Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1821

Search results for: Mohamed Khan

1821 Experimental Study on Friction Factor of Oscillating Flow Through a Regenerator

Authors: Mohamed Saïd Kahaleras, François Lanzetta, Mohamed Khan, Guillaume Layes, Philippe Nika

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental work to characterize the dynamic operation of a metal regenerator crossed by dry compressible air alternating flow. Unsteady dynamic measurements concern the pressure, velocity and temperature of the gas at the ends and inside the channels of the regenerator. The regenerators are tested under isothermal conditions and thermal axial temperature gradient.

Keywords: friction factor, oscillating flow, regenerator, stirling machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
1820 On Paranorm Zweier I-Convergent Sequence Spaces

Authors: Nazneen Khan, Vakeel A. Khan

Abstract:

In this article we introduce the Paranorm Zweier I-convergent sequence spaces, for a sequence of positive real numbers. We study some topological properties, prove the decomposition theorem and study some inclusion relations on these spaces.

Keywords: ideal, filter, I-convergence, I-nullity, paranorm

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1819 The Potential Factors Relating to the Decision of Return Migration of Myanmar Migrant Workers: A Case Study in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province

Authors: Musthaya Patchanee

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to study potential factors relating to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province by conducting a random sampling of 400 people aged between 15-59 who migrated from Myanmar. The information collected through interviews was analyzed to find a percentage and mean using the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis. The results have shown that 33.25% of Myanmar migrant workers want to return to their home country within the next 1-5 years, 46.25%, in 6-10 years and the rest, in over 10 years. The factors relating to such decision can be concluded that the scale of the decision of return migration has a positive relationship with a statistical significance at 0.05 with a conformity with friends and relatives (r=0.886), a relationship with family and community (r=0.782), possession of land in hometown (r=0.756) and educational level (r=0.699). However, the factor of property possession in Prachuap Khiri Khan is the only factor with a high negative relationship (r=0.-537). From the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis, the results have shown that the conformity with friends and relatives and educational level factors are influential to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, which can predict the decision at 86.60% and the multiple regression equation from the analysis is Y= 6.744+1.198 conformity + 0.647 education.

Keywords: decision of return migration, factors of return migration, Myanmar migrant workers, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province

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1818 Application of Hydrologic Engineering Centers and River Analysis System Model for Hydrodynamic Analysis of Arial Khan River

Authors: Najeeb Hassan, Mahmudur Rahman

Abstract:

Arial Khan River is one of the main south-eastward outlets of the River Padma. This river maintains a meander channel through its course and is erosional in nature. The specific objective of the research is to study and evaluate the hydrological characteristics in the form of assessing changes of cross-sections, discharge, water level and velocity profile in different stations and to create a hydrodynamic model of the Arial Khan River. Necessary data have been collected from Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) and Center for Environment and Geographic Information Services (CEGIS). Satellite images have been observed from Google earth. In this study, hydrodynamic model of Arial Khan River has been developed using well known steady open channel flow code Hydrologic Engineering Centers and River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) using field surveyed geometric data. Cross-section properties at 22 locations of River Arial Khan for the years 2011, 2013 and 2015 were also analysed. 1-D HEC-RAS model has been developed using the cross sectional data of 2015 and appropriate boundary condition is being used to run the model. This Arial Khan River model is calibrated using the pick discharge of 2015. The applicable value of Mannings roughness coefficient (n) is adjusted through the process of calibration. The value of water level which ties with the observed data to an acceptable accuracy is taken as calibrated model. The 1-D HEC-RAS model then validated by using the pick discharges from 2009-2018. Variation in observed water level in the model and collected water level data is being compared to validate the model. It is observed that due to seasonal variation, discharge of the river changes rapidly and Mannings roughness coefficient (n) also changes due to the vegetation growth along the river banks. This river model may act as a tool to measure flood area in future. By considering the past pick flow discharge, it is strongly recommended to improve the carrying capacity of Arial Khan River to protect the surrounding areas from flash flood.

Keywords: BWDB, CEGIS, HEC-RAS

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1817 Library Anxiety among Library and Information Science Students at Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak, Pakistan: A Bostick Approach

Authors: Saeed Ullah Jan, Shafaq, Sumbul

Abstract:

Anxiety is one of the most common emotions and is a normal reaction to danger or a threat. It is a normal reaction to stress and can be beneficial in some situations. It can alert us to dangers and help us prepare and pay attention. The prime aim of this study was to examine the level of anxiety of Library and Information Science students at the Department of Library and Information Science, Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak. A survey method was used for the completion of this study. The response of male respondents was better than female LIS students at the Department of Library and Information Science, Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak. The librarians should have to focus on the information needs of the university students. Special training needs to be arranged for female students to improve their library usage and readership rate.

Keywords: library-anxiety, library anxiety-students, library anxiety -students-Pakistan, stress

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1816 Comparision of Statistical Variables for Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Children in Measles Cases in Khyber Pukhtun Khwa

Authors: Inayatullah Khan, Afzal Khan, Hamzullah Khan, Afzal Khan

Abstract:

Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare different statistical variables for vaccinated and unvaccinated children in measles cases. Material and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Isolation ward, Department of Paediatrics, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 566 admitted cases of measles were enrolled. Data regarding age, sex, address, vaccination status, measles contact, hospital stay and outcome was collected and recorded on a proforma. History of measles vaccination was ascertained either by checking the vaccination cards or on parental recall. Result: In 566 cases of measles, 211(39%) were vaccinated and 345 (61%) were unvaccinated. Three hundred and ten (54.80%) patients were males and 256 (45.20%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1.The age range was from 1 year to 14 years with mean age with SD of 3.2 +2 years. Majority (371, 65.5%) of the patients were 1-3 years old. Mean hospital stay was 3.08 days with a range of 1-10 days and a standard deviation of ± 1.15. History of measles contact was present in 393 (69.4%) cases. Fourty eight patients were expired with a mortality rate of 8.5%. Conclusion: Majority of the children in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa are unvaccinated and unprotected against measles. Among vaccinated children, 39% of children attracted measles which indicate measles vaccine failure. This figure is clearly higher than that accepted for measles vaccine (2-10%).

Keywords: measles, vaccination, immunity, population

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
1815 Green It-Outsourcing Assurance Model for It-Outsourcing Vendors

Authors: Siffat Ullah Khan, Rahmat Ullah Khan, Rafiq Ahmad Khan, Habibullah Khan

Abstract:

Green IT or green computing has emerged as a fast growing business paradigm in recent years in order to develop energy-efficient Software and peripheral devices. With the constant evolution of technology and the world critical environmental status, all private and public information technology (IT) businesses are moving towards sustainability. We identified, through systematic literature review and questionnaire survey, 9 motivators, in total, faced by vendors in IT-Outsourcing relationship. Amongst these motivators 7 were ranked as critical motivators. We also identified 21, in total, practices for addressing these critical motivators. Based on these inputs we have developed Green IT-Outsourcing Assurance Model (GITAM) for IT-Outsourcing vendors. The model comprises four different levels. i.e. Initial, White, Green and Grey. Each level comprises different critical motivators and their relevant practices. We conclude that our model, GITAM, will assist IT-Outsourcing vendors in gauging their level in order to manage IT-Outsourcing activities in a green and sustainable fashion to assist the environment and to reduce the carbon emission. The model will assist vendors in improving their current level by suggesting various practices. The model will contribute to the body of knowledge in the field of Green IT.

Keywords: Green IT-outsourcing Assurance Model (GITAM), Systematic Literature Review, Empirical Study, Case Study

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
1814 Scar Removal Stretegy for Fingerprint Using Diffusion

Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Tariq M. Khan, Yinan Kong

Abstract:

Fingerprint image enhancement is one of the most important step in an automatic fingerprint identification recognition (AFIS) system which directly affects the overall efficiency of AFIS. The conventional fingerprint enhancement like Gabor and Anisotropic filters do fill the gaps in ridge lines but they fail to tackle scar lines. To deal with this problem we are proposing a method for enhancing the ridges and valleys with scar so that true minutia points can be extracted with accuracy. Our results have shown an improved performance in terms of enhancement.

Keywords: fingerprint image enhancement, removing noise, coherence, enhanced diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
1813 Sudan’s Approach to Knowledge Management in Disaster Management

Authors: Mohamed Abdalla Elamein Boshara, Peter Charles Woods, Nour Eldin Mohamed Elshaiekh

Abstract:

Knowledge Management has become very important for Disaster Management response and planning. This paper proposes the implementation of a Knowledge Management System with a sustainable data collection mechanism for reliable and timely information management to support decision makers in making the right decisions in the timely manner.

Keywords: knowledge management, disaster management, incident tracking, web application

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
1812 Blended Learning in a Mathematics Classroom: A Focus in Khan Academy

Authors: Sibawu Witness Siyepu

Abstract:

This study explores the effects of instructional design using blended learning in the learning of radian measures among Engineering students. Blended learning is an education programme that combines online digital media with traditional classroom methods. It requires the physical presence of both lecturer and student in a mathematics computer laboratory. Blended learning provides element of class control over time, place, path or pace. The focus was on the use of Khan Academy to supplement traditional classroom interactions. Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organisation created by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating an accessible place for students to learn through watching videos in a computer assisted computer. The researcher who is an also lecturer in mathematics support programme collected data through instructing students to watch Khan Academy videos on radian measures, and by supplying students with traditional classroom activities. Classroom activities entails radian measure activities extracted from the Internet. Students were given an opportunity to engage in class discussions, social interactions and collaborations. These activities necessitated students to write formative assessments tests. The purpose of formative assessments tests was to find out about the students’ understanding of radian measures, including errors and misconceptions they displayed in their calculations. Identification of errors and misconceptions serve as pointers of students’ weaknesses and strengths in their learning of radian measures. At the end of data collection, semi-structure interviews were administered to a purposefully sampled group to explore their perceptions and feedback regarding the use of blended learning approach in teaching and learning of radian measures. The study employed Algebraic Insight Framework to analyse data collected. Algebraic Insight Framework is a subset of symbol sense which allows a student to correctly enter expressions into a computer assisted systems efficiently. This study offers students opportunities to enter topics and subtopics on radian measures into a computer through the lens of Khan Academy. Khan academy demonstrates procedures followed to reach solutions of mathematical problems. The researcher performed the task of explaining mathematical concepts and facilitated the process of reinvention of rules and formulae in the learning of radian measures. Lastly, activities that reinforce students’ understanding of radian were distributed. Results showed that this study enthused the students in their learning of radian measures. Learning through videos prompted the students to ask questions which brought about clarity and sense making to the classroom discussions. Data revealed that sense making through reinvention of rules and formulae assisted the students in enhancing their learning of radian measures. This study recommends the use of Khan Academy in blended learning to be introduced as a socialisation programme to all first year students. This will prepare students that are computer illiterate to become conversant with the use of Khan Academy as a powerful tool in the learning of mathematics. Khan Academy is a key technological tool that is pivotal for the development of students’ autonomy in the learning of mathematics and that promotes collaboration with lecturers and peers.

Keywords: algebraic insight framework, blended learning, Khan Academy, radian measures

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1811 Prediction Fluid Properties of Iranian Oil Field with Using of Radial Based Neural Network

Authors: Abdolreza Memari

Abstract:

In this article in order to estimate the viscosity of crude oil,a numerical method has been used. We use this method to measure the crude oil's viscosity for 3 states: Saturated oil's viscosity, viscosity above the bubble point and viscosity under the saturation pressure. Then the crude oil's viscosity is estimated by using KHAN model and roller ball method. After that using these data that include efficient conditions in measuring viscosity, the estimated viscosity by the presented method, a radial based neural method, is taught. This network is a kind of two layered artificial neural network that its stimulation function of hidden layer is Gaussian function and teaching algorithms are used to teach them. After teaching radial based neural network, results of experimental method and artificial intelligence are compared all together. Teaching this network, we are able to estimate crude oil's viscosity without using KHAN model and experimental conditions and under any other condition with acceptable accuracy. Results show that radial neural network has high capability of estimating crude oil saving in time and cost is another advantage of this investigation.

Keywords: viscosity, Iranian crude oil, radial based, neural network, roller ball method, KHAN model

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1810 Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features

Authors: Nadia Masood Khan, Muhammad Salman Khan, Gul Muhammad Khan

Abstract:

Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.

Keywords: pattern recognition, machine learning, computer aided diagnosis, heart sound classification, and feature extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
1809 A Modified Shannon Entropy Measure for Improved Image Segmentation

Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Omar A. Kittaneh, M. Akbar, Tariq M. Khan, Husam A. Bayoud

Abstract:

The Shannon Entropy measure has been widely used for measuring uncertainty. However, in partial settings, the histogram is used to estimate the underlying distribution. The histogram is dependent on the number of bins used. In this paper, a modification is proposed that makes the Shannon entropy based on histogram consistent. For providing the benefits, two application are picked in medical image processing applications. The simulations are carried out to show the superiority of this modified measure for image segmentation problem. The improvement may be contributed to robustness shown to uneven background in images.

Keywords: Shannon entropy, medical image processing, image segmentation, modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
1808 Developing Teachers as Change Agents: A Qualitative Study of Master of Education Graduates in Pakistan

Authors: Mir Afzal Tajik

Abstract:

The 'Strengthening Teacher Education in Pakistan' (STEP) is an innovative programme jointly funded by the Government of Canada and the Aga Khan Foundation Canada and implemented by the Aga Khan University - Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) in partnership with the local governments, education departments and communities in the provinces of Balochistan, Sindh and Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. One of the key components of the programme is the professional development of teachers, headteachers and teacher educators through a variety of teacher education programmes including a two-year Masters of Education (MEd) Programme offered by AKU-IED. A number of teachers, headteachers and teacher educators from these provinces have been developed through the MEd Programme. This paper discusses a qualitative research study conducted to explore the nature, relevance, rigor and richness of the experiences of the MEd graduates, and how these experiences have fostered their own professional development and their ability to bring about positive changes in their schools. The findings of the study provide useful insights into the graduates’ self-actualization, the transformation of their professional beliefs and practices, the difference they have made in their schools, and the challenges they face. The study also provides recommendations for policy and practice related to teacher education programmes.

Keywords: STEP, teacher education, Pakistan, Canada, Aga Khan foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
1807 Study of Tribological Behaviour of Al6061/Silicon Carbide/Graphite Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite Using Taguchi's Techniques

Authors: Mohamed Zakaulla, A. R. Anwar Khan

Abstract:

Al6061 alloy base matrix, reinforced with particles of silicon carbide (10 wt %) and Graphite powder (1wt%), known as hybrid composites have been fabricated by liquid metallurgy route (stir casting technique) and optimized at different parameters like applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance by taguchi method. A plan of experiment generated through taguchi technique was used to perform experiments based on L27 orthogonal array. The developed ANOVA and regression equations are used to find the optimum coefficient of friction and wear under the influence of applied load, sliding speed and sliding distance. On the basis of “smaller the best” the dry sliding wear resistance was analysed and finally confirmation tests were carried out to verify the experimental results.

Keywords: analysis of variance, dry sliding wear, hybrid composite, orthogonal array, Taguchi technique

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1806 Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment

Authors: Amr A. EL Hanafy, Yasir Anwar, Saleh A. Mohamed, Saleh Mohamed Saleh Al-Garni, Jamal S. M. Sabir , Osama A. H. Abu Zinadah, Mohamed Morsi Ahmed

Abstract:

In the vicinity of the red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54 %) and Penicillium commune (48 %) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has the capability of degradation and can be utilized for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.

Keywords: fungal strains, hydrocarbon contaminants, molecular identification, biodegradation, GC-MS

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1805 Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods Based Biosensor via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Jafar Khan Kasi, Samiullah, Ajab Khan Kasi

Abstract:

Biosensors are playing vital role in industrial, clinical, and chemical analysis applications. Among other techniques, ZnO based biosensor is an easy approach due to its exceptional chemical and electrical properties. ZnO nanorods have positively charged isoelectric point which helps immobilize the negative charge glucose oxides (GOx). Here, we report ZnO nanorods based biosensors for the immobilization of GOx. The ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide substrate (ITO). The fabrication of biosensors was carried through batch processing using conventional photolithography. The buffer solutions of GOx were prepared in phosphate with a pH value of around 7.3. The biosensors effectively immobilized the GOx and result was analyzed by calculation of voltage and current on nanostructures.

Keywords: hydrothermal growth, sol-gel, zinc dioxide, biosensors

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1804 Effects of Flexible Flat Feet on Electromyographic Activity of Erector Spinae and Multifidus

Authors: Abdallah Mohamed Kamel Mohamed Ali, Samah Saad Zahran, Mohamed Hamed Rashad

Abstract:

Background: Flexible flatfoot (FFF) has been considered as a risk factor for several lower limb injuries and mechanical low back pain. This was attributed to the dysfunction of the lumbopelvic-hip complex musculature. Objective: To investigate the influence of FFF on electromyographic activities of erector spinae and multifidus. Methods: A cross-section study was held between an FFF group (20 subjects) and a normal foot group (20 subjects). A surface electromyography was used to assess the electromyographic activity of erector spinae and multifidus. Group differences were assessed by the T-test. Results: There was a significant increase in EMG activities of erector spinae and multifidus in the FFF group compared with the normal group. Conclusion: There is an increase in EMG activities in erector spinae and multifidus in FFF subjects compared with normal subjects.

Keywords: electromyography, flatfoot, low back pain, paraspinal muscles

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1803 Critical Discourse Analysis of Political TV Talk Show of Pakistani Media

Authors: Sumaira Saleem, Sajjad Hussain, Asma Kashif Shahzad, Hina Shaheen

Abstract:

This study aims at exploring the relationship between language and ideology and how such relationships are represented in the analysis of spoken texts, following Van Dijk’s Socio Cognitive Model (2002). In this study, it is tried to show that political Talk shows broadcast by Private TV channels are working apparatuses of ideology and store meanings which are not always obvious for readers. This analysis was about the situation created by Arslan Iftkhar, the son of ex-Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudry and PTI Chief Imran Khan. Arslan Iftikhar submitted an application against Imran Khan that he is not able to become a member of parliament of Pakistan. In the application, he demanded the documents, which are submitted by Imran Khan at the time of Election to the Election Commission of Pakistan. Murad Ali from PTI also submitted an application against PM Nawaz Sharif to the Election Commission of Pakistan for providing the copies. It also suggests that these talk shows mystify the agency of processes by using various strategies. In other words, critical text analyses reveal how these choices enable speakers to manipulate the realizations of agency and power in the representation of action to produce particular meanings which are not always explicit for all readers.

Keywords: ECP, CDA, socio cognitive model, ideology, TV channels, power

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1802 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.

Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
1801 Assessment of Solid Insulating Material Using Partial Discharge Characteristics

Authors: Qasim Khan, Furkan Ahmad, Asfar A. Khan, M. Saad Alam, Faiz Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, partial discharge analysis is performed in cavities artificially created in insulation. The setup is according with Cigre-II Method. Circular Samples created from Perspex Sheet with different configuration with changing number of cavities. Assessment of insulation health can be performed by Partial Discharge measurement as this has been found to be important means of condition monitoring. The experiments are done using MPD 540, which is a modern partial discharge measurement system. By analyzing the PD activity obtained for various voids/cavities, it is observed that the PD voltages show variation for cavity’s diameter, depth even for its ratios. This can be employed for scrutiny of insulation system.

Keywords: partial discharges, condition monitoring, insulation defects, degradation and corrosion, PMMA

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1800 Static Relaxation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Pipes

Authors: Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Mohamed K. Hassan, A. F. Mohamed, Shadi M. Munshi, A. M. Hashem

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Pips made from glass fiber reinforced polymer has competitive role in petroleum industry. The need of evaluating the mechanical behavior of (GRP) pipes is essential objects. Stress relaxation illustrates how polymers relieve stress under constant strain. Static relaxation test is carried out at room temperature. The material gives poor static relaxation strength, two loading cycles have been observed for the tested specimen.

Keywords: GRP, sandwich composite material, static relaxation, stress relief

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1799 Study on the Effect of Coupling Fluid Compressible-Deformable Wall on the Flow of Molten Polymers

Authors: Mohamed Driouich, Kamal Gueraoui, Mohamed Sammouda

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to establish a numerical code for studying the flow of molten polymers in deformable pipes. Using an iterative numerical method based on finite differences, we determine the profiles of the fluid velocity, the temperature and the apparent viscosity of the fluid. The numerical code presented can also be applied to other industrial applications.

Keywords: numerical code, molten polymers, deformable pipes, finite differences

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1798 A New Genus Longicheles (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae) for Pakistan Fauna from Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

Abstract:

Macrochelid mites are poorly studied from the planes of Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted as a part of PhD thesis research partially funded by the Royal Society of Entomology, UK. The genus Longicheles was first time reported from the Pakistan. Samples were collected on the monthly basis from different districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. The genus Longicheles was frequently found from five districts (Faisalabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Jhung, Layyah, and Rajanpur) of Punjab province. Taxonomic studies were performed in Acarology Lab., Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad with slide deposition. Taxonomic work was performed by using Phase contrast microscope and adobe illustrator (drawings) for finishing of picture. The detail descriptions of two (Longicheles mandibularis and Longicheles hortorum) females are given along with diagrams and key.

Keywords: macrochelidae, longicheles, new records, Punjab

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1797 Texturing of Tool Insert Using Femtosecond Laser

Authors: Ashfaq Khan, Aftab Khan, Mushtaq Khan, Sarem Sattar, Mohammad A Sheikh, Lin Li

Abstract:

Chip removal processes are one of key processes of the manufacturing industry where chip removal is conducted by tool inserts of exceptionally hard materials. Tungsten carbide has been extensively used as tool insert for machining processes involving chip removal processes. These hard materials are generally fabricated by single step sintering process as further modification after fabrication in these materials cannot be done easily. Advances in tool surface modification have revealed that advantages such as improved tribological properties and extended tool life can be harnessed from the same tool by texturing the tool rake surface. Moreover, it has been observed that the shape and location of the texture also influences the behavior. Although texturing offers plentiful advantages the challenge lies in the generation of textures on the tool surface. Extremely hard material such as diamond is required to process tungsten carbide. Laser is unique processing tool that does not have a physical contact with the material and thus does not wear. In this research the potential of utilizing laser for texturing of tungsten carbide to develop custom features would be studied. A parametric study of texturing of Tungsten Carbide with a femtosecond laser would be conducted to investigate the process parameters and establish the feasible processing window. The effect of fluence, scan speed and number of repetition would be viewed in detail. Moreover, the mechanism for the generation of features would also be reviewed.

Keywords: laser, texturing, femtosecond, tungsten carbide

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1796 Depression among Housewives and Professional Women in Karachi: A Comparative Study

Authors: Naheed Khan

Abstract:

A non-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in middle-class women in Karachi, a metropolitan city of Pakistan. The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was self -administered by a sample of 50 housewives and 50 professional women between the ages of 24 and 54 years. All the participants were at least graduates, married, had children, and were living in joint family systems. Results showed a 48% prevalence of anxiety and depression in housewives as compared to 34% in professional women. The data showed significant difference in mean of total scores on AKUADS and the calculated t-value of 1.957 with a df = 98 and α = 0.05. Two variables, that is, profession and a higher level of education were significantly related to the outcome. Hence acquiring higher education and taking up a job, even a part time one, may alleviate the symptoms of anxiety and depression in housewives. Other factors responsible for the relief of such symptoms, such as quality of relationship with husbands, may be investigated for both categories of women.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, housewives, professional women

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1795 Smart Meter Incorporating UWB Technology

Authors: T. A. Khan, A. B. Khan, M. Babar, T. A. Taj, Imran Ijaz Imran

Abstract:

Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional services as compared to the conventional energy meters. One of the important element that makes a meter smart and different is its communication module. Smart meters usually have two way and real-time communication between the consumer and the supplier through which its transfer data and information. In this paper, Ultra Wide Band (UWB) is recommended as communication platform because of its high data-rate and presents the physical layer, which could be easily incorporated in existing Smart Meters. The physical layer is simulated in MATLAB Simulink and the results are provided.

Keywords: Ultra Wide Band (UWB), Smart Meter, MATLAB, transfer data

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1794 A Cross Culture Analysis of Medicinal Plants and Phytotherapies: Highly Effective for Gastropathic Disorders among Three Ethnic Communities of South West Pakistan

Authors: Sheikh Z. Ul Abidin, Raees Khan, Rainer W. Bussmann, Mushtaq Ahmad, Shayan Jamshed, Humera Jabeen, Ajmal Khan

Abstract:

Gastropathic disorders are increasing rapidly and millions patients are reported every years across the world. Herbal medicines and traditional phytotherapies are very effective for many diseases including gastropathic ailments. Many communities and study region have their own unique remedies for such diseases. The current study was aimed to investigate and document high valued medicinal plants and folk remedies for different gastropathic disorders among the three ethnic groups of three regions in South West Pakistan. A total of 104 semi-structured interviews involving experts of traditional knowledge in 21 localities of the three regions (D.I. Khan, Zhob and Mianwali) were conducted. The interviews were especially focused on the documentation of folk herbal remedies. The collected data was analyzed using different quantitative methods. The highly effective plants from all localities were identified with the help of local interviewers and collected for proper taxonomic identification. A total of 56 medicinal plants and 33 effective recipes for 12 gastropathic diseases were documented from all the three ethnic groups in 21 localities. Fabaceae and Asteraceae were most prominently used for different gastropathic diseases. Diarrhea, vomiting and dysentery were the most commonly diseases treated with herbal remedies. It was observed that the three communities shared knowledge about the use of medicinal plants, 35 species were commonly reported from all three areas. However, each community had also their own unique uses of medicinal plants, e.g. 23 plants species were only used in Zhob, 20 plant species were only reported in D.I. Khan and 16 species in Mianwali. The present study reveals that different communities and ethnic groups share some traditional knowledge and also have their own unique knowledge of plants utilization. Gastropathic disorder is increasing very rapidly and the traditional cross-cultural knowledge of medicinal plants use can be very effective for its cure.

Keywords: cross cultural, ethnic groups, gastropathy, phytotherapies, South West Pakistan

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1793 Characterization of Coronary Artery Obstruction and Related Findings in Ischemic Heart Patients Using Cardiac Scintigraphy

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagi Allah Eltayeb, Mohamed E. Gar-elnabi, Mohamed Ahmed Ali

Abstract:

To characterize coronary artery obstruction and related findings in ischemic heart patients using cardiac scintigraphy for the identification of myocardial ischemia, 146 patients were studied at basal conditions and also asked for fasting after night till the intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. After the injection time about 15 to 20 minutes, the patient should eat a fatty meal and chocolate for the good excretion of the gall bladder, to evaluate the performance and regional wall motion of the left ventricle (LV). The results showed that the body mass index percentage in this sample was in range of 43.05 to 61.05. The number of patients who were catheter candidates were 56 with 43% and the patients that were not candidate to cathode were 74 patients with 57% of all patients. For the group of patients where type of ischemia was assessed, 29.5% of patients had reversible posterior and inferior wall, 15.1% of patients had fixed large from apex to base, 9.6% of patients had mild basal inferior wall, 4.8 % of patients had mild anterior wall, 6.2% of patients had antro-septal and 34.9% of patients had moderate ischemia.

Keywords: myocardial ischemia, myocardial scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography, coronary artery obstruction

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1792 Effect of Papaverine on Neurospheres

Authors: Noura Shehab-Eldeen, Mohamed Elsherbeeny, Hossam Elmetwally, Mohamed Salama, Ahmed Lotfy, Mohamed Elgamal, Hussein Sheashaa, Mohamed Sobh

Abstract:

Mitochondrial toxins including papaverine may be implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The aim was to detect the effect of papaverine on the proliferation and viability of neural stem cells. Rat neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryos (E14) brains. The dispersed tissues were allowed to settle, then, The supernatant was centrifuged at 1,000 g for 5 min. The pellet was placed in Hank’s solution cultured as free-floating neurospheres Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and Hams F12 (3:1) supplemented with B27 (Invitrogen GmBH, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF; Biosource, Karlsruhe, Germany), 20 ng/mL recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (rhFGF; R&D Systems, Wiesbaden-Nordenstadt, Germany), and penicillin and streptomycin (1:100; Invitrogen) at 37°C with 7.5% CO2 . Differentiation was initiated by growth factor withdrawal and plating onto a poly-d-lysine/ laminin matrix. The neurospheres were fed every 2-3 days by replacing 50% of the culture media with fresh media. The culture suspension was transferred to a dish containing 16 wells. The wells were divided as follows: 4 wells received no papaverine (control), 4 wells 1 u, 4 wells 5 u and 4 wells 10 u of papaverine solution. In the next 2 weeks, photography (0,4,5,11days) and viability test were done. The photographs were analysed. Results : papaverine didn't affect proliferation of neurospheres, while it affected viability compared to control , this was dose related. Conclusion: This indicates the harmful effect of papaverine suggesting it to be a candidate neurotoxin causing Parkinsonism.

Keywords: neurospheres, neural stem cells, papaverine, Parkinsonism

Procedia PDF Downloads 427