Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7815

Search results for: Trim and Fill method

7815 Quantifying and Adjusting the Effects of Publication Bias in Continuous Meta-Analysis

Authors: N.R.N. Idris

Abstract:

This study uses simulated meta-analysis to assess the effects of publication bias on meta-analysis estimates and to evaluate the efficacy of the trim and fill method in adjusting for these biases. The estimated effect sizes and the standard error were evaluated in terms of the statistical bias and the coverage probability. The results demonstrate that if publication bias is not adjusted it could lead to up to 40% bias in the treatment effect estimates. Utilization of the trim and fill method could reduce the bias in the overall estimate by more than half. The method is optimum in presence of moderate underlying bias but has minimal effects in presence of low and severe publication bias. Additionally, the trim and fill method improves the coverage probability by more than half when subjected to the same level of publication bias as those of the unadjusted data. The method however tends to produce false positive results and will incorrectly adjust the data for publication bias up to 45 % of the time. Nonetheless, the bias introduced into the estimates due to this adjustment is minimal

Keywords: Publication bias, Trim and Fill method, percentage relative bias, coverage probability

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7814 A Parametric Study: Frame Analysis Method for Masonry Arch Bridges

Authors: M. E. Rahman, D. Sujan, V. Pakrashi, P. Fanning

Abstract:

The predictability of masonry arch bridges and their behaviour is widely considered doubtful due to the lack of knowledge about the conditions of a given masonry arch bridge. The assessment methods for masonry arch bridges are MEXE, ARCHIE, RING and Frame Analysis Method. The material properties of the masonry and fill material are extremely difficult to determine accurately. Consequently, it is necessary to examine the effect of load dispersal angle through the fill material, the effect of variations in the stiffness of the masonry, the tensile strength of the masonry mortar continuum and the compressive strength of the masonry mortar continuum. It is also important to understand the effect of fill material on load dispersal angle to determine their influence on ratings. In this paper a series of parametric studies, to examine the sensitivity of assessment ratings to the various sets of input data required by the frame analysis method, are carried out.

Keywords: Arch Bridge, Frame Analyses Method, Masonry

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7813 Effect of Fill Material Density under Structures on Ground Motion Characteristics Due to Earthquake

Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Khaled Z. Soliman

Abstract:

Due to limited areas and excessive cost of land for projects, backfilling process has become necessary. Also, backfilling will be done to overcome the un-leveling depths or raising levels of site construction, especially near the sea region. Therefore, backfilling soil materials used under the foundation of structures should be investigated regarding its effect on ground motion characteristics, especially at regions subjected to earthquakes. In this research, 60-meter thickness of sandy fill material was used above a fixed 240-meter of natural clayey soil underlying by rock formation to predict the modified ground motion characteristics effect at the foundation level. Comparison between the effect of using three different situations of fill material compaction on the recorded earthquake is studied, i.e. peak ground acceleration, time history, and spectra acceleration values. The three different densities of the compacted fill material used in the study were very loose, medium dense and very dense sand deposits, respectively. Shake computer program was used to perform this study. Strong earthquake records, with Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of 0.35 g, were used in the analysis. It was found that, higher compaction of fill material thickness has a significant effect on eliminating the earthquake ground motion properties at surface layer of fill material, near foundation level. It is recommended to consider the fill material characteristics in the design of foundations subjected to seismic motions. Future studies should be analyzed for different fill and natural soil deposits for different seismic conditions.

Keywords: Fill, material, density, compaction, earthquake, PGA.

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7812 Influence of Improved Roughage Quality and Period of Meal Termination on Digesta Load in the Digestive Organs of Goats

Authors: Rasheed A. Adebayo, Mehluli M. Moyo, Ignatius V. Nsahlai

Abstract:

Ruminants are known to relish roughage for productivity but the effect of its quality on digesta load in rumen, omasum, abomasum and other distal organs of the digestive tract is yet unknown. Reticulorumen fill is a strong indicator for long-term control of intake in ruminants. As such, the measurement and prediction of digesta load in these compartments may be crucial to productivity in the ruminant industry. The current study aimed at determining the effect of (a) diet quality on digesta load in digestive organs of goats, and (b) period of meal termination on the reticulorumen fill and digesta load in other distal compartments of the digestive tract of goats. Goats were fed with urea-treated hay (UTH), urea-sprayed hay (USH) and non-treated hay (NTH). At the end of eight weeks of a feeding trial period, upon termination of a meal in the morning, afternoon or evening, all goats were slaughtered in random groups of three per day to measure reticulorumen fill and digesta loads in other distal compartments of the digestive tract. Both diet quality and period affected (P < 0.05) the measure of reticulorumen fill. However, reticulorumen fill in the evening was larger (P < 0.05) than afternoon, while afternoon was similar (P > 0.05) to morning. Also, diet quality affected (P < 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, wet abomasum, dry abomasum and dry caecum digesta loads but did not affect (P > 0.05) both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract. Period of measurement did not affect (P > 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, and both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract except wet abomasum digesta load (P < 0.05) and dry caecum digesta load (P < 0.05). Both wet and dry reticulorumen fill were correlated (P < 0.05) with omasum (r = 0.623) and (r = 0.723), respectively. In conclusion, reticulorumen fill of goats decreased by improving the roughage quality; and the period of meal termination and measurement of the fill is a key factor to the quantity of digesta load.

Keywords: Digesta, goats, meal termination, reticulorumen fill.

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7811 Field Trial of Resin-Based Composite Materials for the Treatment of Surface Collapses Associated with Former Shallow Coal Mining

Authors: Philip T. Broughton, Mark P. Bettney, Isla L. Smail

Abstract:

Effective treatment of ground instability is essential when managing the impacts associated with historic mining. A field trial was undertaken by the Coal Authority to investigate the geotechnical performance and potential use of composite materials comprising resin and fill or stone to safely treat surface collapses, such as crown-holes, associated with shallow mining. Test pits were loosely filled with various granular fill materials. The fill material was injected with commercially available silicate and polyurethane resin foam products. In situ and laboratory testing was undertaken to assess the geotechnical properties of the resultant composite materials. The test pits were subsequently excavated to assess resin permeation. Drilling and resin injection was easiest through clean limestone fill materials. Recycled building waste fill material proved difficult to inject with resin; this material is thus considered unsuitable for use in resin composites. Incomplete resin permeation in several of the test pits created irregular ‘blocks’ of composite. Injected resin foams significantly improve the stiffness and resistance (strength) of the un-compacted fill material. The stiffness of the treated fill material appears to be a function of the stone particle size, its associated compaction characteristics (under loose tipping) and the proportion of resin foam matrix. The type of fill material is more critical than the type of resin to the geotechnical properties of the composite materials. Resin composites can effectively support typical design imposed loads. Compared to other traditional treatment options, such as cement grouting, the use of resin composites is potentially less disruptive, particularly for sites with limited access, and thus likely to achieve significant reinstatement cost savings. The use of resin composites is considered a suitable option for the future treatment of shallow mining collapses.

Keywords: Composite material, ground improvement, mining legacy, resin.

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7810 Construction Technology of Modified Vacuum Pre-Loading Method for Slurry Dredged Soil

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Gao Ming-Jun, Mohamad Sharif

Abstract:

Slurry dredged soil at coastal area has a high water content, poor permeability, and low surface intensity. Hence, it is infeasible to use vacuum preloading method to treat this type of soil foundation. For the special case of super soft ground, a floating bridge is first constructed on muddy soil and used as a service road and platform for implementing the modified vacuum preloading method. The modified technique of vacuum preloading and its construction process for the super soft soil foundation improvement is then studied. Application of modified vacuum preloading method shows that the technology and its construction process are highly suitable for improving the super soft soil foundation in coastal areas.

Keywords: Super soft foundation, dredger fill, vacuum preloading, foundation treatment, construction technology.

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7809 Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa, Takao Yamaguchi

Abstract:

High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy for designers. In this report, the outline of this tool and an analysis example applied to floor mat are introduced.

Keywords: Automobile, acoustics, porous material, Transfer Matrix Method.

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7808 Aerodynamic Prediction and Performance Analysis for Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

Authors: Tang Wei, Yang Xiaofeng, Gui Yewei, Du Yanxia

Abstract:

Complex lifting entry was selected for precise landing performance during the Mars Science Laboratory entry. This study aims to develop the three-dimensional numerical method for precise computation and the surface panel method for rapid engineering prediction. Detailed flow field analysis for Mars exploration mission was performed by carrying on a series of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The static aerodynamic performance was then discussed, including the surface pressure, lift and drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio with the numerical and engineering method. Computation results shown that the shock layer is thin because of lower effective specific heat ratio, and that calculated results from both methods agree well with each other, and is consistent with the reference data. Aerodynamic performance analysis shows that CG location determines trim characteristics and pitch stability, and certain radially and axially shift of the CG location can alter the capsule lifting entry performance, which is of vital significance for the aerodynamic configuration design and inner instrument layout of the Mars entry capsule.

Keywords: Mars entry capsule, static aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, hypersonic.

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7807 Land Reclamation Using Waste as Fill Material: A Case Study in Jakarta

Authors: Q. Han, W. Schaefer, N. Barry

Abstract:

To coop with urbanization issues and the economic need for expansion, the city of Jakarta is planning to reclaim more land in the Jakarta Bay. However, the reclamation activities of some islands have barely started and already the developers are facing difficulties in finding sufficient quantities of sand as fill material. When addressing the problem of sand scarcity in the case of Jakarta where, an excess of waste production, an inadequate solid waste management system and a lack of dumping ground pose a major problem, it is hard not to think of the use of waste as alternative fill material. This paper analyses the possibilities of using waste in the land reclamation projects, considering the governmental, social, environmental and economic context of the city. The results identify types of waste that could be used, ways of using those types of waste and implementation conditions for the city of Jakarta.

Keywords: Waste Management systems, Land reclamation, Multi Criteria Analysis, Scenario planning.

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7806 Dynamics of the Moving Ship at Complex and Sudden Impact of External Forces

Authors: Bo Liu, Liangtian Gao, Idrees Qasim

Abstract:

The impact of the storm leads to accidents even in the case of vessels that meet the computed safety criteria for stability. That is why, in order to clarify the causes of the accident and shipwreck, it is necessary to study the dynamics of the ship under the complex sudden impact of external forces. The task is to determine the movement and landing of the ship in the complex and sudden impact of external forces, i.e. when the ship's load changes over a relatively short period of time. For the solution, a technique was used to study the ship's dynamics, which is based on the compilation of a system of differential equations of motion. A coordinate system was adopted for the equation of motion of the hull and the determination of external forces. As a numerical method of integration, the 4th order Runge-Kutta method was chosen. The results of the calculation show that dynamic deviations were lower for high-altitude vessels. The study of the movement of the hull under a difficult situation is performed: receiving of cargo, impact of a flurry of wind and subsequent displacement of the cargo. The risk of overturning and flooding was assessed.

Keywords: Dynamics, statics, roll, trim, dynamic load, tilt, vertical displacement.

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7805 Nonlinear Response of Infinite Beams on a Multilayer Tensionless Extensible Geo-Synthetic: Reinforced Earth Beds under Moving Load

Authors: K. Karuppasamy

Abstract:

In this paper, analysis of an infinite beam resting on multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic reinforced granular fill-poor soil system overlying soft soil strata under moving load with constant velocity is presented. The beam is subjected to a concentrated load moving with constant velocity. The upper reinforced granular bed is modeled by a rough membrane embedded in Pasternak shear layer overlying a series of compressible nonlinear winkler springs representing the underlying the very poor soil. The multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic layer has been assumed to deform such that at interface the geosynthetic and the soil have some deformation. Nonlinear behaviour of granular fill and the very poor soil has been considered in the analysis by means of hyperbolic constitutive relationships. Governing differential equations of the soil foundation system have been obtained and solved with the help of appropriate boundary conditions. The solution has been obtained by employing finite difference method by means of Gauss-Siedal iterative scheme. Detailed parametric study has been conducted to study the influence of various parameters on the response of soil–foundation system under consideration by means of deflection and bending moment in the beam and tension mobilized in the geosynthetic layer. These parameters include magnitude of applied load, velocity of load, damping, ultimate resistance of poor soil and granular fill layer. Range of values of parameters has been considered as per Indian Railway conditions. This study clearly observed that the comparisons of multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic reinforcement with poor foundation soil and magnitude of applied load, relative compressibility of granular fill and ultimate resistance of poor soil has significant influence on the response of soil–foundation system.

Keywords: Infinite beams, multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic, granular layer, moving load, nonlinear behavior of poor soil.

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7804 Analyzing Methods of the Relation between Concepts based on a Concept Hierarchy

Authors: Ke Lu, Tetsuya Furukawa

Abstract:

Data objects are usually organized hierarchically, and the relations between them are analyzed based on a corresponding concept hierarchy. The relation between data objects, for example how similar they are, are usually analyzed based on the conceptual distance in the hierarchy. If a node is an ancestor of another node, it is enough to analyze how close they are by calculating the distance vertically. However, if there is not such relation between two nodes, the vertical distance cannot express their relation explicitly. This paper tries to fill this gap by improving the analysis method for data objects based on hierarchy. The contributions of this paper include: (1) proposing an improved method to evaluate the vertical distance between concepts; (2) defining the concept horizontal distance and a method to calculate the horizontal distance; and (3) discussing the methods to confine a range by the horizontal distance and the vertical distance, and evaluating the relation between concepts.

Keywords: Concept Hierarchy, Horizontal Distance, Relation Analysis, Vertical Distance

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7803 A Mathematical Model for Predicting Isothermal Soil Moisture Profiles Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Anshu Manik

Abstract:

Subgrade moisture content varies with environmental and soil conditions and has significant influence on pavement performance. Therefore, it is important to establish realistic estimates of expected subgrade moisture contents to account for the effects of this variable on predicted pavement performance during the design stage properly. The initial boundary soil suction profile for a given pavement is a critical factor in determining expected moisture variations in the subgrade for given pavement and climatic and soil conditions. Several numerical models have been developed for predicting water and solute transport in saturated and unsaturated subgrade soils. Soil hydraulic properties are required for quantitatively describing water and chemical transport processes in soils by the numerical models. The required hydraulic properties are hydraulic conductivity, water diffusivity, and specific water capacity. The objective of this paper was to determine isothermal moisture profiles in a soil fill and predict the soil moisture movement above the ground water table using a simple one-dimensional finite difference model.

Keywords: Fill, Hydraulic Conductivity, Pavement, Subgrade.

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7802 Apply Super-SVA to SAR Imaging with Both Aperture Gaps and Bandwidth Gaps

Authors: Wenshuai Zhai, Yunhua Zhang

Abstract:

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging usually requires echo data collected continuously pulse by pulse with certain bandwidth. However in real situation, data collection or part of signal spectrum can be interrupted due to various reasons, i.e. there will be gaps in spatial spectrum. In this case we need to find ways to fill out the resulted gaps and get image with defined resolution. In this paper we introduce our work on how to apply iterative spatially variant apodization (Super-SVA) technique to extrapolate the spatial spectrum in both azimuthal and range directions so as to fill out the gaps and get correct radar image.

Keywords: SAR imaging, Sparse aperture, Stepped frequencychirp signal, high resolution, Super-SVA

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7801 Weighted Harmonic Arnoldi Method for Large Interior Eigenproblems

Authors: Zhengsheng Wang, Jing Qi, Chuntao Liu, Yuanjun Li

Abstract:

The harmonic Arnoldi method can be used to find interior eigenpairs of large matrices. However, it has been shown that this method may converge erratically and even may fail to do so. In this paper, we present a new method for computing interior eigenpairs of large nonsymmetric matrices, which is called weighted harmonic Arnoldi method. The implementation of the method has been tested by numerical examples, the results show that the method converges fast and works with high accuracy.

Keywords: Harmonic Arnoldi method, weighted harmonic Arnoldi method, eigenpair, interior eigenproblem, non symmetric matrix.

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7800 Dissipation of Higher Mode using Numerical Integration Algorithm in Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Jin Sup Kim, Woo Young Jung, Minho Kwon

Abstract:

In general dynamic analyses, lower mode response is of interest, however the higher modes of spatially discretized equations generally do not represent the real behavior and not affects to global response much. Some implicit algorithms, therefore, are introduced to filter out the high-frequency modes using intended numerical error. The objective of this study is to introduce the P-method and PC α-method to compare that with dissipation method and Newmark method through the stability analysis and numerical example. PC α-method gives more accuracy than other methods because it based on the α-method inherits the superior properties of the implicit α-method. In finite element analysis, the PC α-method is more useful than other methods because it is the explicit scheme and it achieves the second order accuracy and numerical damping simultaneously.

Keywords: Dynamic, α-Method, P-Method, PC α-Method, Newmark method.

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7799 A Comparative Study on Different Approaches to Evaluate Ship Equilibrium Point

Authors: Alessandro A. Zizzari, Francesca Calabrese, Giovanni Indiveri, Andrea Coraddu, Diego Villa

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study on two different methods for the evaluation of the equilibrium point of a ship, core issue for designing an On Board Stability System (OBSS) module that, starting from geometry information of a ship hull, described by a discrete model in a standard format, and the distribution of all weights onboard calculates the ship floating conditions (in draught, heel and trim).

Keywords: Algorithms, Computer applications, Equilibrium, Marine applications, Stability System.

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7798 Rotation Invariant Fusion of Partial Image Parts in Vista Creation using Missing View Regeneration

Authors: H. B. Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade

Abstract:

The automatic construction of large, high-resolution image vistas (mosaics) is an active area of research in the fields of photogrammetry [1,2], computer vision [1,4], medical image processing [4], computer graphics [3] and biometrics [8]. Image stitching is one of the possible options to get image mosaics. Vista Creation in image processing is used to construct an image with a large field of view than that could be obtained with a single photograph. It refers to transforming and stitching multiple images into a new aggregate image without any visible seam or distortion in the overlapping areas. Vista creation process aligns two partial images over each other and blends them together. Image mosaics allow one to compensate for differences in viewing geometry. Thus they can be used to simplify tasks by simulating the condition in which the scene is viewed from a fixed position with single camera. While obtaining partial images the geometric anomalies like rotation, scaling are bound to happen. To nullify effect of rotation of partial images on process of vista creation, we are proposing rotation invariant vista creation algorithm in this paper. Rotation of partial image parts in the proposed method of vista creation may introduce some missing region in the vista. To correct this error, that is to fill the missing region further we have used image inpainting method on the created vista. This missing view regeneration method also overcomes the problem of missing view [31] in vista due to cropping, irregular boundaries of partial image parts and errors in digitization [35]. The method of missing view regeneration generates the missing view of vista using the information present in vista itself.

Keywords: Vista, Overlap Estimation, Rotation Invariance, Missing View Regeneration.

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7797 The RK1GL2X3 Method for Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: J.S.C. Prentice

Abstract:

The RK1GL2X3 method is a numerical method for solving initial value problems in ordinary differential equations, and is based on the RK1GL2 method which, in turn, is a particular case of the general RKrGLm method. The RK1GL2X3 method is a fourth-order method, even though its underlying Runge-Kutta method RK1 is the first-order Euler method, and hence, RK1GL2X3 is considerably more efficient than RK1. This enhancement is achieved through an implementation involving triple-nested two-point Gauss- Legendre quadrature.

Keywords: RK1GL2X3, RK1GL2, RKrGLm, Runge-Kutta, Gauss-Legendre, initial value problem, local error, global error.

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7796 Seat Assignment Problem Optimization

Authors: Mohammed Salem Alzahrani

Abstract:

In this paper the optimality of the solution of an existing real word assignment problem known as the seat assignment problem using Seat Assignment Method (SAM) is discussed. SAM is the newly driven method from three existing methods, Hungarian Method, Northwest Corner Method and Least Cost Method in a special way that produces the easiness & fairness among all methods that solve the seat assignment problem.

Keywords: Assignment Problem, Hungarian Method, Least Cost Method, Northwest Corner Method, Seat Assignment Method (SAM), A Real Word Assignment Problem.

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7795 Application of Artificial Neural Network in Assessing Fill Slope Stability

Authors: An-Jui. Li, Kelvin Lim, Chien-Kuo Chiu, Benson Hsiung

Abstract:

This paper details the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) in the field of slope stability whereby quick and convenient solutions can be obtained using the developed tool. The AI tool used in this study is the artificial neural network (ANN), while the slope stability analysis methods are the finite element limit analysis methods. The developed tool allows for the prompt prediction of the safety factors of fill slopes and their corresponding probability of failure (depending on the degree of variation of the soil parameters), which can give the practicing engineer a reasonable basis in their decision making. In fact, the successful use of the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) algorithm shows that slope stability analysis is no longer confined to the conventional methods of modeling, which at times may be tedious and repetitive during the preliminary design stage where the focus is more on cost saving options rather than detailed design. Therefore, similar ANN-based tools can be further developed to assist engineers in this aspect.

Keywords: Landslide, limit analysis, ANN, soil properties.

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7794 A New Method to Solve a Non Linear Differential System

Authors: Seifedine Kadry

Abstract:

In this article, our objective is the analysis of the resolution of non-linear differential systems by combining Newton and Continuation (N-C) method. The iterative numerical methods converge where the initial condition is chosen close to the exact solution. The question of choosing the initial condition is answered by N-C method.

Keywords: Continuation Method, Newton Method, Finite Difference Method, Numerical Analysis and Non-Linear partial Differential Equation.

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7793 An Efficient Method for Solving Multipoint Equation Boundary Value Problems

Authors: Ampon Dhamacharoen, Kanittha Chompuvised

Abstract:

In this work, we solve multipoint boundary value problems where the boundary value conditions are equations using the Newton-Broyden Shooting method (NBSM).The proposed method is tested upon several problems from the literature and the results are compared with the available exact solution. The experiments are given to illustrate the efficiency and implementation of the method.

Keywords: Boundary value problem; Multipoint equation boundary value problems, Shooting Method, Newton-Broyden method.

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7792 The Differential Transform Method for Advection-Diffusion Problems

Authors: M. F. Patricio, P. M. Rosa

Abstract:

In this paper a class of numerical methods to solve linear and nonlinear PDEs and also systems of PDEs is developed. The Differential Transform method associated with the Method of Lines (MoL) is used. The theory for linear problems is extended to the nonlinear case, and a recurrence relation is established. This method can achieve an arbitrary high-order accuracy in time. A variable stepsize algorithm and some numerical results are also presented.

Keywords: Method of Lines, Differential Transform Method.

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7791 HPL-TE Method for Determination of Coatings Relative Total Emissivity Sensitivity Analysis of the Influences of Method Parameters

Authors: Z. Veselý, M. Honner

Abstract:

High power laser – total emissivity method (HPL-TE method) for determination of coatings relative total emissivity dependent on the temperature is introduced. Method principle, experimental and evaluation parts of the method are described. Computer model of HPL-TE method is employed to perform the sensitivity analysis of the effect of method parameters on the sample surface temperature in the positions where the surface temperature and radiation heat flux are measured.

Keywords: High temperature laser testing, measurement ofthermal properties, emissivity, coatings.

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7790 A New Iterative Method for Solving Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Ibrahim Abu-Alshaikh

Abstract:

In this study, a new root-finding method for solving nonlinear equations is proposed. This method requires two starting values that do not necessarily bracketing a root. However, when the starting values are selected to be close to a root, the proposed method converges to the root quicker than the secant method. Another advantage over all iterative methods is that; the proposed method usually converges to two distinct roots when the given function has more than one root, that is, the odd iterations of this new technique converge to a root and the even iterations converge to another root. Some numerical examples, including a sine-polynomial equation, are solved by using the proposed method and compared with results obtained by the secant method; perfect agreements are found.

Keywords: Iterative method, root-finding method, sine-polynomial equations, nonlinear equations.

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7789 On the Efficiency of Five Step Approximation Method for the Solution of General Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: N. M. Kamoh, M. C. Soomiyol

Abstract:

In this work, a five step continuous method for the solution of third order ordinary differential equations was developed in block form using collocation and interpolation techniques of the shifted Legendre polynomial basis function. The method was found to be zero-stable, consistent and convergent. The application of the method in solving third order initial value problem of ordinary differential equations revealed that the method compared favorably with existing methods.

Keywords: Shifted Legendre polynomials, third order block method, discrete method, convergent.

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7788 Gap Analysis of Cassava Sector in Cameroon

Authors: Elise Stephanie Mvodo Meyo, Dapeng Liang

Abstract:

Recently, Cassava has been the driving force of many developing countries- economic progress. To attain this level, prerequisites were put in place enabling cassava sector to become an industrial and a highly competitive crop. Cameroon can achieve the same results. Moreover, it can upgrade the living conditions of both rural and urban dwellers and stimulate the development of the whole economy. Achieving this outcome calls for agricultural policy reforms. The adoption and implementation of adequate policies go along with efficient strategies. To choose effective strategies, an indepth investigation of the sector-s problems is highly recommended. This paper uses gap analysis method to evaluate cassava sector in Cameroon. It studies the present situation (where it is now), interrogates the future (where it should be) and finally proposes solutions to fill the gap.

Keywords: Cameroon, cassava sector, drivers of agricultural growth, gap analysis.

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7787 Application of Seismic Wave Method in Early Estimation of Wencheng Earthquake

Authors: Wenlong Liu, Yucheng Liu

Abstract:

This paper introduces the application of seismic wave method in earthquake prediction and early estimation. The advantages of the seismic wave method over the traditional earthquake prediction method are demonstrated. An example is presented in this study to show the accuracy and efficiency of using the seismic wave method in predicting a medium-sized earthquake swarm occurred in Wencheng, Zhejiang, China. By applying this method, correct predictions were made on the day after this earthquake swarm started and the day the maximum earthquake occurred, which provided scientific bases for governmental decision-making.

Keywords: earthquake prediction, earthquake swarm, seismicactivity method, seismic wave method, Wencheng earthquake

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7786 Analytical Solutions of Kortweg-de Vries(KdV) Equation

Authors: Foad Saadi, M. Jalali Azizpour, S.A. Zahedi

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to present a comparative study of Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM), Variational Iteration Method (VIM) and Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) for the semi analytical solution of Kortweg-de Vries (KdV) type equation called KdV. The study have been highlighted the efficiency and capability of aforementioned methods in solving these nonlinear problems which has been arisen from a number of important physical phenomenon.

Keywords: Variational Iteration Method (VIM), HomotopyPerturbation Method (HPM), Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), KdV Equation.

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