Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3615

Search results for: molecular identification

3615 Molecular Diversity of Forensically Relevant Insects from the Cadavers of Lahore

Authors: Sundus Mona, Atif Adnan, Babar Ali, Fareeha Arshad, Allah Rakha

Abstract:

Molecular diversity is the variation in the abundance of species. Forensic entomology is a neglected field in Pakistan. Insects collected from the crime scene should be handled by forensic entomologists who are currently virtually non-existent in Pakistan. Correct identification of insect specimen along with knowledge of their biodiversity can aid in solving many problems related to complicated forensic cases. Inadequate morphological identification and insufficient thermal biological studies limit the entomological utility in Forensic Medicine. Recently molecular identification of entomological evidence has gained attention globally. DNA barcoding is the latest and established method for species identification. Only proper identification can provide a precise estimation of postmortem intervals. Arthropods are known to be the first tourists scavenging on decomposing dead matter. The objective of the proposed study was to identify species by molecular techniques and analyze their phylogenetic importance with barcoded necrophagous insect species of early succession on human cadavers. Based upon this identification, the study outcomes will be the utilization of established DNA bar codes to identify carrion feeding insect species for concordant estimation of post mortem interval. A molecular identification method involving sequencing of a 658bp ‘barcode’ fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene from collected specimens of unknown dipteral species from cadavers of Lahore was evaluated. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using MEGA 7 and Arlequin, and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was generated. Three species were identified, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya saffranea, and Chrysomya rufifacies with low genetic diversity. The fixation index was 0.83992 that suggests a need for further studies to identify and classify forensically relevant insects in Pakistan. There is an exigency demand for further research especially when immature forms of arthropods are recovered from the crime scene.

Keywords: molecular diversity, DNA barcoding, species identification, forensically relevant

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3614 Analysis of Expert Possibilities While Identifying Human Teeth

Authors: Saule Mussabekova

Abstract:

Forensic investigation of human teeth plays an important role in detection of crime, particularly in cases of personal identification of dead bodies changed by putrefactive processes or skeletonized bodies as well as when finding bodies of unknown persons. 152 teeth have been investigated; 85 of them belonged to men and 67 belonged to women taken from alive people of different age. Teeth have been investigated after extraction. Two types of teeth have been investigated: teeth without integrity violation of dental crown and teeth with different degrees of its violation. Additionally, 517 teeth have been investigated that were collected from dead bodies, 252 of which belonged to women and 265 belonged to men, whatever the cause of death with death limitation from 1 month to 20 years. Isohemagglutinating serums and Coliclons of different series have been used for the research of tooth-group specificity by serological methods according to the AB0 system. Standard protocols of different techniques have been used for DNA purification from teeth (by reagent Chelex 100 produced by Bio-Rad using reagent kit 'DNA IQTM System' produced by Promega company (USA) and using columns 'QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit' produced by Qiagen company). Results of comparative forensic investigation of human teeth using serological and molecular genetic methods have shown that use of serological methods for forensic identification is sensible only in cases of preselection prior to the next molecular genetic investigation as well as in cases of impossibility of corresponding genetic investigation for different objective reasons. A number of advantages of methods of molecular genetics in the dental investigation have been marked, particularly in putrefactive changes, in personal identification. Key moments of modern condition of personal identification have been reflected according to dental state. Prospective directions of advance preparation of material have been emphasized for identification of teeth in forensic practice.

Keywords: dental state, forensic identification, molecular genetic analysis, teeth

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3613 Molecular Identification and Evolutionary Status of Lucilia bufonivora: An Obligate Parasite of Amphibians in Europe

Authors: Gerardo Arias, Richard Wall, Jamie Stevens

Abstract:

Lucilia bufonivora Moniez, is an obligate parasite of toads and frogs widely distributed in Europe. Its sister taxon Lucilia silvarum Meigen behaves mainly as a carrion breeder in Europe, however it has been reported as a facultative parasite of amphibians. These two closely related species are morphologically almost identical, which has led to misidentification, and in fact, it has been suggested that the amphibian myiasis cases by L. silvarum reported in Europe should be attributed to L. bufonivora. Both species remain poorly studied and their taxonomic relationships are still unclear. The identification of the larval specimens involved in amphibian myiasis with molecular tools and phylogenetic analysis of these two closely related species may resolve this problem. In this work seventeen unidentified larval specimens extracted from toad myiasis cases of the UK, the Netherlands and Switzerland were obtained, their COX1 (mtDNA) and EF1-α (Nuclear DNA) gene regions were amplified and then sequenced. The 17 larval samples were identified with both molecular markers as L. bufonivora. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out with 10 other blowfly species, including L. silvarum samples from the UK and USA. Bayesian Inference trees of COX1 and a combined-gene dataset suggested that L. silvarum and L. bufonivora are separate sister species. However, the nuclear gene EF1-α does not appear to resolve their relationships, suggesting that the rates of evolution of the mtDNA are much faster than those of the nuclear DNA. This work provides the molecular evidence for successful identification of L. bufonivora and a molecular analysis of the populations of this obligate parasite from different locations across Europe. The relationships with L. silvarum are discussed.

Keywords: calliphoridae, molecular evolution, myiasis, obligate parasitism

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3612 Application of Molecular Markers for Crop Improvement

Authors: Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

Use of molecular markers for selecting plants with desired traits has been started long back. Due to their heritable characteristics, they are useful for identification and characterization of specific genotypes. The study involves various types of molecular markers used to select multiple desired characters in plants, their properties, and advantages to improve crop productivity in adverse climatological conditions for the purpose of providing food security to fast-growing global population. The study shows that genetic similarities obtained from molecular markers provide more accurate information and the genetic diversity can be better estimated from the genetic relationship obtained from the dendrogram. The information obtained from markers assisted characterization is more suitable for the crops of economic importance like sugarcane.

Keywords: molecular markers, crop productivity, genetic diversity, genotype

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3611 Disability, Stigma and In-Group Identification: An Exploration across Different Disability Subgroups

Authors: Sharmila Rathee

Abstract:

Individuals with disability/ies often face negative attitudes, discrimination, exclusion, and inequality of treatment due to stigmatization and stigmatized treatment. While a significant number of studies in field of stigma suggest that group-identification has positive consequences for stigmatized individuals, ironically very miniscule empirical work in sight has attempted to investigate in-group identification as a coping measure against stigma, humiliation and related experiences among disability group. In view of death of empirical research on in-group identification among disability group, through present work, an attempt has been made to examine the experiences of stigma, humiliation, and in-group identification among disability group. Results of the study suggest that use of in-group identification as a coping strategy is not uniform across members of disability group and degree of in-group identification differs across different sub-groups of disability groups. Further, in-group identification among members of disability group depends on variables like degree and impact of disability, factors like onset of disability, nature, and visibility of disability, educational experiences and resources available to deal with disabling conditions.

Keywords: disability, stigma, in-group identification, social identity

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3610 Application of a Synthetic DNA Reference Material for Optimisation of DNA Extraction and Purification for Molecular Identification of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Mina Kalantarzadeh, Claire Lockie-Williams, Caroline Howard

Abstract:

DNA barcoding is increasingly used for identification of medicinal plants worldwide. In the last decade, a large number of DNA barcodes have been generated, and their application in species identification explored. The success of DNA barcoding process relies on the accuracy of the results from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step which could be negatively affected due to a presence of inhibitors or degraded DNA in herbal samples. An established DNA reference material can be used to support molecular characterisation protocols and prove system suitability, for fast and accurate identification of plant species. The present study describes the use of a novel reference material, the trnH-psbA British Pharmacopoeia Nucleic Acid Reference Material (trnH-psbA BPNARM), which was produced to aid in the identification of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., a widely used herb. During DNA barcoding of O. tenuiflorum, PCR amplifications of isolated DNA produced inconsistent results, suggesting an issue with either the method or DNA quality of the tested samples. The trnH-psbA BPNARM was produced and tested to check for the issues caused during PCR amplification. It was added to the plant material as control DNA before extraction and was co-extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR analyses revealed that the amplification was not as successful as expected which suggested that the amplification is affected by presence of inhibitors co-extracted from plant materials. Various potential issues were assessed during DNA extraction and optimisations were made accordingly. A DNA barcoding protocol for O. tenuiflorum was published in the British Pharmacopoeia 2016, which included the reference sequence. The trnH-psbA BPNARM accelerated degradation test which investigates the stability of the reference material over time demonstrated that it has been stable when stored at 56 °C for a year. Using this protocol and trnH-psbA reference material provides a fast and accurate method for identification of O. tenuiflorum. The optimisations of the DNA extraction using the trnH-psbA BPNARM provided a signposting method which can assist in overcoming common problems encountered when using molecular methods with medicinal plants.

Keywords: degradation, DNA extraction, nucleic acid reference material, trnH-psbA

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3609 Forensic Challenges in Source Device Identification for Digital Videos

Authors: Mustapha Aminu Bagiwa, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris, Suleman Khan

Abstract:

Video source device identification has become a problem of concern in numerous domains especially in multimedia security and digital investigation. This is because videos are now used as evidence in legal proceedings. Source device identification aim at identifying the source of digital devices using the content they produced. However, due to affordable processing tools and the influx in digital content generating devices, source device identification is still a major problem within the digital forensic community. In this paper, we discuss source device identification for digital videos by identifying techniques that were proposed in the literature for model or specific device identification. This is aimed at identifying salient open challenges for future research.

Keywords: video forgery, source camcorder, device identification, forgery detection

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3608 Molecular Identification and Genotyping of Human Brucella Strains Isolated in Kuwait

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

Abstract:

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in Kuwait. Human brucellosis can be caused by several Brucella species with Brucella melitensis causing the most severe and Brucella abortus the least severe disease. Furthermore, relapses are common after successful chemotherapy of patients. The classical biochemical methods of culture and serology for identification of Brucellae provide information about the species and serotypes only. However, to differentiate between relapse and reinfection/epidemiological investigations, the identification of genotypes using molecular methods is essential. In this study, four molecular methods [16S rRNA gene sequencing, real-time PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA)-16] were evaluated for the identification and typing of 75 strains of Brucella isolated in Kuwait. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing suggested that all the strains were B. melitensis and real-time PCR confirmed their species identity as B. melitensis. The ERIC-PCR band profiles produced a dendrogram of 75 branches suggesting each strain to be of a unique type. The cluster classification, based on ~ 80% similarity, divided all the ERIC genotypes into two clusters, A and B. Cluster A consisted of 9 ERIC genotypes (A1-A9) corresponding to 9 individual strains. Cluster B comprised of 13 ERIC genotypes (B1-B13) with B5 forming the largest cluster of 51 strains. MLVA-16 identified all isolates as B. melitensis and divided them into 71 MLVA-types. The cluster analysis of MLVA-16-types suggested that most of the strains in Kuwait originated from the East Mediterranean Region, a few from the African group and one new genotype closely matched with the West Mediterranean region. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that B. melitensis, the most pathogenic species of Brucella, is prevalent in Kuwait. Furthermore, MLVA-16 is the best molecular method, which can identify the Brucella species and genotypes as well as determine their origin in the global context. Supported by Kuwait University Research Sector grants MI04/15 and SRUL02/13.

Keywords: Brucella, ERIC-PCR, MLVA-16, RT-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing

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3607 Identification of Dynamic Friction Model for High-Precision Motion Control

Authors: Martin Goubej, Tomas Popule, Alois Krejci

Abstract:

This paper deals with experimental identification of mechanical systems with nonlinear friction characteristics. Dynamic LuGre friction model is adopted and a systematic approach to parameter identification of both linear and nonlinear subsystems is given. The identification procedure consists of three subsequent experiments which deal with the individual parts of plant dynamics. The proposed method is experimentally verified on an industrial-grade robotic manipulator. Model fidelity is compared with the results achieved with a static friction model.

Keywords: mechanical friction, LuGre model, friction identification, motion control

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3606 Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment

Authors: Amr A. EL Hanafy, Yasir Anwar, Saleh A. Mohamed, Saleh Mohamed Saleh Al-Garni, Jamal S. M. Sabir , Osama A. H. Abu Zinadah, Mohamed Morsi Ahmed

Abstract:

In the vicinity of the red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54 %) and Penicillium commune (48 %) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has the capability of degradation and can be utilized for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.

Keywords: fungal strains, hydrocarbon contaminants, molecular identification, biodegradation, GC-MS

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3605 Identification of Nonlinear Systems Structured by Hammerstein-Wiener Model

Authors: A. Brouri, F. Giri, A. Mkhida, A. Elkarkri, M. L. Chhibat

Abstract:

Standard Hammerstein-Wiener models consist of a linear subsystem sandwiched by two memoryless nonlinearities. Presently, the linear subsystem is allowed to be parametric or not, continuous- or discrete-time. The input and output nonlinearities are polynomial and may be noninvertible. A two-stage identification method is developed such the parameters of all nonlinear elements are estimated first using the Kozen-Landau polynomial decomposition algorithm. The obtained estimates are then based upon in the identification of the linear subsystem, making use of suitable pre-ad post-compensators.

Keywords: nonlinear system identification, Hammerstein-Wiener systems, frequency identification, polynomial decomposition

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3604 Structural Damage Detection Using Sensors Optimally Located

Authors: Carlos Alberto Riveros, Edwin Fabián García, Javier Enrique Rivero

Abstract:

The measured data obtained from sensors in continuous monitoring of civil structures are mainly used for modal identification and damage detection. Therefore when modal identification analysis is carried out the quality in the identification of the modes will highly influence the damage detection results. It is also widely recognized that the usefulness of the measured data used for modal identification and damage detection is significantly influenced by the number and locations of sensors. The objective of this study is the numerical implementation of two widely known optimum sensor placement methods in beam-like structures

Keywords: optimum sensor placement, structural damage detection, modal identification, beam-like structures.

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3603 Self-Tuning Robot Control Based on Subspace Identification

Authors: Mathias Marquardt, Peter Dünow, Sandra Baßler

Abstract:

The paper describes the use of subspace based identification methods for auto tuning of a state space control system. The plant is an unstable but self balancing transport robot. Because of the unstable character of the process it has to be identified from closed loop input-output data. Based on the identified model a state space controller combined with an observer is calculated. The subspace identification algorithm and the controller design procedure is combined to a auto tuning method. The capability of the approach was verified in a simulation experiments under different process conditions.

Keywords: auto tuning, balanced robot, closed loop identification, subspace identification

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3602 Elongation Factor 1 Alpha Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis for Anastrepha fraterculus Complex

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Ayyamperumal Jeyaprakash, Gary Steck

Abstract:

Exotic, invasive tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a major concern to fruit and vegetable production in the USA. Timely detection and identification of these agricultural pests facilitate the possibility of eradication from newly invaded areas. They spread primarily as larvae in infested fruits carried in commerce or personal baggage. Identification of larval stages to species level is difficult but necessary to determine pest loads and their pathways into the USA. The main focus of this study is the New World genus, Anastrepha. Many of its constituent taxa are pests of major economic importance. This study is significant for national quarantine use, as morphological diagnostics to separate larvae of the various members remain poorly developed. Elongation factor 1 alpha sequences were amplified from Anastrepha fraterculus specimens collected from South America (Ecuador and Peru). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the Anastrepha fraterculus complex at a molecular level.

Keywords: anastrepha, diptera, elongation factor, fruit fly

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3601 Distributed Perceptually Important Point Identification for Time Series Data Mining

Authors: Tak-Chung Fu, Ying-Kit Hung, Fu-Lai Chung

Abstract:

In the field of time series data mining, the concept of the Perceptually Important Point (PIP) identification process is first introduced in 2001. This process originally works for financial time series pattern matching and it is then found suitable for time series dimensionality reduction and representation. Its strength is on preserving the overall shape of the time series by identifying the salient points in it. With the rise of Big Data, time series data contributes a major proportion, especially on the data which generates by sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) environment. According to the nature of PIP identification and the successful cases, it is worth to further explore the opportunity to apply PIP in time series ‘Big Data’. However, the performance of PIP identification is always considered as the limitation when dealing with ‘Big’ time series data. In this paper, two distributed versions of PIP identification based on the Specialized Binary (SB) Tree are proposed. The proposed approaches solve the bottleneck when running the PIP identification process in a standalone computer. Improvement in term of speed is obtained by the distributed versions.

Keywords: distributed computing, performance analysis, Perceptually Important Point identification, time series data mining

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3600 Solving Crimes through DNA Methylation Analysis

Authors: Ajay Kumar Rana

Abstract:

Predicting human behaviour, discerning monozygotic twins or left over remnant tissues/fluids of a single human source remains a big challenge in forensic science. Recent advances in the field of DNA methylations which are broadly chemical hallmarks in response to environmental factors can certainly help to identify and discriminate various single-source DNA samples collected from the crime scenes. In this review, cytosine methylation of DNA has been methodologically discussed with its broad applications in many challenging forensic issues like body fluid identification, race/ethnicity identification, monozygotic twins dilemma, addiction or behavioural prediction, age prediction, or even authenticity of the human DNA. With the advent of next-generation sequencing techniques, blooming of DNA methylation datasets and together with standard molecular protocols, the prospect of investigating and solving the above issues and extracting the exact nature of the truth for reconstructing the crime scene events would be undoubtedly helpful in defending and solving the critical crime cases.

Keywords: DNA methylation, differentially methylated regions, human identification, forensics

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3599 Genetic Algorithms for Parameter Identification of DC Motor ARMAX Model and Optimal Control

Authors: A. Mansouri, F. Krim

Abstract:

This paper presents two techniques for DC motor parameters identification. We propose a numerical method using the adaptive extensive recursive least squares (AERLS) algorithm for real time parameters estimation. This algorithm, based on minimization of quadratic criterion, is realized in simulation for parameters identification of DC motor autoregressive moving average with extra inputs (ARMAX). As advanced technique, we use genetic algorithms (GA) identification with biased estimation for high dynamic performance speed regulation. DC motors are extensively used in variable speed drives, for robot and solar panel trajectory control. GA effectiveness is derived through comparison of the two approaches.

Keywords: ARMAX model, DC motor, AERLS, GA, optimization, parameter identification, PID speed regulation

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3598 Machine Learning Based Gender Identification of Authors of Entry Programs

Authors: Go Woon Kwak, Siyoung Jun, Soyun Maeng, Haeyoung Lee

Abstract:

Entry is an education platform used in South Korea, created to help students learn to program, in which they can learn to code while playing. Using the online version of the entry, teachers can easily assign programming homework to the student and the students can make programs simply by linking programming blocks. However, the programs may be made by others, so that the authors of the programs should be identified. In this paper, as the first step toward author identification of entry programs, we present an artificial neural network based classification approach to identify genders of authors of a program written in an entry. A neural network has been trained from labeled training data that we have collected. Our result in progress, although preliminary, shows that the proposed approach could be feasible to be applied to the online version of entry for gender identification of authors. As future work, we will first use a machine learning technique for age identification of entry programs, which would be the second step toward the author identification.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, author identification, deep neural network, gender identification, machine learning

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3597 Screening for Hit Identification against Mycobacterium abscessus

Authors: Jichan Jang

Abstract:

Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing life-threatening mycobacterium with multiple drug-resistance mechanisms. In this study, we screened the library to identify active molecules targeting Mycobacterium abscessus using resazurin live/dead assays. In this screening assay, the Z-factor was 0.7, as an indication of the statistical confidence of the assay. A cut-off of 80% growth inhibition in the screening resulted in the identification of four different compounds at a single concentration (20 μM). Dose-response curves identified three different hit candidates, which generated good inhibitory curves. All hit candidates were expected to have different molecular targets. Thus, we found that compound X, identified, may be a promising candidate in the M. abscessus drug discovery pipeline.

Keywords: Mycobacterium abscessus, antibiotics, drug discovery, emerging Pathogen

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3596 Methodology for the Integration of Object Identification Processes in Handling and Logistic Systems

Authors: L. Kiefer, C. Richter, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The uprising complexity in production systems due to an increasing amount of variants up to customer innovated products leads to requirements that hierarchical control systems are not able to fulfil. Therefore, factory planners can install autonomous manufacturing systems. The fundamental requirement for an autonomous control is the identification of objects within production systems. In this approach an attribute-based identification is focused for avoiding dose-dependent identification costs. Instead of using an identification mark (ID) like a radio frequency identification (RFID)-Tag, an object type is directly identified by its attributes. To facilitate that it’s recommended to include the identification and the corresponding sensors within handling processes, which connect all manufacturing processes and therefore ensure a high identification rate and reduce blind spots. The presented methodology reduces the individual effort to integrate identification processes in handling systems. First, suitable object attributes and sensor systems for object identification in a production environment are defined. By categorising these sensor systems as well as handling systems, it is possible to match them universal within a compatibility matrix. Based on that compatibility further requirements like identification time are analysed, which decide whether the combination of handling and sensor system is well suited for parallel handling and identification within an autonomous control. By analysing a list of more than thousand possible attributes, first investigations have shown, that five main characteristics (weight, form, colour, amount, and position of subattributes as drillings) are sufficient for an integrable identification. This knowledge limits the variety of identification systems and leads to a manageable complexity within the selection process. Besides the procedure, several tools, as an example a sensor pool are presented. These tools include the generated specific expert knowledge and simplify the selection. The primary tool is a pool of preconfigured identification processes depending on the chosen combination of sensor and handling device. By following the defined procedure and using the created tools, even laypeople out of other scientific fields can choose an appropriate combination of handling devices and sensors which enable parallel handling and identification.

Keywords: agent systems, autonomous control, handling systems, identification

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3595 Frequency Identification of Wiener-Hammerstein Systems

Authors: Brouri Adil, Giri Fouad

Abstract:

The problem of identifying Wiener-Hammerstein systems is addressed in the presence of two linear subsystems of structure totally unknown. Presently, the nonlinear element is allowed to be noninvertible. The system identification problem is dealt by developing a two-stage frequency identification method such a set of points of the nonlinearity are estimated first. Then, the frequency gains of the two linear subsystems are determined at a number of frequencies. The method involves Fourier series decomposition and only requires periodic excitation signals. All involved estimators are shown to be consistent.

Keywords: Wiener-Hammerstein systems, Fourier series expansions, frequency identification, automation science

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3594 The Effect of Measurement Distribution on System Identification and Detection of Behavior of Nonlinearities of Data

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi, Aref Ghafouri

Abstract:

In this paper, we considered and applied parametric modeling for some experimental data of dynamical system. In this study, we investigated the different distribution of output measurement from some dynamical systems. Also, with variance processing in experimental data we obtained the region of nonlinearity in experimental data and then identification of output section is applied in different situation and data distribution. Finally, the effect of the spanning the measurement such as variance to identification and limitation of this approach is explained.

Keywords: Gaussian process, nonlinearity distribution, particle filter, system identification

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3593 Evaluation of the Patient Identification Process in Healthcare Facilities in a Brazilian City Area

Authors: Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Maria de Fátima Paiva Brito, Mariane de Paula Candido, Vanessa Barato Oliveira

Abstract:

Patient identification is a necessary practice to ensure patient safety in any healthcare environment, including emergency care units, test laboratories, home care and clinics. The present study aimed to provide evidence that can effectively contribute to practices concerning patient identification. Its objective was to investigate patient identification in basic healthcare units through patient safety standards. To do so, a descriptive and non-experimental research outline study was carried out to inquire how patient identification takes place in a particular situation. All technical manager nurses from the chosen healthcare facilities were included in the sample for the study. Data was collected in September of 2014 after approval from the Committee of Ethics. All researched institutions fit the same profile: they’re public facilities for general care with observation beds. None of them has a wristband identification protocol or policy. Only one institution mentioned using some kind of visual identification; namely, body tags separated by colors according to the type of care, but it still does not apply the recommended tags by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. This study allowed the authors to acknowledge how important the commitment from the whole healthcare team in the patient identification process is and also acknowledge how necessary it is to implement institutional policies that may aid the healthcare units in this area to promote a quality and safe patient care.

Keywords: patient safety, identification, nursing, emergency care units

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3592 Selective Recovery and Molecular Identification of Laccase-Producing Bacteria from Selected Terrestrial and Aquatic Milieu in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Toward the Production of Environmentally Relevant Biocatalysts

Authors: John Onolame Unuofin, Uchechukuw U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh

Abstract:

Laccase is constantly gaining status as important biocatalyst in biotechnology. The illimitable potential of its industrial applications and the corresponding aggressive need for phenomenal volumes of extracellularly secreted laccases have called for its interminable production from sources which are able to meet this demand within a relatively short period of time, preferably bacteria. In response to this call, this study was designed to source for laccase-producing bacteria from different environmental matrices. Three sampling environments were chosen such as wastewater treatment plants, University of Fort Hare vicinity and the Hogback woodland, all within the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Samples such as effluents, sediments, leaf litters, degrading wood and rock scrapings were selectively enriched with some model aromatic compounds and were further screened qualitatively and quantitatively on five phenolic substrates ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), Guaiacol, 1-Naphthol, Potassium Ferric Cyanide and Syringaldazine). Basis for selection was their ability to elicit a colour change on at least three of the above mentioned agar based assay substrates. The choice isolates were further identified based on 16S rRNA molecular identification techniques. 33 isolates were screened out of the 40 representative distinct colonies during the qualitative plate screens, while quantitative screens selected out 11 bacterial isolates. They were, based on molecular identification, desginated as members of the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Citrobacter of the gammaproteobacteria and Bordetalla and Achromobacter of the betaproteobacteria respectively. We therefore conclude based on our outcomes that we may have isolated efficient laccase-producing bacteria, which might be of beneficial significance in catalysis and biotechnology.

Keywords: beta proteobacteria, catalysis, gammaproteobacteria, laccase

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3591 Use of Digital Forensics for Sex Determination by Nasal Index

Authors: Ashwini Kumar, Vinod Nayak, Shankar M. Bakkannavar

Abstract:

The identification of humans is important in forensic investigations not only in living but also in dead, especially in cases of mass disorders. The procedure followed in dead known as post-mortem identification is a challenging task for the forensic pathologist. However, it is mandatory in terms of the law to fulfill the social norms. Many times, due to mutilation of body parts, the normal methods of identification using skeletal remains cannot be used in the process of identification. In such cases, the intact components of the skeletal remains or bony parts play an important role in identification. In these situations, digital forensics can come to our rescue. The authors hereby made a study for determination of sex based on nasal index by using (Big Bore 16 Slice) Multidetector Computed Tomography 2D Scans. The results are represented as a poster.

Keywords: sex determination, multidetector computed tomography, nasal index, digital forensic

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3590 Molecular Identification of Camel Tick and Investigation of Its Natural Infection by Rickettsia and Borrelia in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reem Alajmi, Hind Al Harbi, Tahany Ayaad, Zainab Al Musawi

Abstract:

Hard ticks Hyalomma spp. (family: Ixodidae) are obligate ectoparasite in their all life stages on some domestic animals mainly camels and cattle. Ticks may lead to many economic and public health problems because of their blood feeding behavior. Also, they act as vectors for many bacterial, viral and protozoan agents which may cause serious diseases such as tick-born encephalitis, Rocky-mountain spotted fever, Q-fever and Lyme disease which can affect human and/or animals. In the present study, molecular identification of ticks that attack camels in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia based on the partial sequence of mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene was applied. Also, the present study aims to detect natural infections of collected camel ticks with Rickessia spp. and Borelia spp. using PCR/hybridization of Citrate synthase encoding gene present in bacterial cells. Hard ticks infesting camels were collected from different camels located in a farm in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. Results of the present study showed that the collected specimens belong to two species: Hyalomma dromedari represent 99% of the identified specimens and Hyalomma marginatum which account for 1 % of identified ticks. The molecular identification was made through blasting the obtained sequence of this study with sequences already present and identified in GeneBank. All obtained sequences of H. dromedarii specimens showed 97-100% identity with the same gene sequence of the same species (Accession # L34306.1) which was used as a reference. Meanwhile, no intraspecific variations of H. marginatum mesured because only one specimen was collected. Results also had shown that the intraspecific variability between individuals of H. dromedarii obtained in 92 % of samples ranging from 0.2- 6.6%, while the remaining 7 % of the total samples of H. dromedarii showed about 10.3 % individual differences. However, the interspecific variability between H. dromedarii and H. marginatum was approximately 18.3 %. On the other hand, by using the technique of PCR/hybridization, we could detect natural infection of camel ticks with Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. Results revealed the natural presence of both bacteria in collected ticks. Rickettsial spp. infection present in 29% of collected ticks, while 35% of collected specimen were infected with Borrelia spp. The valuable results obtained from the present study are a new record for the molecular identification of camel ticks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and their natural infection with both Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. These results may help scientists to provide a good and direct control strategy of ticks in order to protect one of the most important economic animals which are camels. Also results of this project spotlight on the disease that might be transmitted by ticks to put out a direct protective plan to prevent spreading of these dangerous agents. Further molecular studies are needed to confirm the results of the present study by using other mitochondrial and nuclear genes for tick identification.

Keywords: Camel ticks, Rickessia spp. , Borelia spp. , mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene

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3589 Genetic Identification of Crop Cultivars Using Barcode System

Authors: Kesavan Markkandan, Ha Young Park, Seung-Il Yoo, Sin-Gi Park, Junhyung Park

Abstract:

For genetic identification of crop cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, PCR based, co-dominant and relatively abundant. However, new InDels need to be developed for genetic studies of new varieties due to the difference of allele frequencies in InDels among the population groups. These new varieties are evolved with low levels of genetic diversity in specific genome loci with high recombination rate. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a variation block (VB), where the genomes split by all assumed recombination sites. Firstly, VBs in crop cultivars were mined for transferability to VB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, putative InDels in the VB regions were identified for the development of barcode system by analyzing particular cultivar’s whole genome data. Thirdly, common VB-specific InDels from all cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the selected markers was assessed with other cultivars, and the barcode system that allows a clear distinction among those cultivars is described. The same approach can be applicable for other commercial crops. Hence, VB-based genetic identification not only minimize the molecular markers but also useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in other crop species.

Keywords: variation block, polymorphism, InDel marker, genetic identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
3588 System Identification and Quantitative Feedback Theory Design of a Lathe Spindle

Authors: M. Khairudin

Abstract:

This paper investigates the system identification and design quantitative feedback theory (QFT) for the robust control of a lathe spindle. The dynamic of the lathe spindle is uncertain and time variation due to the deepness variation on cutting process. System identification was used to obtain the dynamics model of the lathe spindle. In this work, real time system identification is used to construct a linear model of the system from the nonlinear system. These linear models and its uncertainty bound can then be used for controller synthesis. The real time nonlinear system identification process to obtain a set of linear models of the lathe spindle that represents the operating ranges of the dynamic system. With a selected input signal, the data of output and response is acquired and nonlinear system identification is performed using Matlab to obtain a linear model of the system. Practical design steps are presented in which the QFT-based conditions are formulated to obtain a compensator and pre-filter to control the lathe spindle. The performances of the proposed controller are evaluated in terms of velocity responses of the the lathe machine spindle in corporating deepness on cutting process.

Keywords: lathe spindle, QFT, robust control, system identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
3587 Identification of Shocks from Unconventional Monetary Policy Measures

Authors: Margarita Grushanina

Abstract:

After several prominent central banks including European Central Bank (ECB), Federal Reserve System (Fed), Bank of Japan and Bank of England employed unconventional monetary policies in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008-2009 the problem of identification of the effects from such policies became of great interest. One of the main difficulties in identification of shocks from unconventional monetary policy measures in structural VAR analysis is that they often are anticipated, which leads to a non-fundamental MA representation of the VAR model. Moreover, the unconventional monetary policy actions may indirectly transmit to markets information about the future stance of the interest rate, which raises a question of the plausibility of the assumption of orthogonality between shocks from unconventional and conventional policy measures. This paper offers a method of identification that takes into account the abovementioned issues. The author uses factor-augmented VARs to increase the information set and identification through heteroskedasticity of error terms and rank restrictions on the errors’ second moments’ matrix to deal with the cross-correlation of the structural shocks.

Keywords: factor-augmented VARs, identification through heteroskedasticity, monetary policy, structural VARs

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3586 Comparison of Different Methods of Microorganism's Identification from a Copper Mining in Pará, Brazil

Authors: Louise H. Gracioso, Marcela P.G. Baltazar, Ingrid R. Avanzi, Bruno Karolski, Luciana J. Gimenes, Claudio O. Nascimento, Elen A. Perpetuo

Abstract:

Introduction: Higher copper concentrations promote a selection pressure on organisms such as plants, fungi and bacteria, which allows surviving only the resistant organisms to the contaminated site. This selective pressure keeps only the organisms most resistant to a specific condition and subsequently increases their bioremediation potential. Despite the bacteria importance for biosphere maintenance, it is estimated that only a small fraction living microbial species has been described and characterized. Due to the molecular biology development, tools based on analysis 16S ribosomal RNA or another specific gene are making a new scenario for the characterization studies and identification of microorganisms in the environment. News identification of microorganisms methods have also emerged like Biotyper (MALDI / TOF), this method mass spectrometry is subject to the recognition of spectroscopic patterns of conserved and features proteins for different microbial species. In view of this, this study aimed to isolate bacteria resistant to copper present in a Copper Processing Area (Sossego Mine, Canaan, PA) and identifies them in two different methods: Recent (spectrometry mass) and conventional. This work aimed to use them for a future bioremediation of this Mining. Material and Methods: Samples were collected at fifteen different sites of five periods of times. Microorganisms were isolated from mining wastes by culture enrichment technique; this procedure was repeated 4 times. The isolates were inoculated into MJS medium containing different concentrations of chloride copper (1mM, 2.5mM, 5mM, 7.5mM and 10 mM) and incubated in plates for 72 h at 28 ºC. These isolates were subjected to mass spectrometry identification methods (Biotyper – MALDI/TOF) and 16S gene sequencing. Results: A total of 105 strains were isolated in this area, bacterial identification by mass spectrometry method (MALDI/TOF) achieved 74% agreement with the conventional identification method (16S), 31% have been unsuccessful in MALDI-TOF and 2% did not obtain identification sequence the 16S. These results show that Biotyper can be a very useful tool in the identification of bacteria isolated from environmental samples, since it has a better value for money (cheap and simple sample preparation and MALDI plates are reusable). Furthermore, this technique is more rentable because it saves time and has a high performance (the mass spectra are compared to the database and it takes less than 2 minutes per sample).

Keywords: copper mining area, bioremediation, microorganisms, identification, MALDI/TOF, RNA 16S

Procedia PDF Downloads 211