Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Full-wave rectifier

24 A Novel Three Phase Hybrid Unidirectional Rectifier for High Power Factor Applications

Authors: P. Nammalvar, P. Meganathan

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid three phase rectifier for high power factor application. This rectifier is composed by zero voltage transition (ZVT) and zero current transition (ZCT) boost converter with three phase diode bridge rectifier, in parallel with a six pulse three phase pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled rectifier. The proposed topology is capable of high power factor with DC output voltage regulation by providing sinusoidal input. Also, it increases the overall efficiency of the new hybrid rectifier to 94.56% and the total harmonic distortion of the hybrid structure varies from 0% to 16% at nominal output power. This topology was simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the output waveforms presented with experimental result.

Keywords: Hybrid Rectifier, Total Harmonic Distortion, Power Quality, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Unidirectional Rectifier.

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23 Simple and Advanced Models for Calculating Single-Phase Diode Rectifier Line-Side Harmonics

Authors: Hussein A. Kazem, Abdulhakeem Abdullah Albaloshi, Ali Said Ali Al-Jabri, Khamis Humaid AlSaidi

Abstract:

This paper proposes different methods for estimation of the harmonic currents of the single-phase diode bridge rectifier. Both simple and advanced methods are compared and the models are put into a context of practical use for calculating the harmonic distortion in a typical application. Finally, the different models are compared to measurements of a real application and convincing results are achieved.

Keywords: Single-phase rectifier, line side Harmonics

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22 A Temperature-Insensitive Wide-Dynamic Range Positive/Negative Full-Wave Rectifier Based on Operational Trasconductance Amplifier using Commercially Available ICs

Authors: C. Chanapromma, T. Worachak, P. Silapan

Abstract:

This paper presents positive and negative full-wave rectifier. The proposed structure is based on OTA using commercially available ICs (LT1228). The features of the proposed circuit are that: it can rectify and amplify voltage signal with controllable output magnitude via input bias current: the output voltage is free from temperature variation. The circuit description merely consists of 1 single ended and 3 fully differential OTAs. The performance of the proposed circuit are investigated though PSpice. They show that the proposed circuit can function as positive/negative full-wave rectifier, where the voltage input wide-dynamic range from -5V to 5V. Furthermore, the output voltage is slightly dependent on the temperature variations.

Keywords: Full-wave rectifier, Positive/negative, OTA, Electronically controllable, Wide-dynamic range

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21 Averaging Model of a Three-Phase Controlled Rectifier Feeding an Uncontrolled Buck Converter

Authors: P. Ruttanee, K-N. Areerak, K-L. Areerak

Abstract:

Dynamic models of power converters are normally time-varying because of their switching actions. Several approaches are applied to analyze the power converters to achieve the timeinvariant models suitable for system analysis and design via the classical control theory. The paper presents how to derive dynamic models of the power system consisting of a three-phase controlled rectifier feeding an uncontrolled buck converter by using the combination between the well known techniques called the DQ and the generalized state-space averaging methods. The intensive timedomain simulations of the exact topology model are used to support the accuracies of the reported model. The results show that the proposed model can provide good accuracies in both transient and steady-state responses.

Keywords: DQ method, Generalized state-space averaging method, Three-phase controlled rectifier, Uncontrolled buck converter, Averaging model, Modeling, Simulation.

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20 Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique Based Design and Simulation of a Three-Phase Voltage Source Converter Systems

Authors: Farhan Beg

Abstract:

A Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation control technique for the three-phase PWM converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed control scheme is based on a synchronous reference frame model. High performance and efficiency is obtained with regards to the DC bus voltage and the power factor considerations of the PWM rectifier thus leading to low losses. MATLAB/SIMULINK are used as a platform for the simulations and a SIMULINK model is presented in the paper. The results show that the proposed model demonstrates better performance and properties compared to the traditional SPWM method and the method improves the dynamic performance of the closed loop drastically. For the Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation, Sine signal is the reference waveform and triangle waveform is the carrier waveform. When the value sine signal is large than triangle signal, the pulse will start produce to high. And then when the triangular signals higher than sine signal, the pulse will come to low. SPWM output will changed by changing the value of the modulation index and frequency used in this system to produce more pulse width. The more pulse width produced, the output voltage will have lower harmonics contents and the resolution increase.

Keywords: Power Factor, SVPWM, PWM rectifier, SPWM.

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19 Electrical Characteristics of SCR - based ESD Device for I/O and Power Rail Clamp in 0.35um Process

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Dong Su Kim, Byung Seok Lee, Won Suk Park, Bo Bea Song

Abstract:

This paper presents a SCR-based ESD protection devices for I/O clamp and power rail clamp, respectably. These devices have a low trigger voltage and high holding voltage characteristics than conventional SCR device. These devices are fabricated by using 0.35um BCD (Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS) processes. These devices were validated using a TLP system. From the experimental results, the device for I/O ESD clamp has a trigger voltage of 5.8V. Also, the device for power rail ESD clamp has a holding voltage of 7.7V.

Keywords: ESD (Electro-Static Discharge), ESD protection device, SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), Latch-up

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18 A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage

Authors: Hee-Guk Chae, Bo-Bae Song, Kyoung-Il Do, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage.

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17 Generalized Mathematical Description and Simulation of Grid-Tied Thyristor Converters

Authors: V. S. Klimash, Ye Min Thu

Abstract:

Thyristor rectifiers, inverters grid-tied, and AC voltage regulators are widely used in industry, and on electrified transport, they have a lot in common both in the power circuit and in the control system. They have a common mathematical structure and switching processes. At the same time, the rectifier, but the inverter units and thyristor regulators of alternating voltage are considered separately both theoretically and practically. They are written about in different books as completely different devices. The aim of this work is to combine them into one class based on the unity of the equations describing electromagnetic processes, and then, to show this unity on the mathematical model and experimental setup. Based on research from mathematics to the product, a conclusion is made about the methodology for the rapid conduct of research and experimental design work, preparation for production and serial production of converters with a unified bundle. In recent years, there has been a transition from thyristor circuits and transistor in modular design. Showing the example of thyristor rectifiers and AC voltage regulators, we can conclude that there is a unity of mathematical structures and grid-tied thyristor converters.

Keywords: Direct current, alternating current, rectifier, AC voltage regulator, generalized mathematical model.

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16 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: ESD (Electro-Static Discharge), SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), holding Voltage.

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15 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage.

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14 Design of PI and Fuzzy Controller for High-Efficiency and Tightly Regulated Full Bridge DC-DC Converter

Authors: Sudha Bansal, Lalit Mohan Saini, Dheeraj Joshi

Abstract:

The controller is used to improve the dynamic performance of DC-DC converter by achieving a robust output voltage against load disturbances. This paper presents the performance of PI and Fuzzy controller for a phase- shifted zero-voltage switched full-bridge PWM (ZVS FB- PWM) converters with a closed loop control. The proposed converter is regulated with minimum overshoot and good stability. In this paper phase-shift control method is used as an effective tool to reduce switching losses and duty cycle losses. A 1kW/100KHz dc/dc converter is simulated and analyzed using MATLAB. The circuit is simulated for static and dynamic load (DC motor). It has been observed that performance of converter with fuzzy controller is better than that of PI controller. An efficiency comparison of the converter with a reported topology has also been carried out.

Keywords: Full-bridge converter, phase-shifted, synchronous rectifier (SR), zero-voltage switching (ZVS).

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13 Construction of Water Electrolyzer for Single Slice O2/H2 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: May Zin Lwin., Mya Mya Oo

Abstract:

In the first part of the research work, an electrolyzer (10.16 cm dia and 24.13 cm height) to produce hydrogen and oxygen was constructed for single slice O2/H2 fuel cell using cation exchange membrane. The electrolyzer performance was tested with 23% NaOH, 30% NaOH, 30% KOH and 35% KOH electrolyte solution with current input 4 amp and 2.84 V from the rectifier. Rates of volume of hydrogen produced were 0.159 cm3/sec, 0.155 cm3/sec, 0.169 cm3/sec and 0.163 cm3/sec respectively from 23% NaOH, 30% NaOH, 30% KOH and 35% KOH solution. Rates of volume of oxygen produced were 0.212 cm3/sec, 0.201 cm3/sec, 0.227 cm3/sec and 0.219 cm3/sec respectively from 23% NaOH, 30% NaOH, 30% KOH and 35% KOH solution (1.5 L). In spite of being tested the increased concentration of electrolyte solution, the gas rate does not change significantly. Therefore, inexpensive 23% NaOH electrolyte solution was chosen to use as the electrolyte in the electrolyzer. In the second part of the research work, graphite serpentine flow plates, fiberglass end plates, stainless steel screen electrodes, silicone rubbers were made to assemble the single slice O2/H2 polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC).

Keywords: electrolyzer, electrolyte solution, fuel cell, rectifier

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12 Analysis and Design of Simultaneous Dual Band Harvesting System with Enhanced Efficiency

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry, Jean-François Bousquet

Abstract:

This paper presents an enhanced efficiency simultaneous dual band energy harvesting system for wireless body area network. A bulk biasing is used to enhance the efficiency of the adapted rectifier design to reduce Vth of MOSFET. The presented circuit harvests the radio frequency (RF) energy from two frequency bands: 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. It is designed with TSMC 65-nm CMOS technology and high quality factor dual matching network to boost the input voltage. Full circuit analysis and modeling is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate a harvester with an efficiency of 23% at 1 GHz and 46% at 2.4 GHz at an input power as low as -30 dBm.

Keywords: Energy harvester, simultaneous, dual band, CMOS, differential rectifier, voltage boosting, TSMC 65nm.

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11 An Inductive Coupling Based CMOS Wireless Powering Link for Implantable Biomedical Applications

Authors: Lei Yao, Jia Hao Cheong, Rui-Feng Xue, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

A closed-loop controlled wireless power transmission circuit block for implantable biomedical applications is described in this paper. The circuit consists of one front-end rectifier, power management sub-block including bandgap reference and low drop-out regulators (LDOs) as well as transmission power detection / feedback circuits. Simulation result shows that the front-end rectifier achieves 80% power efficiency with 750-mV single-end peak-to-peak input voltage and 1.28-V output voltage under load current of 4 mA. The power management block can supply 1.8mA average load current under 1V consuming only 12μW power, which is equivalent to 99.3% power efficiency. The wireless power transmission block described in this paper achieves a maximum power efficiency of 80%. The wireless power transmission circuit block is designed and implemented using UMC 65-nm CMOS/RF process. It occupies 1 mm × 1.2 mm silicon area.

Keywords: Implantable biomedical devices, wireless power transfer, LDO, rectifier, closed-loop power control

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10 Developing a Simple and an Accurate Formula for the Conduction Angle of a Single Phase Rectifier with RL Load

Authors: S. Ali Al-Mawsawi, Fadhel A. Albasri

Abstract:

The paper presents a simple and an accurate formula that has been developed for the conduction angle (δ) of a single phase half-wave or full-wave controlled rectifier with RL load. This formula can be also used for calculating the conduction angle (δ) in case of A.C. voltage regulator with inductive load under discontinuous current mode. The simulation results shows that the conduction angle calculated from the developed formula agree very well with that obtained from the exact solution arrived from the iterative method. Applying the developed formula can reduce the computational time and reduce the time for manual classroom calculation. In addition, the proposed formula is attractive for real time implementations.

Keywords: Conduction Angle, Firing Angle, Excitation Angle, Load Angle.

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9 An Active Rectifier with Time-Domain Delay Compensation to Enhance the Power Conversion Efficiency

Authors: Shao-Ku Kao

Abstract:

This paper presents an active rectifier with time-domain delay compensation to enhance the efficiency. A delay calibration circuit is designed to convert delay time to voltage and adaptive control on/off delay in variable input voltage. This circuit is designed in 0.18 mm CMOS process. The input voltage range is from 2 V to 3.6 V with the output voltage from 1.8 V to 3.4 V. The efficiency can maintain more than 85% when the load from 50 Ω ~ 1500 Ω for 3.6 V input voltage. The maximum efficiency is 92.4 % at output power to be 38.6 mW for 3.6 V input voltage.

Keywords: Wireless power transfer, active diode, delay compensation, time to voltage converter, PCE.

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8 Simulation of a Boost PFC Converter with Electro Magnetic Interference Filter

Authors: P. Ram Mohan, M. Vijaya Kumar, O. V. Raghava Reddy

Abstract:

This paper deals with the simulation of a Boost Power Factor Correction (PFC) Converter with Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) Filter. The diode rectifier with output capacitor gives poor power factor. The Boost Converter of PFC Circuit is analyzed and then simulated with diode rectifier. The Boost PFC Converter with EMI Filter is simulated for resistive load. The power factor is improved using the proposed converter.

Keywords: Boost Converter, Power Factor Correction, Electro Magnetic Interference, Diode Rectifier

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7 Parameter Estimation of Diode Circuit Using Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Amit Kumar Gautam, Sudipta Majumdar

Abstract:

This paper presents parameter estimation of a single-phase rectifier using extended Kalman filter (EKF). The state space model has been obtained using Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL) and Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). The capacitor voltage and diode current of the circuit have been estimated using EKF. Simulation results validate the better accuracy of the proposed method as compared to the least mean square method (LMS). Further, EKF has the advantage that it can be used for nonlinear systems.

Keywords: Extended Kalman filter, parameter estimation, single phase rectifier, state space modelling.

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6 Closed Loop Control of Bridgeless Cuk Converter Using Fuzzy Logic Controller for PFC Applications

Authors: Nesapriya. P., S. Rajalaxmi

Abstract:

This paper is based on the bridgeless single-phase Ac–Dc Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters with Fuzzy Logic Controller. High frequency isolated Cuk converters are used as a modular dc-dc converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) of operation of Power Factor Correction. The aim of this paper is to simplify the program complexity of the controller by reducing the number of fuzzy sets of the Membership Functions (MFs) and to improve the efficiency and to eliminate the power quality problems. The output of Fuzzy controller is compared with High frequency triangular wave to generate PWM gating signals of Cuk converter. The proposed topologies are designed to work in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) to achieve a unity power factor and low total harmonic distortion of the input current. The Fuzzy Logic Controller gives additional advantages such as accurate result, uncertainty and imprecision and automatic control circuitry. Performance comparisons between the proposed and conventional controllers and circuits are performed based on circuit simulations.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Bridgeless rectifier, Cuk converter, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Power Factor Correction, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

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5 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani

Abstract:

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: Power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor.

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4 Design of Direct Power Controller for a High Power Neutral Point Clamped Converter Using Real Time Simulator

Authors: Amin Zabihinejad, Philippe Viarouge

Abstract:

In this paper, a direct power control (DPC) strategies have been investigated in order to control a high power AC/DC converter with time variable load. This converter is composed of a three level three phase neutral point clamped (NPC) converter as rectifier and an H-bridge four quadrant current control converter. In the high power application, controller not only must adjust the desire outputs but also decrease the level of distortions which are injected to the network from the converter. Regarding to this reason and nonlinearity of the power electronic converter, the conventional controllers cannot achieve appropriate responses. In this research, the precise mathematical analysis has been employed to design the appropriate controller in order to control the time variable load. A DPC controller has been proposed and simulated using Matlab/ Simulink. In order to verify the simulation result, a real time simulator- OPAL-RT- has been employed. In this paper, the dynamic response and stability of the high power NPC with variable load has been investigated and compared with conventional types using a real time simulator. The results proved that the DPC controller is more stable and has more precise outputs in comparison with conventional controller.

Keywords: Direct Power Control, Three Level Rectifier, Real Time Simulator, High Power Application.

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3 Bridgeless Boost Power Factor Correction Rectifier with Hold-Up Time Extension Circuit

Authors: Chih-Chiang Hua, Yi-Hsiung Fang, Yuan-Jhen Siao

Abstract:

A bridgeless boost (BLB) power factor correction (PFC) rectifier with hold-up time extension circuit is proposed in this paper. A full bridge rectifier is widely used in the front end of the ac/dc converter. Since the shortcomings of the full bridge rectifier, the bridgeless rectifier is developed. A BLB rectifier topology is utilized with the hold-up time extension circuit. Unlike the traditional hold-up time extension circuit, the proposed extension scheme uses fewer active switches to achieve a longer hold-up time. Simulation results are presented to verify the converter performance.

Keywords: Bridgeless boost, boost converter, power factor correction, hold-up time.

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2 Three Phase Fault Analysis of DC-Link Rectifier using new Power Differential Protection Concept

Authors: A. Gamil, G. Herold

Abstract:

The concept of differential protection based on current quantities has been discussed in many paper and researches. For certificating and inverting of currents and voltages through converter systems, there is no conventional current differential relay, which can compare current quantities, because they are different in form and frequencies. An overview over a new concept of differential protection for converters based on instantaneous power quantities will be discussed in this paper. To drive the power quantities a mathematical background of the space vectors will be introduced. A simple DCLink is preceded in this paper and a power analysis description and simulation is derived using Matlab®/ SimulinkTM concerning a certain construction scheme of Power Differential Relay System. Finally a complete analysis of three phase fault in DC-Link Rectifier is discussed to ensure the ability of Power Differential Protection System to detect the fault in main and selectivity protection sections.

Keywords: Space Vectors, Power Differential Relay (PDR), Short Circuit Power, Diode Recovery Energy, Detected Power Differential Signal (DPDS), Power Space Vector (PSV), Power Space Vector Protection Area (PSVPA).

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1 Application of Pulse Doubling in Star-Connected Autotransformer Based 12-Pulse AC-DC Converter for Power Quality Improvement

Authors: Rohollah. Abdollahi, Alireza. Jalilian

Abstract:

This paper presents a pulse doubling technique in a 12-pulse ac-dc converter which supplies direct torque controlled motor drives (DTCIMD-s) in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The proposed technique increases the number of rectification pulses without significant changes in the installations and yields in harmonic reduction in both ac and dc sides. The 12-pulse rectified output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled six-pulse ac-dc converters each of them consisting of three-phase diode bridge rectifier. An autotransformer is designed to supply the rectifiers. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. Independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, i.e. dc-ripple re-injection methodology, requires a Zero Sequence Blocking Transformer (ZSBT). Finally, a tapped interphase reactor is connected at the output of ZSBT to double the pulse numbers of output voltage up to 24 pulses. The aforementioned structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6- pulse, 12-pulse, and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 5% for the proposed topology at various loads.

Keywords: AC–DC converter, star-connected autotransformer, power quality, 24 pulse rectifier, Pulse Doubling, direct torquecontrolled induction motor drive (DTCIMD).

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