Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 405

Search results for: Negative bias voltage

405 The Effects of Applied Negative Bias Voltage on Structure and Optical Properties of α-C:H Films

Authors: X. L. Zhou, S. Tunmee, I. Toda, K. Komatsu, S. Ohshio, H. Saitoh

Abstract:

Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films have been synthesized by a radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique with different bias voltage from 0.0 to -0.5 kV. The Raman spectra displayed the polymer-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon (PLCH) film with 0.0 to -0.1 and a-C:H films with -0.2 to -0.5 kV of bias voltages. The surface chemical information of all films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique, presented to C-C (sp2 and sp3) and C-O bonds, and relative carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atomics contents. The O contamination had affected on structure and optical properties. The true density of PLCH and a-C:H films were characterized by X-ray refractivity (XRR) method, showed the result as in the range of 1.16-1.73 g/cm3 that depending on an increasing of bias voltage. The hardness was proportional to the true density of films. In addition, the optical properties i.e. refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of these films were determined by a spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) method that give formation to in 1.62-2.10 (n) and 0.04-0.15 (k) respectively. These results indicated that the optical properties confirmed the Raman results as presenting the structure changed with applied bias voltage increased.

Keywords: Negative bias voltage, a-C:H film, Oxygen contamination, Optical properties.

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404 Influence of Measurement System on Negative Bias Temperature Instability Characterization: Fast BTI vs Conventional BTI vs Fast Wafer Level Reliability

Authors: Vincent King Soon Wong, Hong Seng Ng, Florinna Sim

Abstract:

Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is one of the critical degradation mechanisms in semiconductor device reliability that causes shift in the threshold voltage (Vth). However, thorough understanding of this reliability failure mechanism is still unachievable due to a recovery characteristic known as NBTI recovery. This paper will demonstrate the severity of NBTI recovery as well as one of the effective methods used to mitigate, which is the minimization of measurement system delays. Comparison was done in between two measurement systems that have significant differences in measurement delays to show how NBTI recovery causes result deviations and how fast measurement systems can mitigate NBTI recovery. Another method to minimize NBTI recovery without the influence of measurement system known as Fast Wafer Level Reliability (FWLR) NBTI was also done to be used as reference.

Keywords: Fast vs slow BTI, Fast wafer level reliability, Negative bias temperature instability, NBTI measurement system, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, MOSFET, NBTI recovery, reliability.

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403 Bias Optimization of Mach-Zehnder Modulator Considering RF Gain on OFDM Radio-Over-Fiber System

Authors: Ghazi Al Sukkar, Yazid Khattabi, Shifen Zhong

Abstract:

Most of the recent wireless LANs, broadband access networks, and digital broadcasting use Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing techniques. In addition, the increasing demand of Data and Internet makes fiber optics an important technology, as fiber optics has many characteristics that make it the best solution for transferring huge frames of Data from a point to another. Radio over fiber is the place where high quality RF is converted to optical signals over single mode fiber. Optimum values for the bias level and the switching voltage for Mach-Zehnder modulator are important for the performance of radio over fiber links. In this paper, we propose a method to optimize the two parameters simultaneously; the bias and the switching voltage point of the external modulator of a radio over fiber system considering RF gain. Simulation results show the optimum gain value under these two parameters.

Keywords: OFDM, Mach Zehnder Bias Voltage, switching voltage, radio-over-fiber, RF gain.

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402 A Comparison of Bias Among Relaxed Divisor Methods Using 3 Bias Measurements

Authors: Sumachaya Harnsukworapanich, Tetsuo Ichimori

Abstract:

The apportionment method is used by many countries, to calculate the distribution of seats in political bodies. For example, this method is used in the United States (U.S.) to distribute house seats proportionally based on the population of the electoral district. Famous apportionment methods include the divisor methods called the Adams Method, Dean Method, Hill Method, Jefferson Method and Webster Method. Sometimes the results from the implementation of these divisor methods are unfair and include errors. Therefore, it is important to examine the optimization of this method by using a bias measurement to figure out precise and fair results. In this research we investigate the bias of divisor methods in the U.S. Houses of Representatives toward large and small states by applying the Stolarsky Mean Method. We compare the bias of the apportionment method by using two famous bias measurements: the Balinski and Young measurement and the Ernst measurement. Both measurements have a formula for large and small states. The Third measurement however, which was created by the researchers, did not factor in the element of large and small states into the formula. All three measurements are compared and the results show that our measurement produces similar results to the other two famous measurements.

Keywords: Apportionment, Bias, Divisor, Fair, Simulation

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401 Quantifying and Adjusting the Effects of Publication Bias in Continuous Meta-Analysis

Authors: N.R.N. Idris

Abstract:

This study uses simulated meta-analysis to assess the effects of publication bias on meta-analysis estimates and to evaluate the efficacy of the trim and fill method in adjusting for these biases. The estimated effect sizes and the standard error were evaluated in terms of the statistical bias and the coverage probability. The results demonstrate that if publication bias is not adjusted it could lead to up to 40% bias in the treatment effect estimates. Utilization of the trim and fill method could reduce the bias in the overall estimate by more than half. The method is optimum in presence of moderate underlying bias but has minimal effects in presence of low and severe publication bias. Additionally, the trim and fill method improves the coverage probability by more than half when subjected to the same level of publication bias as those of the unadjusted data. The method however tends to produce false positive results and will incorrectly adjust the data for publication bias up to 45 % of the time. Nonetheless, the bias introduced into the estimates due to this adjustment is minimal

Keywords: Publication bias, Trim and Fill method, percentage relative bias, coverage probability

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400 Moment Estimators of the Parameters of Zero-One Inflated Negative Binomial Distribution

Authors: Rafid Saeed Abdulrazak Alshkaki

Abstract:

In this paper, zero-one inflated negative binomial distribution is considered, along with some of its structural properties, then its parameters were estimated using the method of moments. It is found that the method of moments to estimate the parameters of the zero-one inflated negative binomial models is not a proper method and may give incorrect conclusions.

Keywords: Zero one inflated models, negative binomial distribution, moments estimator, non-negative integer sampling.

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399 The Influence of Substrate Bias on the Mechanical Properties of a W- and S-containing DLC-based Solid-lubricant Film

Authors: Guojia Ma, Guoqiang Lin, Shuili Gong, Gang Sun, Dawang Wang

Abstract:

A diamond-like carbon (DLC) based solid-lubricant film was designed and DLC films were successfully prepared using a microwave plasma enhanced magnetron sputtering deposition technology. Post-test characterizations including Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, nano-indentation test, adhesion test, friction coefficient test were performed to study the influence of substrate bias voltage on the mechanical properties of the W- and S-doped DLC films. The results indicated that the W- and S-doped DLC films also had the typical structure of DLC films and a better mechanical performance achieved by the application of a substrate bias of -200V.

Keywords: Adhesive Strength, Coefficient of Friction, Substrate Bias, W- and S-doped DLC film

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398 Negative Emotions and Ways of Overcoming them in Prison

Authors: Katarzyna Czubak

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is description of the notion of the death for prisoners and the ways of deal with. They express indifference, coldness, inability to accept the blame, they have no shame and no empathy. Is it enough to perform acts verging on the death. In this paper we described mechanisms and regularities of selfdestructive behaviour in the view of the relevant literature? The explanation of the phenomenon is of a biological and sociopsychological nature. It must be clearly stated that all forms of selfdestructive behaviour result from various impulses, conflicts and deficits. That is why they should be treated differently in terms of motivation and functions which they perform in a given group of people. Behind self-destruction there seems to be a motivational mechanism which forces prisoners to rebel and fight against the hated law and penitentiary systems. The imprisoned believe that pain and suffering inflicted on them by themselves are better than passive acceptance of repression. The variety of self-destruction acts is wide, and some of them take strange forms. We assume that a life-death barrier is a kind of game for them. If they cannot change the degrading situation, their life loses sense.

Keywords: Self- destruction, Simulation, Negative emotions, Consequences of conviction.

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397 Comparative Study of Line Voltage Stability Indices for Voltage Collapse Forecasting in Power Transmission System

Authors: H. H. Goh, Q. S. Chua, S. W. Lee, B. C. Kok, K. C. Goh, K. T. K. Teo

Abstract:

At present, the evaluation of voltage stability assessment experiences sizeable anxiety in the safe operation of power systems. This is due to the complications of a strain power system. With the snowballing of power demand by the consumers and also the restricted amount of power sources, therefore, the system has to perform at its maximum proficiency. Consequently, the noteworthy to discover the maximum ability boundary prior to voltage collapse should be undertaken. A preliminary warning can be perceived to evade the interruption of power system’s capacity. The effectiveness of line voltage stability indices (LVSI) is differentiated in this paper. The main purpose of the indices used is to predict the proximity of voltage instability of the electric power system. On the other hand, the indices are also able to decide the weakest load buses which are close to voltage collapse in the power system. The line stability indices are assessed using the IEEE 14 bus test system to validate its practicability. Results demonstrated that the implemented indices are practically relevant in predicting the manifestation of voltage collapse in the system. Therefore, essential actions can be taken to dodge the incident from arising.

Keywords: Critical line, line outage, line voltage stability indices (LVSI), maximum loadability, voltage collapse, voltage instability, voltage stability analysis.

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396 Discrimination of Modes of Double- and Single-Negative Grounded Slab

Authors: R. Borghol, T. Aguili

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate theoretically the waves propagation in a lossless double-negative grounded slab (DNG). This study is performed by the Transverse Resonance Method (TRM). The proper or improper nature of real and complex modes is observed. They are highly dependent on metamaterial parameters, i.e. ɛr-negative, µr-negative, or both. Numerical results provided that only the proper complex modes (i.e., leaky modes) exist in DNG slab, and only the improper complex modes exist in single-negative grounded slab.

Keywords: Double-negative grounded slab, real and complex modes, single-negative grounded slab, transverse resonance method.

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395 A Comparative Study on Optimized Bias Current Density Performance of Cubic ZnB-GaN with Hexagonal 4H-SiC Based Impatts

Authors: Arnab Majumdar, Srimani Sen

Abstract:

In this paper, a vivid simulated study has been made on 35 GHz Ka-band window frequency in order to judge and compare the DC and high frequency properties of cubic ZnB-GaN with the existing hexagonal 4H-SiC. A flat profile p+pnn+ DDR structure of impatt is chosen and is optimized at a particular bias current density with respect to efficiency and output power taking into consideration the effect of mobile space charge also. The simulated results obtained reveals the strong potentiality of impatts based on both cubic ZnB-GaN and hexagonal 4H-SiC. The DC-to-millimeter wave conversion efficiency for cubic ZnB-GaN impatt obtained is 50% with an estimated output power of 2.83 W at an optimized bias current density of 2.5×108 A/m2. The conversion efficiency and estimated output power in case of hexagonal 4H-SiC impatt obtained is 22.34% and 40 W respectively at an optimum bias current density of 0.06×108 A/m2.

Keywords: Cubic ZnB-GaN, hexagonal 4H-SiC, Double drift impatt diode, millimeter wave, optimized bias current density, wide band gap semiconductor.

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394 Negative Selection as a Means of Discovering Unknown Temporal Patterns

Authors: Wanli Ma, Dat Tran, Dharmendra Sharma

Abstract:

The temporal nature of negative selection is an under exploited area. In a negative selection system, newly generated antibodies go through a maturing phase, and the survivors of the phase then wait to be activated by the incoming antigens after certain number of matches. These without having enough matches will age and die, while these with enough matches (i.e., being activated) will become active detectors. A currently active detector may also age and die if it cannot find any match in a pre-defined (lengthy) period of time. Therefore, what matters in a negative selection system is the dynamics of the involved parties in the current time window, not the whole time duration, which may be up to eternity. This property has the potential to define the uniqueness of negative selection in comparison with the other approaches. On the other hand, a negative selection system is only trained with “normal" data samples. It has to learn and discover unknown “abnormal" data patterns on the fly by itself. Consequently, it is more appreciate to utilize negation selection as a system for pattern discovery and recognition rather than just pattern recognition. In this paper, we study the potential of using negative selection in discovering unknown temporal patterns.

Keywords: Artificial Immune Systems, ComputationalIntelligence, Negative Selection, Pattern Discovery.

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393 Negative Pressures of Ca. -20 MPA for Water Enclosed into a Metal Berthelot Tube under a Vacuum Condition

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, M. Tanji, H. Deguchi, K. Hatari

Abstract:

Negative pressures of liquids have been expected to contribute many kinds of technology. Nevertheless, experiments for subjecting liquids which have not too small volumes to negative pressures are difficult even now. The reason of the difficulties is because the liquids tend to generate cavities easily. In order to remove cavitation nuclei, an apparatus for enclosing water into a metal Berthelot tube under vacuum conditions was developed. By using the apparatus, negative pressures for water rose to ca. -20 MPa. This is the highest value for water in metal Berthelot tubes. Results were explained by a traditional crevice model. Keywords

Keywords: Berthelot method, negative pressure, cavitation

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392 A Floating Gate MOSFET Based Novel Programmable Current Reference

Authors: V. Suresh Babu, Haseena P. S., Varun P. Gopi, M. R. Baiju

Abstract:

In this paper a scheme is proposed for generating a programmable current reference which can be implemented in the CMOS technology. The current can be varied over a wide range by changing an external voltage applied to one of the control gates of FGMOS (Floating Gate MOSFET). For a range of supply voltages and temperature, CMOS current reference is found to be dependent, this dependence is compensated by subtracting two current outputs with the same dependencies on the supply voltage and temperature. The system performance is found to improve with the use of FGMOS. Mathematical analysis of the proposed circuit is done to establish supply voltage and temperature independence. Simulation and performance evaluation of the proposed current reference circuit is done using TANNER EDA Tools. The current reference shows the supply and temperature dependencies of 520 ppm/V and 312 ppm/oC, respectively. The proposed current reference can operate down to 0.9 V supply.

Keywords: Floating Gate MOSFET, current reference, self bias scheme, temperature independency, supply voltage independency.

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391 Earnings-Related Information, Cognitive Bias, and the Disposition Effect

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, Pei-Shan Kao

Abstract:

This paper discusses the reaction of investors in the Taiwan stock market to the most probable unknown earnings-related information and the most probable known earnings-related information. As compared with the previous literature regarding the effect of an official announcement of earnings forecast revision, this paper further analyzes investors’ cognitive bias toward the unknown and known earnings-related information, and the role of media during the investors' reactions to the foresaid information shocks. The empirical results show that both the unknown and known earnings-related information provides useful information content for a stock market. In addition, cognitive bias and disposition effect are the behavioral pitfalls that commonly occur in the process of the investors' reactions to the earnings-related information. Finally, media coverage has a remarkable influence upon the investors' trading decisions.

Keywords: Cognitive bias, role of media, disposition effect, earnings-related information, behavioral pitfall.

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390 Negative Pressure Waves in Hydraulic Systems

Authors: Fuad H. Veliev

Abstract:

Negative pressure phenomenon appears in many thermodynamic, geophysical and biophysical processes in the Nature and technological systems. For more than 100 years of the laboratory researches beginning from F. M. Donny’s tests, the great values of negative pressure have been achieved. But this phenomenon has not been practically applied, being only a nice lab toy due to the special demands for the purity and homogeneity of the liquids for its appearance. The possibility of creation of direct wave of negative pressure in real heterogeneous liquid systems was confirmed experimentally under the certain kinetic and hydraulic conditions. The negative pressure can be considered as the factor of both useful and destroying energies. The new approach to generation of the negative pressure waves in impure, unclean fluids has allowed the creation of principally new energy saving technologies and installations to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of different production processes. It was proved that the negative pressure is one of the main factors causing hard troubles in some technological and natural processes. Received results emphasize the necessity to take into account the role of the negative pressure as an energy factor in evaluation of many transient thermohydrodynamic processes in the Nature and production systems.

Keywords: Liquid systems, negative pressure, temperature, wave, metastable state.

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389 The Relationship between Burnout, Negative Affectivity and Organizational Citizenship Behavior for Human Services Employees

Authors: Stephen B. Schepman, Michael A. Zarate

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between Burnout, Negative Affectivity, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) for social service workers at two agencies serving homeless populations. Thirty two subjects completed surveys. Significant correlations between major variables and subscales were found.

Keywords: Burnout, negative affectivity, organizationalcitizenship.

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388 Learning to Recommend with Negative Ratings Based on Factorization Machine

Authors: Caihong Sun, Xizi Zhang

Abstract:

Rating prediction is an important problem for recommender systems. The task is to predict the rating for an item that a user would give. Most of the existing algorithms for the task ignore the effect of negative ratings rated by users on items, but the negative ratings have a significant impact on users’ purchasing decisions in practice. In this paper, we present a rating prediction algorithm based on factorization machines that consider the effect of negative ratings inspired by Loss Aversion theory. The aim of this paper is to develop a concave and a convex negative disgust function to evaluate the negative ratings respectively. Experiments are conducted on MovieLens dataset. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods by comparing with other four the state-of-the-art approaches. The negative ratings showed much importance in the accuracy of ratings predictions.

Keywords: Factorization machines, feature engineering, negative ratings, recommendation systems.

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387 Modeling and Simulation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigation of Voltage Sags

Authors: S. Ganesh, L. Raguraman, E. Anushya, J. krishnasree

Abstract:

Voltage sags are the most common power quality disturbance in the distribution system. It occurs due to the fault in the electrical network or by the starting of a large induction motor and this can be solved by using the custom power devices such as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). In this paper DVR is proposed to compensate voltage sags on critical loads dynamically. The DVR consists of VSC, injection transformers, passive filters and energy storage (lead acid battery). By injecting an appropriate voltage, the DVR restores a voltage waveform and ensures constant load voltage. The simulation and experimental results of a DVR using MATLAB software shows clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags.

Keywords: Dynamic voltage restorer, Voltage sags, Power quality, Injection methods.

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386 Design of 900 MHz High Gain SiGe Power Amplifier with Linearity Improved Bias Circuit

Authors: Guiheng Zhang, Wei Zhang, Jun Fu, Yudong Wang

Abstract:

A 900 MHz three-stage SiGe power amplifier (PA) with high power gain is presented in this paper. Volterra Series is applied to analyze nonlinearity sources of SiGe HBT device model clearly. Meanwhile, the influence of operating current to IMD3 is discussed. Then a β-helper current mirror bias circuit is applied to improve linearity, since the β-helper current mirror bias circuit can offer stable base biasing voltage. Meanwhile, it can also work as predistortion circuit when biasing voltages of three bias circuits are fine-tuned, by this way, the power gain and operating current of PA are optimized for best linearity. The three power stages which fabricated by 0.18 μm SiGe technology are bonded to the printed circuit board (PCB) to obtain impedances by Load-Pull system, then matching networks are done for best linearity with discrete passive components on PCB. The final measured three-stage PA exhibits 21.1 dBm of output power at 1 dB compression point (OP1dB) with power added efficiency (PAE) of 20.6% and 33 dB power gain under 3.3 V power supply voltage.

Keywords: High gain power amplifier, linearization bias circuit, SiGe HBT model, Volterra Series.

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385 The Aspect of the Human Bias in Decision Making within Quality Management Systems & LEAN Theory

Authors: Adriana Ávila Zúñiga Nordfjeld

Abstract:

This paper provides a literature review to document the state of the art with respect to handling “human bias” in decision making within the established quality management systems (QMS) and LEAN theory, in the context of shipbuilding. Previous research shows that in shipbuilding there is a huge deviation from the planned man-hours under the project management to the actual man-hours used because of errors in planning and reworks caused by human bias in the information flows, among others. This reduces the efficiency, and increases operational costs. Thus, the research question is how QMS and LEAN handle biases. The findings show the gap in studying the integration of methods to handle human bias in decision making into QMS and lean, not only within shipbuilding, but in general. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed for researchers and practitioners in the areas of decision making, QMS and LEAN, and future research is suggested.

Keywords: Human bias, decision making, LEAN Shipbuilding, quality management systems.

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384 Convergence Analysis of an Alternative Gradient Algorithm for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

Authors: Chenxue Yang, Mao Ye, Zijian Liu, Tao Li, Jiao Bao

Abstract:

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful computational method to find basis information of multivariate nonnegative data. A popular approach to solve the NMF problem is the multiplicative update (MU) algorithm. But, it has some defects. So the columnwisely alternating gradient (cAG) algorithm was proposed. In this paper, we analyze convergence of the cAG algorithm and show advantages over the MU algorithm. The stability of the equilibrium point is used to prove the convergence of the cAG algorithm. A classic model is used to obtain the equilibrium point and the invariant sets are constructed to guarantee the integrity of the stability. Finally, the convergence conditions of the cAG algorithm are obtained, which help reducing the evaluation time and is confirmed in the experiments. By using the same method, the MU algorithm has zero divisor and is convergent at zero has been verified. In addition, the convergence conditions of the MU algorithm at zero are similar to that of the cAG algorithm at non-zero. However, it is meaningless to discuss the convergence at zero, which is not always the result that we want for NMF. Thus, we theoretically illustrate the advantages of the cAG algorithm.

Keywords: Non-negative matrix factorizations, convergence, cAG algorithm, equilibrium point, stability.

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383 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama

Abstract:

Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, negative pressure, cavitation.

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382 Survival Model for Partly Interval-Censored Data with Application to Anti D in Rhesus D Negative Studies

Authors: F. A. M. Elfaki, Amar Abobakar, M. Azram, M. Usman

Abstract:

This paper discusses regression analysis of partly interval-censored failure time data, which is occur in many fields including demographical, epidemiological, financial, medical and sociological studies. For the problem, we focus on the situation where the survival time of interest can be described by the additive hazards model in the present of partly interval-censored. A major advantage of the approach is its simplicity and it can be easily implemented by using R software. Simulation studies are conducted which indicate that the approach performs well for practical situations and comparable to the existing methods. The methodology is applied to a set of partly interval-censored failure time data arising from anti D in Rhesus D negative studies.

Keywords: Anti D in Rhesus D negative, Cox’s model, EM algorithm.

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381 Application of Voltage Stability Indices for Proper Placement of STATCOM under Load Increase Scenario

Authors: A. S. Telang, P. P. Bedekar

Abstract:

In today’s world, electrical energy has become an indispensable component of all aspects of modern human life. Reliability, security and stability are the key aspects of any power system. Failure to meet any of these three aspects results into a great impediment to modern life. Modern power systems are being subjected to heavily stressed conditions leading to voltage stability problems. If the voltage stability problems are not mitigated properly through proper voltage stability assessment methods, cascading events may occur which may lead to voltage collapse or blackout events. Modern FACTS devices like STATCOM are one of the measures to overcome the blackout problems. As these devices are very costly, they must be installed properly at suitable locations, mostly at weak bus. Line voltage stability indices such as FVSI, Lmn and LQP play important role for identification of a weak bus. This paper presents evaluation of these line stability indices for the assessment of reliable information about the closeness of the power system to voltage collapse. PSAT is a user-friendly MATLAB toolbox, of which CPF is an important feature which has been extensively used for the placement of STATCOM to assess the stability. Novelty of the present research work lies in that the active and reactive load has been changed simultaneously at all the load buses under consideration. MATLAB code has been developed for the same and tested successfully on various standard IEEE test systems. The results for standard IEEE14 bus test system, specifically, are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Voltage stability analysis, voltage collapse, PSAT, CPF, VSI, FVSI, Lmn, LQP.

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380 Selecting Negative Examples for Protein-Protein Interaction

Authors: Mohammad Shoyaib, M. Abdullah-Al-Wadud, Oksam Chae

Abstract:

Proteomics is one of the largest areas of research for bioinformatics and medical science. An ambitious goal of proteomics is to elucidate the structure, interactions and functions of all proteins within cells and organisms. Predicting Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) is one of the crucial and decisive problems in current research. Genomic data offer a great opportunity and at the same time a lot of challenges for the identification of these interactions. Many methods have already been proposed in this regard. In case of in-silico identification, most of the methods require both positive and negative examples of protein interaction and the perfection of these examples are very much crucial for the final prediction accuracy. Positive examples are relatively easy to obtain from well known databases. But the generation of negative examples is not a trivial task. Current PPI identification methods generate negative examples based on some assumptions, which are likely to affect their prediction accuracy. Hence, if more reliable negative examples are used, the PPI prediction methods may achieve even more accuracy. Focusing on this issue, a graph based negative example generation method is proposed, which is simple and more accurate than the existing approaches. An interaction graph of the protein sequences is created. The basic assumption is that the longer the shortest path between two protein-sequences in the interaction graph, the less is the possibility of their interaction. A well established PPI detection algorithm is employed with our negative examples and in most cases it increases the accuracy more than 10% in comparison with the negative pair selection method in that paper.

Keywords: Interaction graph, Negative training data, Protein-Protein interaction, Support vector machine.

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379 Phase Diagram Including a Negative Pressure Region for a Thermotropic Liquid Crystal in a Metal Berthelot Tube

Authors: K. Hiro, T. Wada

Abstract:

Thermodynamic properties of liquids under negative pressures are interesting and important in fields of scienceand technology. Here, phase transitions of a thermotropic liquid crystal are investigatedin a range from positive to negative pressures with a metal Berthelot tube using a commercial pressure transducer.Two co-existinglines, namely crystal (Kr) –nematic (N), and isotropic liquid (I) - nematic (N) lines, weredrawn in a pressure - temperature plane. The I-N line was drawn to ca. -5 (MPa).

Keywords: Berthelot method, liquid crystal, negative pressure.

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378 Detection of Voltage Sag and Voltage Swell in Power Quality Using Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Nor Asrina Binti Ramlee

Abstract:

Voltage sag, voltage swell, high-frequency noise and voltage transients are kinds of disturbances in power quality. They are also known as power quality events. Equipment used in the industry nowadays has become more sensitive to these events with the increasing complexity of equipment. This leads to the importance of distributing clean power quality to the consumer. To provide better service, the best analysis on power quality is very vital. Thus, this paper presents the events detection focusing on voltage sag and swell. The method is developed by applying time domain signal analysis using wavelet transform approach in MATLAB. Four types of mother wavelet namely Haar, Dmey, Daubechies, and Symlet are used to detect the events. This project analyzed real interrupted signal obtained from 22 kV transmission line in Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The signals will be decomposed through the wavelet mothers. The best mother is the one that is capable to detect the time location of the event accurately.

Keywords: Power quality, voltage sag, voltage swell, wavelet transform.

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377 Low Voltage High Gain Linear Class AB CMOS OTA with DC Level Input Stage

Authors: Houda Bdiri Gabbouj, Néjib Hassen, Kamel Besbes

Abstract:

This paper presents a low-voltage low-power differential linear transconductor with near rail-to-rail input swing. Based on the current-mirror OTA topology, the proposed transconductor combines the Flipped Voltage Follower (FVF) technique to linearize the transconductor behavior that leads to class- AB linear operation and the virtual transistor technique to lower the effective threshold voltages of the transistors which offers an advantage in terms of low supply requirement. Design of the OTA has been discussed. It operates at supply voltages of about ±0.8V. Simulation results for 0.18μm TSMC CMOS technology show a good input range of 1Vpp with a high DC gain of 81.53dB and a total harmonic distortion of -40dB at 1MHz for an input of 1Vpp. The main aim of this paper is to present and compare new OTA design with high transconductance, which has a potential to be used in low voltage applications.

Keywords: Amplifier class AB, current mirror, flipped voltage follower, low voltage.

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376 Artificial Voltage-Controlled Capacitance and Inductance using Voltage-Controlled Transconductance

Authors: Mansour I. Abbadi, Abdel-Rahman M. Jaradat

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique is proposed to implement an artificial voltage-controlled capacitance or inductance which can replace the well-known varactor diode in many applications. The technique is based on injecting the current of a voltage-controlled current source onto a fixed capacitor or inductor. Then, by controlling the transconductance of the current source by an external bias voltage, a voltage-controlled capacitive or inductive reactance is obtained. The proposed voltage-controlled reactance devices can be designed to work anywhere in the frequency spectrum. Practical circuits for the proposed voltage-controlled reactances are suggested and simulated.

Keywords: voltage-controlled capacitance, voltage-controlled inductance, varactor diode, variable transconductance.

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