**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**320

# Search results for: Bond graphs

##### 320 Phasor Analysis of a Synchronous Generator: A Bond Graph Approach

**Authors:**
Israel Núñez-Hernández,
Peter C. Breedveld,
Paul B. T. Weustink,
Gilberto Gonzalez-A

**Abstract:**

This paper presents the use of phasor bond graphs to obtain the steady-state behavior of a synchronous generator. The phasor bond graph elements are built using 2D multibonds, which represent the real and imaginary part of the phasor. The dynamic bond graph model of a salient-pole synchronous generator is showed, and verified viz. a sudden short-circuit test. The reduction of the dynamic model into a phasor representation is described. The previous test is executed on the phasor bond graph model, and its steady-state values are compared with the dynamic response. Besides, the widely used power (torque)-angle curves are obtained by means of the phasor bond graph model, to test the usefulness of this model.

**Keywords:**
Bond graphs,
complex power,
phasors,
synchronous
generator,
short-circuit,
open-circuit,
power-angle curve.

##### 319 Analysis of Electrical Networks Using Phasors: A Bond Graph Approach

**Authors:**
Israel Núñez-Hernández,
Peter C. Breedveld,
Paul B. T. Weustink,
Gilberto Gonzalez-A

**Abstract:**

This paper proposes a phasor representation of electrical networks by using bond graph methodology. A so-called phasor bond graph is built up by means of two-dimensional bonds, which represent the complex plane. Impedances or admittances are used instead of the standard bond graph elements. A procedure to obtain the steady-state values from a phasor bond graph model is presented. Besides the presentation of a phasor bond graph library in SIDOPS code, also an application example is discussed.

**Keywords:**
Bond graphs,
phasor theory,
steady-state,
complex
power,
electrical networks.

##### 318 Model Inversion of a Two Degrees of Freedom Linearized PUMA from Bicausal Bond Graphs

**Authors:**
Gilberto Gonzalez-A,
Ignacio Rodríguez- A.,
Dunia Nuñez-P

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bond graph,
system inversion,
bicausality,
PUMA
manipulator

##### 317 Steady State of Passive and Active Suspensions in the Physical Domain

**Authors:**
Gilberto Gonzalez-A,
Jorge Madrigal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bond graph,
steady state,
active suspension.

##### 316 Observers Design for Systems Modelled by Bond Graphs with Multivariable Monotone Nonlinearities

**Authors:**
Gilberto Gonzalez-A,
Gerardo Jaimes-A

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bond graph,
nonlinear observer,
electrical
transformer,
nonlinear saturation

##### 315 On Suborbital Graphs of the Congruence Subgroup r 0(N)

**Authors:**
Bahadir O. Guler,
Serkan Kader,
Murat Besenk

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Congruence subgroup,
Imprimitive action,
Modulargroup,
Suborbital graphs.

##### 314 A Study on Bond Strength of Geopolymer Concrete

**Authors:**
Rama Seshu Doguparti

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Geo polymer,
Concrete,
Bond Strength,
Behaviour.

##### 313 Bond Graph Modeling of Inter-Actuator Interactions in a Multi-Cylinder Hydraulic System

**Authors:**
Mutuku Muvengei,
John Kihiu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bond graphs,
Inter-actuator interactions,
Valvecontrolledhydraulic cylinder.

##### 312 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Bond Thickness on the Interface Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Sheet Bonded to Timber

**Authors:**
Abbas Vahedian,
Rijun Shrestha,
Keith Crews

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
FRP,
single shear test,
bond thickness,
bond
strength.

##### 311 Isomorphism on Fuzzy Graphs

**Authors:**
A.Nagoor Gani,
J.Malarvizhi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
complementary fuzzy graphs,
co-weak isomorphism,
equivalence relation,
fuzzy relation,
weak isomorphism.

##### 310 An Improved Method to Compute Sparse Graphs for Traveling Salesman Problem

**Authors:**
Y. Wang

**Abstract:**

The Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is NP-hard in combinatorial optimization. The research shows the algorithms for TSP on the sparse graphs have the shorter computation time than those for TSP according to the complete graphs. We present an improved iterative algorithm to compute the sparse graphs for TSP by frequency graphs computed with frequency quadrilaterals. The iterative algorithm is enhanced by adjusting two parameters of the algorithm. The computation time of the algorithm is *O*(*CN*_{max}*n*^{2}) where *C* is the iterations, *N*_{max} is the maximum number of frequency quadrilaterals containing each edge and *n* is the scale of TSP. The experimental results showed the computed sparse graphs generally have less than 5*n* edges for most of these Euclidean instances. Moreover, the maximum degree and minimum degree of the vertices in the sparse graphs do not have much difference. Thus, the computation time of the methods to resolve the TSP on these sparse graphs will be greatly reduced.

**Keywords:**
Frequency quadrilateral,
iterative algorithm,
sparse graph,
traveling salesman problem.

##### 309 Reductions of Control Flow Graphs

**Authors:**
Robert Gold

**Abstract:**

Control ﬂow graphs are a well-known representation of the sequential control ﬂow structure of programs with a multitude of applications. Not only single functions but also sets of functions or complete programs can be modeled by control ﬂow graphs. In this case the size of the graphs can grow considerably and thus makes it difﬁcult for software engineers to analyze the control ﬂow. Graph reductions are helpful in this situation. In this paper we deﬁne reductions to subsets of nodes. Since executions of programs are represented by paths through the control ﬂow graphs, paths should be preserved. Furthermore, the composition of reductions makes a stepwise analysis approach possible.

**Keywords:**
Control ﬂow graph,
graph reduction.

##### 308 Modeling Approaches for Large-Scale Reconfigurable Engineering Systems

**Authors:**
Kwa-Sur Tam

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Interdisciplinary,
dynamic,
functional programming,
object-oriented.

##### 307 2D Structured Non-Cyclic Fuzzy Graphs

**Authors:**
T. Pathinathan,
M. Peter

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Double layered fuzzy graph,
double layered non-cyclic fuzzy graph,
strong,
order,
degree and size.

##### 306 Computing Maximum Uniquely Restricted Matchings in Restricted Interval Graphs

**Authors:**
Swapnil Gupta,
C. Pandu Rangan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Uniquely restricted matching,
interval graph,
design
and analysis of algorithms,
matching,
induced matching,
witness
counting.

##### 305 Low Complexity, High Performance LDPC Codes Based on Defected Fullerene Graphs

**Authors:**
Ashish Goswami,
Rakesh Sharma

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
LDPC Codes,
Fullerene Graphs,
Defected Fullerene
Graphs.

##### 304 Analysis of a Singular Perturbed Synchronous Generator with a Bond Graph Approach

**Authors:**
Gilberto Gonzalez-A,
Noe Barrera-G

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bond graph modelling,
synchronous generator,
singular perturbations

##### 303 An Experimental Investigation of Bond Properties of Reinforcements Embedded in Geopolymer Concrete

**Authors:**
Jee-Sang Kim,
Jong Ho Park

**Abstract:**

Geopolymer concretes are new class of construction materials that have emerged as an alternative to Ordinary Portland cement concrete. Considerable researches have been carried out on material development of geopolymer concrete; however, a few studies have been reported on the structural use of them. This paper presents the bond behaviors of reinforcement embedded in fly ash based geopolymer concrete. The development lengths of reinforcement for various compressive strengths of concrete, 20, 30 and 40 MPa, and reinforcement diameters, 10, 16 and 25 mm, are investigated. Total 27 specimens were manufactured and pull-out test according to EN 10080 was applied to measure bond strength and slips between concrete and reinforcements. The average bond strengths decreased from 23.06MPa to 17.26 MPa, as the diameters of reinforcements increased from 10mm to 25mm. The compressive strength levels of geopolymer concrete showed no significant influence on bond strengths in this study. Also, the bond-slip relations between geopolymer concrete and reinforcement are derived using non-linear regression analysis for various experimental conditions.

**Keywords:**
Bond-slip relation,
bond strength,
geopolymer concrete,
pull-out test.

##### 302 European and International Bond Markets Integration

**Authors:**
Dimitris Georgoutsos,
Petros M. Migiakis

**Abstract:**

The concurrent era is characterised by strengthened interactions among financial markets and increased capital mobility globally. In this frames we examine the effects the international financial integration process has on the European bond markets. We perform a comparative study of the interactions of the European and international bond markets and exploit Cointegration analysis results on the elimination of stochastic trends and the decomposition of the underlying long run equilibria and short run causal relations. Our investigation provides evidence on the relation between the European integration process and that of globalisation, viewed through the bond markets- sector. Additionally the structural formulation applied, offers significant implications of the findings. All in all our analysis offers a number of answers on crucial queries towards the European bond markets integration process.

**Keywords:**
financial integration,
bond markets,
cointegration

##### 301 Nullity of t-Tupple Graphs

**Authors:**
Khidir R. Sharaf,
Didar A. Ali

**Abstract:**

The nullity η(G) of a graph is the occurrence of zero as an eigenvalue in its spectra. A zero-sum weighting of a graph G is real valued function, say f from vertices of G to the set of real numbers, provided that for each vertex of G the summation of the weights f(w) over all neighborhood w of v is zero for each v in G.A high zero-sum weighting of G is one that uses maximum number of non-zero independent variables. If G is graph with an end vertex, and if H is an induced subgraph of G obtained by deleting this vertex together with the vertex adjacent to it, then, η(G)= η(H). In this paper, a high zero-sum weighting technique and the endvertex procedure are applied to evaluate the nullity of t-tupple and generalized t-tupple graphs are derived and determined for some special types of graphs,

Also, we introduce and prove some important results about the t-tupple coalescence, Cartesian and Kronecker products of nut graphs.

**Keywords:**
Graph theory,
Graph spectra,
Nullity of graphs.

##### 300 Analysis of a Hydroelectric Plant connected to Electrical Power System in the Physical Domain

**Authors:**
Gilberto Gonzalez-A,
Octavio Barriga

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bond graph,
hydraulic plant,
steady state.

##### 299 A Study on the Improvement of the Bond Performance of Polypropylene Macro Fiber According to Longitudinal Shape Change

**Authors:**
Sung-yong Choi,
Woo-tai Jung,
Young-hwan Park

**Abstract:**

This study intends to improve the bond performance of the polypropylene fiber used as reinforcing fiber for concrete by changing its shape into double crimped type through the enhancement its fabrication process. The bond performance of such double crimped fiber is evaluated by applying the JCI SF-8 (dog-bone shape) testing method. The test results reveal that the double crimped fiber develops bond performance improved by more than 19% compared to the conventional crimped type fiber.

**Keywords:**
Bond,
Polypropylene,
Fiber reinforcement,
Macro fiber,
Shape change.

##### 298 On Detour Spectra of Some Graphs

**Authors:**
S.K.Ayyaswamy,
S.Balachandran

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Detour eigenvalue (of a graph),
detour spectrum(of a graph),
detour energy(of a graph),
detour - equienergetic graphs.

##### 297 On Speeding Up Support Vector Machines: Proximity Graphs Versus Random Sampling for Pre-Selection Condensation

**Authors:**
Xiaohua Liu,
Juan F. Beltran,
Nishant Mohanchandra,
Godfried T. Toussaint

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Machine learning,
data mining,
support vector machines,
proximity graphs,
relative-neighborhood graphs,
k-nearestneighbor graphs,
random sampling,
training data condensation.

##### 296 Analysis of an Electrical Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach

**Authors:**
Gilberto Gonzalez-A

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bond graph,
electrical transformer,
nonlinear
saturation

##### 295 On Strong(Weak) Domination in Fuzzy Graphs

**Authors:**
C.Natarajan,
S.K.Ayyaswamy

**Abstract:**

Let G be a fuzzy graph. Then D Ôèå V is said to be a strong (weak) fuzzy dominating set of G if every vertex v ∈ V -D is strongly (weakly) dominated by some vertex u in D. We denote a strong (weak) fuzzy dominating set by sfd-set (wfd-set). The minimum scalar cardinality of a sfd-set (wfd-set) is called the strong (weak) fuzzy domination number of G and it is denoted by γsf (G)γwf (G). In this paper we introduce the concept of strong (weak) domination in fuzzy graphs and obtain some interesting results for this new parameter in fuzzy graphs.

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy graphs,
fuzzy domination,
strong (weak) fuzzy domination number.

##### 294 Bond Graph Modeling of Mechanical Dynamics of an Excavator for Hydraulic System Analysis and Design

**Authors:**
Mutuku Muvengei,
John Kihiu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Actuators,
bond graphs,
inverse dynamics,
recursive
equations,
quintic polynomial trajectory.

##### 293 On Chvátal’s Conjecture for the Hamiltonicity of 1-Tough Graphs and Their Complements

**Authors:**
Shin-Shin Kao,
Yuan-Kang Shih,
Hsun Su

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we show that the conjecture of Chv tal, which states that any 1-tough graph is either a Hamiltonian graph or its complement contains a specific graph denoted by F, does not hold in general. More precisely, it is true only for graphs with six or seven vertices, and is false for graphs with eight or more vertices. A theorem is derived as a correction for the conjecture.

**Keywords:**
Complement,
degree sum,
Hamiltonian,
tough.

##### 292 A Study about the Distribution of the Spanning Ratios of Yao Graphs

**Authors:**
Maryam Hsaini,
Mostafa Nouri-Baygi

**Abstract:**

A critical problem in wireless sensor networks is limited battery and memory of nodes. Therefore, each node in the network could maintain only a subset of its neighbors to communicate with. This will increase the battery usage in the network because each packet should take more hops to reach its destination. In order to tackle these problems, spanner graphs are defined. Since each node has a small degree in a spanner graph and the distance in the graph is not much greater than its actual geographical distance, spanner graphs are suitable candidates to be used for the topology of a wireless sensor network. In this paper, we study Yao graphs and their behavior for a randomly selected set of points. We generate several random point sets and compare the properties of their Yao graphs with the complete graph. Based on our data sets, we obtain several charts demonstrating how Yao graphs behave for a set of randomly chosen point set. As the results show, the stretch factor of a Yao graph follows a normal distribution. Furthermore, the stretch factor is in average far less than the worst case stretch factor proved for Yao graphs in previous results. Furthermore, we use Yao graph for a realistic point set and study its stretch factor in real world.

**Keywords:**
Wireless sensor network,
spanner graph,
Yao Graph.

##### 291 Diameter of Zero Divisor Graphs of Finite Direct Product of Lattices

**Authors:**
H. Y. Pourali,
V. V. Joshi,
B. N. Waphare.

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we verify the diameter of zero divisor graphs with respect to direct product.

**Keywords:**
Atomic lattice,
complement of graph,
diameter,
direct
product of lattices,
0-distributive lattice,
girth,
product of graphs,
prime ideal,
zero divisor graph.