, surgical simulation.

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977 Vector Control Using Series Iron Loss Model of Induction, Motors and Power Loss Minimization

Authors: Kheldoun Aissa, Khodja Djalal Eddine

Abstract:

The iron loss is a source of detuning in vector controlled induction motor drives if the classical rotor vector controller is used for decoupling. In fact, the field orientation will not be satisfied and the output torque will not truck the reference torque mostly used by Loss Model Controllers (LMCs). In addition, this component of loss, among others, may be excessive if the vector controlled induction motor is driving light loads. In this paper, the series iron loss model is used to develop a vector controller immune to iron loss effect and then an LMC to minimize the total power loss using the torque generated by the speed controller.

Keywords: Field Oriented Controller, Induction Motor, Loss ModelController, Series Iron Loss.

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976 Enhanced Shell Sorting Algorithm

Authors: Basit Shahzad, Muhammad Tanvir Afzal

Abstract:

Many algorithms are available for sorting the unordered elements. Most important of them are Bubble sort, Heap sort, Insertion sort and Shell sort. These algorithms have their own pros and cons. Shell Sort which is an enhanced version of insertion sort, reduces the number of swaps of the elements being sorted to minimize the complexity and time as compared to insertion sort. Shell sort improves the efficiency of insertion sort by quickly shifting values to their destination. Average sort time is O(n1.25), while worst-case time is O(n1.5). It performs certain iterations. In each iteration it swaps some elements of the array in such a way that in last iteration when the value of h is one, the number of swaps will be reduced. Donald L. Shell invented a formula to calculate the value of ?h?. this work focuses to identify some improvement in the conventional Shell sort algorithm. ''Enhanced Shell Sort algorithm'' is an improvement in the algorithm to calculate the value of 'h'. It has been observed that by applying this algorithm, number of swaps can be reduced up to 60 percent as compared to the existing algorithm. In some other cases this enhancement was found faster than the existing algorithms available.

Keywords: Algorithm, Computation, Shell, Sorting.

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975 Tactile Sensory Digit Feedback for Cochlear Implant Electrode Insertion

Authors: Yusuf Bulale, Mark Prince, Geoff Tansley, Peter Brett

Abstract:

Cochlear Implantation (CI) which became a routine procedure for the last decades is an electronic device that provides a sense of sound for patients who are severely and profoundly deaf. The optimal success of this implantation depends on the electrode technology and deep insertion techniques. However, this manual insertion procedure may cause mechanical trauma which can lead to severe destruction of the delicate intracochlear structure. Accordingly, future improvement of the cochlear electrode implant insertion needs reduction of the excessive force application during the cochlear implantation which causes tissue damage and trauma. This study is examined tool-tissue interaction of large prototype scale digit embedded with distributive tactile sensor based upon cochlear electrode and large prototype scale cochlea phantom for simulating the human cochlear which could lead to small scale digit requirements. The digit, distributive tactile sensors embedded with silicon-substrate was inserted into the cochlea phantom to measure any digit/phantom interaction and position of the digit in order to minimize tissue and trauma damage during the electrode cochlear insertion. The digit have provided tactile information from the digitphantom insertion interaction such as contact status, tip penetration, obstacles, relative shape and location, contact orientation and multiple contacts. The tests demonstrated that even devices of such a relative simple design with low cost have potential to improve cochlear implant surgery and other lumen mapping applications by providing tactile sensory feedback information and thus controlling the insertion through sensing and control of the tip of the implant during the insertion. In that approach, the surgeon could minimize the tissue damage and potential damage to the delicate structures within the cochlear caused by current manual electrode insertion of the cochlear implantation. This approach also can be applied to other minimally invasive surgery applications as well as diagnosis and path navigation procedures.

Keywords: Cochlear electrode insertion, distributive tactile sensory feedback information, flexible digit, minimally invasive surgery, tool/tissue interaction.

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974 Loss of P16/INK4A Protein Expression is a Common Abnormality in Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Authors: Fawzi Irshaid, Fatiha Dilmi, Khaled Tarawneh, Raji Hadeth, Adnan Jaran, Ahad Al-Khatib

Abstract:

P16/INK4A is tumor suppressor protein that plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation. Loss of P16 protein expression has been implicated in pathogenesis of many cancers, including lymphoma. Therefore, we sought to investigate if loss of P16 protein expression is associated with lymphoma and/or any specific lymphoma subtypes (Hodgkin-s lymphoma (HL) and nonHodgkin-s lymphoma (NHL)). Fifty-five lymphoma cases consisted of 30 cases of HL and 25 cases of NHL, with an age range of 3 to 78 years, were examined for loss of P16 by immunohistochemical technique using a specific antibody reacting against P16. In total, P16 loss was seen in 33% of all lymphoma cases. P16 loss was identified in 47.7% of HL cases. In contrast, only 16% of NHL showed loss of P16. Loss of P16 was seen in 67% of HL patients with 50 years of age or older, whereas P16 loss was found in only 42% of HL patients with less than 50 years of age. P16 loss in HL is somewhat higher in male (55%) than in female (30%). In subtypes of HL, P16 loss was found exclusively in all cases of lymphocyte depletion, lymphocyte predominance and unclassified cases, whereas P16 loss was seen in 39% of mixed cellularity and 29% of nodular sclerosis cases. In low grade NHL patients, P16 loss was seen in approximately one-third of cases, whereas no or very rare of P16 loss was found in intermediate and high grade cases. P16 loss did not show any correlation with age or gender of NHL patients. In conclusion, the high rate of P16 loss seen in our study suggests that loss of P16 expression plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of lymphoma, particularly with HL.

Keywords: B-cells, immunostaining, P16 protein, Reed-Sternberg cells, tumors.

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973 Transmission Loss Allocation via Loss Function Decomposition and Current Projection Concept

Authors: M.R. Ebrahimi, Z. Ghofrani, M. Ehsan

Abstract:

One of the major problems in liberalized power markets is loss allocation. In this paper, a different method for allocating transmission losses to pool market participants is proposed. The proposed method is fundamentally based on decomposition of loss function and current projection concept. The method has been implemented and tested on several networks and one sample summarized in the paper. The results show that the method is comprehensive and fair to allocating the energy losses of a power market to its participants.

Keywords: Transmission loss, loss allocation, current projectionconcept, loss function decomposition.

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972 Economic Loss due to Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm

Authors: K. Assis, K. P. Chong, A. S. Idris, C. M. Ho

Abstract:

Oil palm or Elaeis guineensis is considered as the golden crop in Malaysia. But oil palm industry in this country is now facing with the most devastating disease called as Ganoderma Basal Stem Rot disease. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic loss due to this disease. There were three commercial oil palm sites selected for collecting the required data for economic analysis. Yield parameter used to measure the loss was the total weight of fresh fruit bunch in six months. The predictors include disease severity, change in disease severity, number of infected neighbor palms, age of palm, planting generation, topography, and first order interaction variables. The estimation model of yield loss was identified by using backward elimination based regression method. Diagnostic checking was conducted on the residual of the best yield loss model. The value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was used to measure the forecast performance of the model. The best yield loss model was then used to estimate the economic loss by using the current monthly price of fresh fruit bunch at mill gate.

Keywords: Ganoderma, oil palm, regression model, yield loss, economic loss.

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971 Modeling Salam Contract for Profit and Loss Sharing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae

Abstract:

Profit and loss sharing suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parts involved in a financial transaction. Salam is a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered at a future date. The purpose of this work is to price a new contract for profit and loss sharing based on Salam contract, using Khiyar Al Ghabn which is an agreement of choice in case of misrepresent facts.

Keywords: Islamic finance, Shariah compliance, profit and loss sharing, derivatives, risks, hedging, salam contract.

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970 A Novel Design of a Low Cost Wideband Wilkinson Power Divider

Authors: A. Sardi, J. Zbitou, A. Errkik, L. El Abdellaoui, A. Tajmouati, M. Latrach.

Abstract:

This paper presents analysis and design of a wideband Wilkinson power divider for wireless applications. The design is accomplished by transforming the lengths and impedances of the quarter wavelength sections of the conventional Wilkinson power divider into U-shaped sections. The designed power divider is simulated by using ADS Agilent technologies and CST microwave studio software. It is shown that the proposed power divider has simple topology and good performances in terms of insertion loss, port matching and isolation at all operating frequencies (1.8 GHz, 2.45 GHz and 3.55 GHz).

Keywords: ADS Agilent technologies, CST microwave Studio, Microstrip, Wideband, Wilkinson power divider.

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969 Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband

Authors: N. Azadi-Tinat, H. Oraizi

Abstract:

Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.

Keywords: Ultra-wideband, method of least square, multilayer microstrip filter, n-coupled transmission lines.

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968 Energy Efficiency Approach to Reduce Costs of Ownership of Air Jet Weaving

Authors: Corrado Grassi, Achim Schröter, Yves Gloy, Thomas Gries

Abstract:

Air jet weaving is the most productive, but also the most energy consuming weaving method. Increasing energy costs and environmental impact are constantly a challenge for the manufacturers of weaving machines. Current technological developments concern with low energy costs, low environmental impact, high productivity, and constant product quality. The high degree of energy consumption of the method can be ascribed to the high need of compressed air. An energy efficiency method is applied to the air jet weaving technology. Such method identifies and classifies the main relevant energy consumers and processes from the exergy point of view and it leads to the identification of energy efficiency potentials during the weft insertion process. Starting from the design phase, energy efficiency is considered as the central requirement to be satisfied. The initial phase of the method consists of an analysis of the state of the art of the main weft insertion components in order to point out a prioritization of the high demanding energy components and processes. The identified major components are investigated to reduce the high demand of energy of the weft insertion process. During the interaction of the flow field coming from the relay nozzles within the profiled reed, only a minor part of the stream is really accelerating the weft yarn, hence resulting in large energy inefficiency. Different tools such as FEM analysis, CFD simulation models and experimental analysis are used in order to design a more energy efficient design of the involved components in the filling insertion. A different concept for the metal strip of the profiled reed is developed. The developed metal strip allows a reduction of the machine energy consumption. Based on a parametric and aerodynamic study, the designed reed transmits higher values of the flow power to the filling yarn. The innovative reed fulfills both the requirement of raising energy efficiency and the compliance with the weaving constraints.

Keywords: Air jet weaving, aerodynamic simulation, energy efficiency, experimental measurements, power costs, weft insertion.

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967 Numerical Investigation on the Progressive Collapse Resistance of an RC Building with Brick Infills under Column Loss

Authors: Meng-Hao Tsai, Tsuei-Chiang Huang

Abstract:

Interior brick-infill partitions are usually considered as non-structural components and only their weight is accounted for in practical structural design. In this study, their effect on the progressive collapse resistance of an RC building subjected to sudden column loss is investigated. Three notional column loss conditions with four different brick-infill locations are considered. Column-loss response analyses of the RC building with and without brick infills are carried out. Analysis results indicate that the collapse resistance is only slightly influenced by the brick infills due to their brittle failure characteristic. Even so, they may help to reduce the inelastic displacement response under column loss. For practical engineering, it is reasonably conservative to only consider the weight of brick-infill partitions in the structural analysis.

Keywords: Progressive collapse, column loss, brick-infill partition, compression strut.

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966 Transient Analysis and Mitigation of Capacitor Bank Switching on a Standalone Wind Farm

Authors: Ajibola O. Akinrinde, Andrew Swanson, Remy Tiako

Abstract:

There exist significant losses on transmission lines due to distance, as power generating stations could be located far from some isolated settlements. Standalone wind farms could be a good choice of alternative power generation for such settlements that are far from the grid due to factors of long distance or socio-economic problems. However, uncompensated wind farms consume reactive power since wind turbines are induction generators. Therefore, capacitor banks are used to compensate reactive power, which in turn improves the voltage profile of the network. Although capacitor banks help improving voltage profile, they also undergo switching actions due to its compensating response to the variation of various types of load at the consumer’s end. These switching activities could cause transient overvoltage on the network, jeopardizing the end-life of other equipment on the system. In this paper, the overvoltage caused by these switching activities is investigated using the IEEE bus 14-network to represent a standalone wind farm, and the simulation is done using ATP/EMTP software. Scenarios involving the use of pre-insertion resistor and pre-insertion inductor, as well as controlled switching was also carried out in order to decide the best mitigation option to reduce the overvoltage.

Keywords: Capacitor banks, IEEE bus 14-network, Pre-insertion resistor, Standalone wind farm.

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965 Estimation of Bayesian Sample Size for Binomial Proportions Using Areas P-tolerance with Lowest Posterior Loss

Authors: H. Bevrani, N. Najafi

Abstract:

This paper uses p-tolerance with the lowest posterior loss, quadratic loss function, average length criteria, average coverage criteria, and worst outcome criterion for computing of sample size to estimate proportion in Binomial probability function with Beta prior distribution. The proposed methodology is examined, and its effectiveness is shown.

Keywords: Bayesian inference, Beta-binomial Distribution, LPLcriteria, quadratic loss function.

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964 Investigation of Heat Loss in Ethanol-Water Distillation Column with Direct Vapour Recompression Heat Pump

Authors: Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto

Abstract:

Vapour recompression system has been used to enhance reduction in energy consumption and improvement in energy effectiveness of distillation columns. However, the effects of certain parameters have not been taken into consideration. One of such parameters is the column heat loss which has either been assumed to be a certain percent of reboiler heat transfer or negligible. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heat loss from an ethanol-water vapour recompression distillation column with pressure increase across the compressor (VRCAS) and compare the results obtained and its effect on some parameters in similar system (VRCCS) where the column heat loss has been assumed or neglected. Results show that the heat loss evaluated was higher when compared with that obtained for the column VRCCS. The results also showed that increase in heat loss could have significant effect on the total energy consumption, reboiler heat transfer, the number of trays and energy effectiveness of the column.

Keywords: Compressor, distillation column, heat loss, vapourrecompression.

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963 IFDewey: A New Insert-Friendly Labeling Schemafor XML Data

Authors: S. Soltan, A. Zarnani, R. AliMohammadzadeh, M. Rahgozar

Abstract:

XML has become a popular standard for information exchange via web. Each XML document can be presented as a rooted, ordered, labeled tree. The Node label shows the exact position of a node in the original document. Region and Dewey encoding are two famous methods of labeling trees. In this paper, we propose a new insert friendly labeling method named IFDewey based on recently proposed scheme, called Extended Dewey. In Extended Dewey many labels must be modified when a new node is inserted into the XML tree. Our method eliminates this problem by reserving even numbers for future insertion. Numbers generated by Extended Dewey may be even or odd. IFDewey modifies Extended Dewey so that only odd numbers are generated and even numbers can then be used for a much easier insertion of nodes.

Keywords: XML, tree labeling, query processing.

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962 Exergy Analysis of a Cogeneration Plant

Authors: Derya Burcu Ozkan, Onur Kiziler, Duriye Bilge

Abstract:

Cogeneration may be defined as a system which contains electricity production and regain of the thermo value of exhaust gases simultaneously. The examination is based on the data-s of an active cogeneration plant. This study, it is aimed to determine which component of the system should be revised first to raise the efficiency and decrease the loss of exergy. For this purpose, second law analysis of thermodynamics is applied to each component due to consider the effects of environmental conditions and take the quality of energy into consideration as well as the quantity of it. The exergy balance equations are produced and exergy loss is calculated for each component. 44,44 % loss of exergy in heat exchanger, 29,59 % in combustion chamber, 18,68 % in steam boiler, 5,25 % in gas turbine and 2,03 % in compressor is calculated.

Keywords: Cogeneration, Exergy loss, Second law analysis

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961 Comparative Study of Three DGS Unit Shapes and Compact Microstrip Low-Pass and Band-Pass Filters Designs

Authors: M. Challal, F. Labu, M. Dehmas, A. Azrar

Abstract:

In this paper, three types of defected ground structure (DGS) units which are triangular-head (TH), rectangular-head (RH) and U-shape (US) are investigated. They are further used to low-pass and band-pass filters designs (LPF and BPF) and the obtained performances are examined. The LPF employing RH-DGS geometry presents the advantages of compact size, low-insertion loss and wide stopband compared to the other filters. It provides cutoff frequency of 2.5 GHz, largest rejection band width of 20 dB from 2.98 to 8.76 GHz, smallest transition region and smallest sharpness of the cutoff frequency. The BPF based on RH-DGS has the highest bandwidth (BW) of about 0.74 GHz and the lowest center frequency of 3.24 GHz, whereas the other BPFs have BWs less than 0.7 GHz.

Keywords: Defected ground structure (DGS), triangular-head(TH) DGS, rectangular-head (RH) DGS, U-shape (US) DGS, lowpassfilter (LPF) and band-pass filter (BPF).

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960 GA based Optimal Sizing and Placement of Distributed Generation for Loss Minimization

Authors: Deependra Singh, Devender Singh, K. S. Verma

Abstract:

This paper addresses a novel technique for placement of distributed generation (DG) in electric power systems. A GA based approach for sizing and placement of DG keeping in view of system power loss minimization in different loading conditions is explained. Minimal system power loss is obtained under voltage and line loading constraints. Proposed strategy is applied to power distribution systems and its effectiveness is verified through simulation results on 16, 37-bus and 75-bus test systems.

Keywords: Distributed generation (DG), Genetic algorithms (GA), optimal sizing and placement, Power loss.

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959 Method of Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Preload Loss for Single Nut Ball Screws through the Sensed Vibration Signals

Authors: Yi-Cheng Huang, Yan-Chen Shin

Abstract:

This paper proposes method of diagnosing ball screw preload loss through the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and Multiscale entropy (MSE) process. The proposed method can diagnose ball screw preload loss through vibration signals when the machine tool is in operation. Maximum dynamic preload of 2 %, 4 %, and 6 % ball screws were predesigned, manufactured, and tested experimentally. Signal patterns are discussed and revealed using Empirical Mode Decomposition(EMD)with the Hilbert Spectrum. Different preload features are extracted and discriminated using HHT. The irregularity development of a ball screw with preload loss is determined and abstracted using MSE based on complexity perception. Experiment results show that the proposed method can predict the status of ball screw preload loss. Smart sensing for the health of the ball screw is also possible based on a comparative evaluation of MSE by the signal processing and pattern matching of EMD/HHT. This diagnosis method realizes the purposes of prognostic effectiveness on knowing the preload loss and utilizing convenience.

Keywords: Empirical Mode Decomposition, Hilbert-Huang Transform, Multi-scale Entropy, Preload Loss, Single-nut Ball Screw

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958 DHT-LMS Algorithm for Sensorineural Loss Patients

Authors: Sunitha S. L., V. Udayashankara

Abstract:

Hearing impairment is the number one chronic disability affecting many people in the world. Background noise is particularly damaging to speech intelligibility for people with hearing loss especially for sensorineural loss patients. Several investigations on speech intelligibility have demonstrated sensorineural loss patients need 5-15 dB higher SNR than the normal hearing subjects. This paper describes Discrete Hartley Transform Power Normalized Least Mean Square algorithm (DHT-LMS) to improve the SNR and to reduce the convergence rate of the Least Means Square (LMS) for sensorineural loss patients. The DHT transforms n real numbers to n real numbers, and has the convenient property of being its own inverse. It can be effectively used for noise cancellation with less convergence time. The simulated result shows the superior characteristics by improving the SNR at least 9 dB for input SNR with zero dB and faster convergence rate (eigenvalue ratio 12) compare to time domain method and DFT-LMS.

Keywords: Hearing Impairment, DHT-LMS, Convergence rate, SNR improvement.

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957 Effective Relay Communication for Scalable Video Transmission

Authors: Jung Ah Park, Zhijie Zhao, Doug Young Suh, Joern Ostermann

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an effective relay communication for layered video transmission as an alternative to make the most of limited resources in a wireless communication network where loss often occurs. Relaying brings stable multimedia services to end clients, compared to multiple description coding (MDC). Also, retransmission of only parity data about one or more video layer using channel coder to the end client of the relay device is paramount to the robustness of the loss situation. Using these methods in resource-constrained environments, such as real-time user created content (UCC) with layered video transmission, can provide high-quality services even in a poor communication environment. Minimal services are also possible. The mathematical analysis shows that the proposed method reduced the probability of GOP loss rate compared to MDC and raptor code without relay. The GOP loss rate is about zero, while MDC and raptor code without relay have a GOP loss rate of 36% and 70% in case of 10% frame loss rate.

Keywords: Relay communication, Multiple Description Coding, Scalable Video Coding

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956 On the Network Packet Loss Tolerance of SVM Based Activity Recognition

Authors: Gamze Uslu, Sebnem Baydere, Alper K. Demir

Abstract:

In this study, data loss tolerance of Support Vector Machines (SVM) based activity recognition model and multi activity classification performance when data are received over a lossy wireless sensor network is examined. Initially, the classification algorithm we use is evaluated in terms of resilience to random data loss with 3D acceleration sensor data for sitting, lying, walking and standing actions. The results show that the proposed classification method can recognize these activities successfully despite high data loss. Secondly, the effect of differentiated quality of service performance on activity recognition success is measured with activity data acquired from a multi hop wireless sensor network, which introduces  high data loss. The effect of number of nodes on the reliability and multi activity classification success is demonstrated in simulation environment. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of data loss in a wireless sensor network on activity detection success rate of an SVM based classification algorithm has not been studied before.

Keywords: Activity recognition, support vector machines, acceleration sensor, wireless sensor networks, packet loss.

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955 A Practical Scheme for Transmission Loss Allocation to Generators and Loads in Restructured Power Systems

Authors: M.R. Ebrahimi, M. Ehsan

Abstract:

This paper presents a practical scheme that can be used for allocating the transmission loss to generators and loads. In this scheme first the share of a generator or load on the current through a branch is determined using Z-bus modified matrix. Then the current components are decomposed and the branch loss allocation is obtained. A motivation of proposed scheme is to improve the results of Z-bus method and to reach more fair allocation. The proposed scheme has been implemented and tested on several networks. To achieve practical and applicable results, the proposed scheme is simulated and compared on the transmission network (400kv) of Khorasan region in Iran and the 14-bus standard IEEE network. The results show that the proposed scheme is comprehensive and fair to allocating the energy losses of a power market to its participants.

Keywords: Transmission Loss, Loss Allocation, Z-bus modifiedmatrix, current Components Decomposition and Restructured PowerSystems

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954 Optimal Transmission Network Usage and Loss Allocation Using Matrices Methodology and Cooperative Game Theory

Authors: Baseem Khan, Ganga Agnihotri

Abstract:

Restructuring of Electricity supply industry introduced many issues such as transmission pricing, transmission loss allocation and congestion management. Many methodologies and algorithms were proposed for addressing these issues. In this paper a power flow tracing based method is proposed which involves Matrices methodology for the transmission usage and loss allocation for generators and demands. This method provides loss allocation in a direct way because all the computation is previously done for usage allocation. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement in a large power system. Further it is less computational because it requires matrix inversion only a single time. After usage and loss allocation cooperative game theory is applied to results for finding efficient economic signals. Nucleolus and Shapely value approach is used for optimal allocation of results. Results are shown for the IEEE 6 bus system and IEEE 14 bus system.

Keywords: Modified Kirchhoff Matrix, Power flow tracing, Transmission Pricing, Transmission Loss Allocation.

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953 Rule Insertion Technique for Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Network

Authors: Osama Elsarrar, Marjorie Darrah, Richard Devin

Abstract:

This paper discusses the idea of capturing an expert’s knowledge in the form of human understandable rules and then inserting these rules into a dynamic cell structure (DCS) neural network. The DCS is a form of self-organizing map that can be used for many purposes, including classification and prediction. This particular neural network is considered to be a topology preserving network that starts with no pre-structure, but assumes a structure once trained. The DCS has been used in mission and safety-critical applications, including adaptive flight control and health-monitoring in aerial vehicles. The approach is to insert expert knowledge into the DCS before training. Rules are translated into a pre-structure and then training data are presented. This idea has been demonstrated using the well-known Iris data set and it has been shown that inserting the pre-structure results in better accuracy with the same training.

Keywords: Neural network, rule extraction, rule insertion, self-organizing map.

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