Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5635

Search results for: short channel effect (SCE)

5635 Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Razali Ismail

Abstract:

Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.

Keywords: Graphene nanoribbon, field effect transistors, short channel effects, channel length modulation.

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5634 Investigation of Multiple Material Gate Impact on Short Channel Effects and Reliability of Nanoscale SOI MOSFETs

Authors: Paniz Tafakori, Ali A. Orouji

Abstract:

In this paper the features of multiple material gate silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs are presented and compared with single material gate silicon-on-insulator MOSFET structures. The results indicate that the multiple material gate structures reduce short channel effects such as drain induce barrier lowering, hot electron effect and better current characteristics in comparison with single material structures

Keywords: Short-channel effects (SCEs), Dual material gate (DMG), Triple material gate (TMG), Pentamerous material gate (PMG).

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5633 Improvement of Short Channel Effects in Cylindrical Strained Silicon Nanowire Transistor

Authors: Fatemeh Karimi, Morteza Fathipour, Hamdam Ghanatian, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

In this paper we investigate the electrical characteristics of a new structure of gate all around strained silicon nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) with dual dielectrics by changing the radius (RSiGe) of silicon-germanium (SiGe) wire and gate dielectric. Indeed the effect of high-κ dielectric on Field Induced Barrier Lowering (FIBL) has been studied. Due to the higher electron mobility in tensile strained silicon, the n-type FETs with strained silicon channel have better drain current compare with the pure Si one. In this structure gate dielectric divided in two parts, we have used high-κ dielectric near the source and low-κ dielectric near the drain to reduce the short channel effects. By this structure short channel effects such as FIBL will be reduced indeed by increasing the RSiGe, ID-VD characteristics will be improved. The leakage current and transfer characteristics, the threshold-voltage (Vt), the drain induced barrier height lowering (DIBL), are estimated with respect to, gate bias (VG), RSiGe and different gate dielectrics. For short channel effects, such as DIBL, gate all around strained silicon nanowire FET have similar characteristics with the pure Si one while dual dielectrics can improve short channel effects in this structure.

Keywords: SNWT (silicon nanowire transistor), Tensile Strain, high-κ dielectric, Field Induced Barrier Lowering (FIBL), cylindricalnano wire (CW), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL).

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5632 Assessment of Channel Unavailability Effect on the Wireless Networks Teletraffic Modeling and Analysis

Authors: Eman S. El-Din, Hesham M. El-Badawy, Salwa H. Elramly

Abstract:

Whereas cellular wireless communication systems are subject to short-and long-term fading. The effect of wireless channel has largely been ignored in most of the teletraffic assessment researches. In this paper, a mathematical teletraffic model is proposed to estimate blocking and forced termination probabilities of cellular wireless networks as a result of teletraffic behavior as well as the outage of the propagation channel. To evaluate the proposed teletraffic model, gamma inter-arrival and general service time distributions have been considered based on wireless channel fading effect. The performance is evaluated and compared with the classical model. The proposed model is dedicated and investigated in different operational conditions. These conditions will consider not only the arrival rate process, but also, the different faded channels models.

Keywords: Cellular wireless networks, outage probability, traffic model, gamma inter-arrival distribution.

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5631 Impact of Height of Silicon Pillar on Vertical DG-MOSFET Device

Authors: K. E. Kaharudin, A. H. Hamidon, F. Salehuddin

Abstract:

Vertical Double Gate (DG) Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) is believed to suppress various short channel effect problems. The gate to channel coupling in vertical DG-MOSFET are doubled, thus resulting in higher current density. By having two gates, both gates are able to control the channel from both sides and possess better electrostatic control over the channel. In order to ensure that the transistor possess a superb turn-off characteristic, the subs-threshold swing (SS) must be kept at minimum value (60-90mV/dec). By utilizing SILVACO TCAD software, an n-channel vertical DG-MOSFET was successfully designed while keeping the sub-threshold swing (SS) value as minimum as possible. From the observation made, the value of sub-threshold swing (SS) was able to be varied by adjusting the height of the silicon pillar. The minimum value of sub-threshold swing (SS) was found to be 64.7mV/dec with threshold voltage (VTH) of 0.895V. The ideal height of the vertical DG-MOSFET pillar was found to be at 0.265 µm.

Keywords: DG-MOSFET, pillar, SCE, vertical

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5630 Impact of Process Variations on the Vertical Silicon Nanowire Tunneling FET (TFET)

Authors: Z. X. Chen, T. S. Phua, X. P. Wang, G. -Q. Lo, D. -L. Kwong

Abstract:

This paper presents device simulations on the vertical silicon nanowire tunneling FET (VSiNW TFET). Simulations show that a narrow nanowire and thin gate oxide is required for good performance, which is expected even for conventional MOSFETs. The gate length also needs to be more than the nanowire diameter to prevent short channel effects. An effect more unique to TFET is the need for abrupt source to channel junction, which is shown to improve the performance. The ambipolar effect suppression by reducing drain doping concentration is also explored and shown to have little or no effect on performance.

Keywords: Device simulation, MEDICI, tunneling FET (TFET), vertical silicon nanowire.

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5629 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: Matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine.

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5628 Receive and Transmit Array Antenna Spacingand Their Effect on the Performance of SIMO and MIMO Systems by using an RCS Channel Model

Authors: N. Ebrahimi-Tofighi, M. ArdebiliPour, M. Shahabadi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of receive and/or transmit antenna spacing on the performance (BER vs. SNR) of multipleantenna systems is determined by using an RCS (Radar Cross Section) channel model. In this physical model, the scatterers existing in the propagation environment are modeled by their RCS so that the correlation of the receive signal complex amplitudes, i.e., both magnitude and phase, can be estimated. The proposed RCS channel model is then compared with classical models.

Keywords: MIMO system, Performance of system, Signalcorrelation, SIMO system, Wireless channel model.

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5627 Analysis of Codebook Based Channel Feedback Techniques for MIMO-OFDM Systems

Authors: Muhammad Rehan Khalid, Ahmed Farhan Hanif, Adnan Ahmed Khan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of Multiple- Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) feedback system combined with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Two types of codebook based channel feedback techniques are used in this work. The first feedback technique uses a combination of both the long-term and short-term channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, whereas the second technique uses only the short term CSI. The long-term and short-term CSI at the transmitter is used for efficient channel utilization. OFDM is a powerful technique employed in communication systems suffering from frequency selectivity. Combined with multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver, OFDM proves to be robust against delay spread. Moreover, it leads to significant data rates with improved bit error performance over links having only a single antenna at both the transmitter and receiver. The effectiveness of these techniques has been demonstrated through the simulation of a MIMO-OFDM feedback system. The results have been evaluated for 4x4 MIMO channels. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the MIMO-OFDM channel feedback system over the one without incorporating OFDM. Performance gain of about 3 dB is observed for MIMO-OFDM feedback system as compared to the one without employing OFDM. Hence MIMO-OFDM becomes an attractive approach for future high speed wireless communication systems.

Keywords: MIMO systems, OFDM, Codebooks, Channel Feedback

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5626 Performance Evaluation of Bluetooth Links in the Presence of Specific Types of Interference

Authors: Radosveta Sokullu, Engin Karatepe

Abstract:

In the last couple of years Bluetooth has gained a large share in the market of home and personal appliances. It is now a well established technology a short range supplement to the wireless world of 802.11. The two main trends of research that have sprung from these developments are directed towards the coexistence and performance issues of Bluetooth and 802.11 as well as the co-existence in the very short range of multiple Bluetooth devices. Our work aims at thoroughly investigating different aspects of co-channel interference and effects of transmission power, distance and 802.11 interference on Bluetooth connections.

Keywords: Bluetooth, co-channel interference, 802.11, performance analysis

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5625 A Comparison Study of Electrical Characteristics in Conventional Multiple-gate Silicon Nanowire Transistors

Authors: Fatemeh Karimi, Morteza Fathipour, Hamdam Ghanatian, Vala Fathipour

Abstract:

In this paper electrical characteristics of various kinds of multiple-gate silicon nanowire transistors (SNWT) with the channel length equal to 7 nm are compared. A fully ballistic quantum mechanical transport approach based on NEGF was employed to analyses electrical characteristics of rectangular and cylindrical silicon nanowire transistors as well as a Double gate MOS FET. A double gate, triple gate, and gate all around nano wires were studied to investigate the impact of increasing the number of gates on the control of the short channel effect which is important in nanoscale devices. Also in the case of triple gate rectangular SNWT inserting extra gates on the bottom of device can improve the application of device. The results indicate that by using gate all around structures short channel effects such as DIBL, subthreshold swing and delay reduces.

Keywords: SNWT (silicon nanowire transistor), non equilibriumGreen's function (NEGF), double gate (DG), triple gate (TG), multiple gate, cylindrical nano wire (CW), rectangular nano wire(RW), Poisson_ Schrödinger solver, drain induced barrier lowering(DIBL).

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5624 IMM based Kalman Filter for Channel Estimation in MB OFDM Systems

Authors: C.Ramesh, V.Vaidehi

Abstract:

Ultra-wide band (UWB) communication is one of the most promising technologies for high data rate wireless networks for short range applications. This paper proposes a blind channel estimation method namely IMM (Interactive Multiple Model) Based Kalman algorithm for UWB OFDM systems. IMM based Kalman filter is proposed to estimate frequency selective time varying channel. In the proposed method, two Kalman filters are concurrently estimate the channel parameters. The first Kalman filter namely Static Model Filter (SMF) gives accurate result when the user is static while the second Kalman filter namely the Dynamic Model Filter (DMF) gives accurate result when the receiver is in moving state. The static transition matrix in SMF is assumed as an Identity matrix where as in DMF, it is computed using Yule-Walker equations. The resultant filter estimate is computed as a weighted sum of individual filter estimates. The proposed method is compared with other existing channel estimation methods.

Keywords: Channel estimation, Kalman filter, UWB, Channel model, AR model

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5623 Linear Pocket Profile based Threshold Voltage Model for sub-100 nm n-MOSFET

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Quazi Deen Mohd Khosru

Abstract:

This paper presents a threshold voltage model of pocket implanted sub-100 nm n-MOSFETs incorporating the drain and substrate bias effects using two linear pocket profiles. Two linear equations are used to simulate the pocket profiles along the channel at the surface from the source and drain edges towards the center of the n-MOSFET. Then the effective doping concentration is derived and is used in the threshold voltage equation that is obtained by solving the Poisson-s equation in the depletion region at the surface. Simulated threshold voltages for various gate lengths fit well with the experimental data already published in the literature. The simulated result is compared with the two other pocket profiles used to derive the threshold voltage models of n-MOSFETs. The comparison shows that the linear model has a simple compact form that can be utilized to study and characterize the pocket implanted advanced ULSI devices.

Keywords: Linear pocket profile, pocket implantation, nMOSFET, threshold voltage, short channel effect (SCE), reverse short channeleffect (RSCE).

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5622 Gate Tunnel Current Calculation for NMOSFET Based on Deep Sub-Micron Effects

Authors: Ashwani K. Rana, Narottam Chand, Vinod Kapoor

Abstract:

Aggressive scaling of MOS devices requires use of ultra-thin gate oxides to maintain a reasonable short channel effect and to take the advantage of higher density, high speed, lower cost etc. Such thin oxides give rise to high electric fields, resulting in considerable gate tunneling current through gate oxide in nano regime. Consequently, accurate analysis of gate tunneling current is very important especially in context of low power application. In this paper, a simple and efficient analytical model has been developed for channel and source/drain overlap region gate tunneling current through ultra thin gate oxide n-channel MOSFET with inevitable deep submicron effect (DSME).The results obtained have been verified with simulated and reported experimental results for the purpose of validation. It is shown that the calculated tunnel current is well fitted to the measured one over the entire oxide thickness range. The proposed model is suitable enough to be used in circuit simulator due to its simplicity. It is observed that neglecting deep sub-micron effect may lead to large error in the calculated gate tunneling current. It is found that temperature has almost negligible effect on gate tunneling current. It is also reported that gate tunneling current reduces with the increase of gate oxide thickness. The impact of source/drain overlap length is also assessed on gate tunneling current.

Keywords: Gate tunneling current, analytical model, gate dielectrics, non uniform poly gate doping, MOSFET, fringing field effect and image charges.

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5621 A Novel 14 nm Extended Body FinFET for Reduced Corner Effect, Self-Heating Effect, and Increased Drain Current

Authors: Cheng-Hsien Chang, Jyi-Tsong Lin, Po-Hsieh Lin, Hung-Pei Hsu, Chan-Hsiang Chang, Ming-Tsung Shih, Shih-Chuan Tseng, Min-Yan Lin

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a novel FinFET with extended body under the poly gate, which is called EB-FinFET, and its characteristic is demonstrated by using three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulation. We have analyzed and compared it with conventional FinFET. The extended body height dependence on the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and subthreshold swing (S.S) have been also investigated. According to the 3-D numerical simulation, the proposed structure has a firm structure, an acceptable short channel effect (SCE), a reduced series resistance, an increased on state drain current (I on) and a large normalized I DS. Furthermore, the structure can also improve corner effect and reduce self-heating effect due to the extended body. Our results show that the EBFinFET is excellent for nanoscale device.

Keywords: SOI, FinFET, tri-gate, self-heating effect.

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5620 A Degraded Practical MIMOME Channel: Issues Insecret Data Communications

Authors: Mohammad Rakibul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, a Gaussian multiple input multiple output multiple eavesdropper (MIMOME) channel is considered where a transmitter communicates to a receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper. We present a technique for determining the secrecy capacity of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel under Gaussian noise. We transform the degraded MIMOME channel into multiple single input multiple output (SIMO) Gaussian wire-tap channels and then use scalar approach to convert it into two equivalent multiple input single output (MISO) channels. The secrecy capacity model is then developed for the condition where the channel state information (CSI) for main channel only is known to the transmitter. The results show that the secret communication is possible when the eavesdropper channel noise is greater than a cutoff noise level. The outage probability is also analyzed of secrecy capacity is also analyzed. The effect of fading and outage probability is also analyzed.

Keywords: Secrecy capacity, MIMO, wiretap channel, covariance matrix, fading.

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5619 Analytical Modeling of Channel Noise for Gate Material Engineered Surrounded/Cylindrical Gate (SGT/CGT) MOSFET

Authors: Pujarini Ghosh A, Rishu Chaujar B, Subhasis Haldar C, R.S Gupta D, Mridula Gupta E

Abstract:

In this paper, an analytical modeling is presentated to describe the channel noise in GME SGT/CGT MOSFET, based on explicit functions of MOSFETs geometry and biasing conditions for all channel length down to deep submicron and is verified with the experimental data. Results shows the impact of various parameters such as gate bias, drain bias, channel length ,device diameter and gate material work function difference on drain current noise spectral density of the device reflecting its applicability for circuit design applications.

Keywords: Cylindrical/Surrounded gate (SGT/CGT) MOSFET, Gate Material Engineering (GME), Spectral Noise and short channeleffect (SCE).

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5618 BER Performance of UWB Modulations through S-V Channel Model

Authors: Risanuri Hidayat

Abstract:

BER analysis of Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IRUWB) pulse modulations over S-V channel model is proposed in this paper. The UWB pulse is Gaussian monocycle pulse modulated using Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) and Pulse Position Modulation (PPM). The channel model is generated from a modified S-V model. Bit-error rate (BER) is measured over several of bit rates. The result shows that all modulation are appropriate for both LOS and NLOS channel, but PAM gives better performance in bit rates and SNR. Moreover, as standard of speed has been given for UWB, the communication is appropriate with high bit rates in LOS channel.

Keywords: IR-UWB, S-V Channel Model, LOS NLOS, PAM, PPM

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5617 MIMO-OFDM Channel Tracking Using a Dynamic ANN Topology

Authors: Manasjyoti Bhuyan, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma

Abstract:

All the available algorithms for blind estimation namely constant modulus algorithm (CMA), Decision-Directed Algorithm (DDA/DFE) suffer from the problem of convergence to local minima. Also, if the channel drifts considerably, any DDA looses track of the channel. So, their usage is limited in varying channel conditions. The primary limitation in such cases is the requirement of certain overhead bits in the transmit framework which leads to wasteful use of the bandwidth. Also such arrangements fail to use channel state information (CSI) which is an important aid in improving the quality of reception. In this work, the main objective is to reduce the overhead imposed by the pilot symbols, which in effect reduces the system throughput. Also we formulate an arrangement based on certain dynamic Artificial Neural Network (ANN) topologies which not only contributes towards the lowering of the overhead but also facilitates the use of the CSI. A 2×2 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system is simulated and the performance variation with different channel estimation schemes are evaluated. A new semi blind approach based on dynamic ANN is proposed for channel tracking in varying channel conditions and the performance is compared with perfectly known CSI and least square (LS) based estimation.

Keywords: MIMO, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), CMA, LS, CSI.

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5616 Effect of Reynolds Number on Wall-normal Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Open Channel Using both Outer and Inner Scaling

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar

Abstract:

Sudden change of bed condition is frequent in open channel flow. Change of bed condition affects the turbulence characteristics in both streamwise and wall-normal direction. Understanding the turbulence intensity in open channel flow is of vital importance to the modeling of sediment transport and resuspension, bed formation, entrainment, and the exchange of energy and momentum. A comprehensive study was carried out to understand the extent of the effect of Reynolds number and bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics in an open channel flow. Four different bed conditions (impervious smooth bed, impervious continuous rough bed, pervious rough sand bed, and impervious distributed roughness) and two different Reynolds numbers were adopted for this cause. The effect of bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics is seen to be prevalent for most of the flow depth. Effect of Reynolds number on different turbulence characteristics is also evident for flow over different bed, but the extent varies on bed condition. Although the same sand grain is used to create the different rough bed conditions, the difference in turbulence characteristics is an indication that specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence characteristics. Roughness increases the contribution of the extreme turbulent events which produces very large instantaneous Reynolds shear stress and can potentially influence the sediment transport, resuspension of pollutant from bed and alter the nutrient composition, which eventually affect the sustainability of benthic organisms.

Keywords: Open channel flow, Reynolds Number, roughness, turbulence.

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5615 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels

Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue

Abstract:

In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.

Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes.

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5614 The Role of Periodic Vortex Shedding in Heat Transfer Enhancement for Transient Pulsatile Flow Inside Wavy Channels

Authors: Esam M. Alawadhi, Raed I. Bourisli

Abstract:

Periodic vortex shedding in pulsating flow inside wavy channel and the effect it has on heat transfer are studied using the finite volume method. A sinusoidally-varying component is superimposed on a uniform flow inside a sinusoidal wavy channel and the effects on the Nusselt number is analyzed. It was found that a unique optimum value of the pulsation frequency, represented by the Strouhal number, exists for Reynolds numbers ranging from 125 to 1000. Results suggest that the gain in heat transfer is related to the process of vortex formation, movement about the troughs of the wavy channel, and subsequent ejection/destruction through the converging section. Heat transfer is the highest when the frequencies of the pulsation and vortex formation approach being in-phase. Analysis of Strouhal number effect on Nu over a period of pulsation substantiates the proposed physical mechanism for enhancement. The effect of changing the amplitude of pulsation is also presented over a period of pulsation, showing a monotonic increase in heat transfer with increasing amplitude. The 60% increase in Nusselt number suggests that sinusoidal fluid pulsation can an effective method for enhancing heat transfer in laminar, wavy-channel flows.

Keywords: Vortex shedding, pulsating flow, wavy channel, CFD.

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5613 Effect of Non-Newtonian Behavior of Oil Phase on Oil-Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Channel

Authors: Satish Kumar Dewangan, Santosh Kumar Senapati

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the investigation of the effect of non-Newtonian behavior on the oil-water stratified flow in a horizontal channel using ANSYS Fluent. Coupled level set and volume of fluid (CLSVOF) has been used to capture the evolving interface assuming unsteady, coaxial flow with constant fluid properties. The diametric variation of oil volume fraction, mixture velocity, total pressure and pressure gradient has been studied. Non-Newtonian behavior of oil has been represented by the power law model in order to investigate the effect of flow behavior index. Stratified flow pattern tends to assume dispersed flow pattern with the change in the behavior of oil to non-Newtonian. The pressure gradient is found to be very much sensitive to the flow behavior index. The findings could be useful in designing the transportation pipe line in petroleum industries.

Keywords: Oil-water stratified flow, horizontal channel, CLSVOF, non–Newtonian behavior.

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5612 MIMO Performances in Tunnel Environment: Interpretation from the Channel Characteristics

Authors: C. Sanchis-Borras, J. M. Molina-Garcia-Pardo, P. Degauque, M. Lienard

Abstract:

The objective of this contribution is to study the performances in terms of bit error rate, of space-time code algorithms applied to MIMO communication in tunnels. Indeed, the channel characteristics in a tunnel are quite different than those of urban or indoor environment, due to the guiding effect of the tunnel. Therefore, MIMO channel matrices have been measured in a straight tunnel, in a frequency band around 3GHz. Correlation between array elements and properties of the MIMO matrices are first studied as a function of the distance between the transmitter and the receiver. Then, owing to a software tool simulating the link, predicted values of bit error rate are given for VLAST, OSTBC and QSTBC algorithms applied to a MIMO configuration with 2 or 4 array elements. Results are interpreted from the analysis of the channel properties.

Keywords: MIMO, propagation channel, space-time algorithms, tunnel.

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5611 Flow inside Micro-Channel Bounded by Superhydrophobic Surface with Eccentric Micro-Grooves

Authors: Yu Chen, Weiwei Ren, Xiaojing Mu, Feng Zhang, Yi Xu

Abstract:

The superhydrophobic surface is widely used to reduce friction for the flow inside micro-channel and can be used to control/manipulate fluid, cells and even proteins in lab-on-chip. Fabricating micro grooves on hydrophobic surfaces is a common method to obtain such superhydrophobic surface. This study utilized the numerical method to investigate the effect of eccentric micro-grooves on the friction of flow inside micro-channel. A detailed parametric study was conducted to reveal how the eccentricity of micro-grooves affects the micro-channel flow under different grooves sizes, channel heights, Reynolds number. The results showed that the superhydrophobic surface with eccentric micro-grooves induces less friction than the counter part with aligning micro-grooves, which means requiring less power for pumps.

Keywords: Superhydrophobic, transverse grooves, heat transfer, slip length, microfluidics.

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5610 Effect of Channel Estimation on Capacity of MIMO System Employing Circular or Linear Receiving Array Antennas

Authors: Xia Liu, Marek E. Bialkowski

Abstract:

This paper reports on investigations into capacity of a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wireless communication system employing a uniform linear array (ULA) at the transmitter and either a uniform linear array (ULA) or a uniform circular array (UCA) antenna at the receiver. The transmitter is assumed to be surrounded by scattering objects while the receiver is postulated to be free from scattering objects. The Laplacian distribution of angle of arrival (AOA) of a signal reaching the receiver is postulated. Calculations of the MIMO system capacity are performed for two cases without and with the channel estimation errors. For estimating the MIMO channel, the scaled least square (SLS) and minimum mean square error (MMSE) methods are considered.

Keywords: MIMO, channel capacity, channel estimation, ULA, UCA, spatial correlation

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5609 Theoretical and Analytical Approaches for Investigating the Relations between Sediment Transport and Channel Shape

Authors: Nidal Hadadin

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of cross sectional geometry on sediment transport rate. The processes of sediment transport are generally associated to environmental management, such as pollution caused by the forming of suspended sediment in the channel network of a watershed and preserving physical habitats and native vegetations, and engineering applications, such as the influence of sediment transport on hydraulic structures and flood control design. Many equations have been proposed for computing the sediment transport, the influence of many variables on sediment transport has been understood; however, the effect of other variables still requires further research. For open channel flow, sediment transport capacity is recognized to be a function of friction slope, flow velocity, grain size, grain roughness and form roughness, the hydraulic radius of the bed section and the type and quantity of vegetation cover. The effect of cross sectional geometry of the channel on sediment transport is one of the variables that need additional investigation. The width-depth ratio (W/d) is a comparative indicator of the channel shape. The width is the total distance across the channel and the depth is the mean depth of the channel. The mean depth is best calculated as total cross-sectional area divided by the top width. Channels with high W/d ratios tend to be shallow and wide, while channels with low (W/d) ratios tend to be narrow and deep. In this study, the effects of the width-depth ratio on sediment transport was demonstrated theoretically by inserting the shape factor in sediment continuity equation and analytically by utilizing the field data sets for Yalobusha River. It was found by utilizing the two approaches as a width-depth ratio increases the sediment transport decreases.

Keywords: Sediment transport, shape factor, hydraulicgeometry, flow discharge, width depth ratio.

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5608 Bit Error Rate Analysis of Mobile Communication Network in Nakagami Fading Channel: Interference Considerations

Authors: Manoranjan Das, Benudhar Sahu, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

Co-channel interference is one of the major problems in wireless systems. The effects of co-channel interference in a Nakagami fading channel on the ABER (Average Bit Error Rate) with static nodes are well analyzed. In this paper, we derive the ABER with the presence of mobile nodes. ABER is also derived for mobile systems in the presence of co-channel interference.

Keywords: ABER, co-channel interference, Nakagami fading.

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5607 Effect of Viscous Dissipation and Axial Conduction in Thermally Developing Region of the Channel Partially Filled with a Porous Material Subjected to Constant Wall Heat Flux

Authors: D Bhargavi, J. Sharath Kumar Reddy

Abstract:

The present investigation has been undertaken to assess the effect of viscous dissipation and axial conduction on forced convection heat transfer in the entrance region of a parallel plate channel with the porous insert attached to both walls of the channel. The flow field is unidirectional. Flow in the porous region corresponds to Darcy-Brinkman model and the clear fluid region to that of plane Poiseuille flow. The effects of the parameters Darcy number, Da, Peclet number, Pe, Brinkman number, Br and a porous fraction γp on the local heat transfer coefficient are analyzed graphically. Effects of viscous dissipation employing the Darcy model and the clear fluid compatible model have been studied.

Keywords: Porous material, channel partially filled with a porous material, axial conduction, viscous dissipation.

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5606 Numerical Analysis of Roughness Effect on Mini and Microchannels: Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer

Authors: El-Ghalia Filali, Cherif Gadouche, Mohamed Tahar

Abstract:

A three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow through mini and microchannels with designed roughness is conducted here. The effect of the roughness height (surface roughness), geometry, Reynolds number on the friction factor, and Nusselt number is investigated. The study is carried out by employing CFD software, CFX. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm and microchannels of 500 and 100 m in diameter. The speed entry varies from 0.1 m/s to 20 m/s. The general trend can be observed that bigger sizes of roughness element lead to higher flow resistance. It is found that the friction factor increases in a nonlinear fashion with the increase in obstruction height. Particularly, the effect of roughness can no longer be ignored at relative roughness height higher than 3%. A significant increase in Poiseuille number is detected for all configurations considered. The same observation can be done for Nusselt number. The transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow depends on the channel diameter.

Keywords: Heat transfer, hydrodynamics, micro-channel, roughness.

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