Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 79

Search results for: Alginate

79 The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material

Authors: Mirna Febriani

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Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.

Keywords: compressive strength, tear strength, Cassava starch, alginate

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78 Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin

Authors: Arpa Petchsomrit, Namfa Sermkaew, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee

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Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: alginate, curcumin, floating drug delivery, oil entrapped bead

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77 Preparation and Characterizations of Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Friday Godwin Okibe, Christian Chinweuba Onoyima, Edith Bolanle Agbaji, Victor Olatunji Ajibola

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Polymer-inorganic nanocomposites are presently impacting diverse areas, specifically in biomedical sciences. In this research, hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate has been prepared, and characterized, with emphasis on the influence of sodium alginate on its characteristics. In situ wet chemical precipitation method was used in the preparation. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), with image analysis, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The FTIR study shows peaks characteristics of hydroxyapatite and confirmed formation of the nanocomposite via chemical interaction between sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite. Image analysis shows the nanocomposites to be of irregular morphologies which did not show significant change with increasing sodium alginate addition, while particle size decreased with increase in sodium alginate addition (359.46 nm to 109.98 nm). From the XRD data, both the crystallite size and degree of crystallinity also decreased with increasing sodium alginate composition (32.36 nm to 9.47 nm and 72.87% to 1.82% respectively), while the specific surface area and microstrain increased with increasing sodium alginate composition (0.0041 to 0.0139 and 58.99 m²/g to 201.58 m²/g respectively). The results show that the formulation with 50%wt of sodium alginate (HASA-50%wt), possess exceptional characteristics for biomedical applications such as drug delivery.

Keywords: nanocomposite, sodium alginate, hydroxyapatite, biomedical, FTIR, XRD, SEM

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76 The Influence of Alginate Microspheres Modified with DAT on the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of ASCs

Authors: Shin-Yi Mao, Jiashing Yu

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Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has received lots of attention as biological scaffolds recently. DAT that extracted from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipose tissues holds great promise as a xenogeneic biomaterial for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In our study, 2-D DATsol film was fabricated to enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs in vitro. DAT was also used to modify alginate for improvement of cell adhesion. Alginate microspheres modified with DAT were prepared by Nisco. These microspheres could provide a highly supportive 3-D environment for ASCs. In our works, ASCs were immobilized in alginate microspheres modified with DAT to promoted cell adhesion and adipogenic differentiation. Accordingly, we hypothesize that tissue regeneration in vivo could be promoted with the aid of modified microspheres in future.

Keywords: adipose stem cells, decellularize adipose tissue, Alginate, microcarries

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75 Orthophthalic Polyester Composite Reinforced with Sodium Alginate-Treated Anahaw (Saribus rotundifolius) Fibers

Authors: Terence Tumolva, Johannes Kristoff Vito, Joanna Crystelle Ragasa, Renz Marion Dela Cruz

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Natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP) composites have been the focus of various research projects due to their advantages over synthetic fiber-reinforced composites. For this study, ana haw is used as the fiber source due to its abundance throughout the Philippines. A problem addressed in this study is the need for an environment-friendly method of fiber treatment. The use of sodium alginate to treat fibers was thus investigated. The fibers were immersed in a sodium alginate solution and then in a calcium chloride solution afterwards. The treated fibers were used to reinforce orthophthalic unsaturated polyester (ortho-UP) resin. The mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine (UTM), and the fracture surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results showed that the sodium alginate treatment had increased the tensile and flexural strength of the composite. The increase in fiber load had also been found to increase the stiffness of the composite. However, sodium alginate treatment did not provide any significant improvement in the wet mechanical properties of the NFRP. The composite is comparable to some commercially available polymeric materials.

Keywords: NFRP, composite, alginate, anahaw, polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
74 Cd2+ Ions Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Alginite

Authors: Vladimír Frišták, Martin Pipíška, Juraj Lesný

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Alginate has been evaluated as an efficient pollution control material. In this paper, alginate from maar Pinciná (SR) for removal of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution was studied. The potential sorbent was characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (RFA) analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectral Analysis (FT-IR) and Specific Surface Area (SSA) was also determined. The sorption process was optimized from the point of initial cadmium concentration effect and effect of pH value. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to interpret the sorption behaviour of Cd2+ ions, and the results showed that experimental data were well fitted by the Langmuir equation. Alginate maximal sorption capacity (QMAX) for Cd2+ ions calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 34 mg/g. Sorption process was significantly affected by initial pH value in the range from 4.0-7.0. Alginate is a comparable sorbent with other materials for toxic metals removal.

Keywords: alginates, Cd2+, sorption, QMAX

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73 Preparation, Characterization, and in-Vitro Drug Release Study of Methotrexate-Loaded Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites

Authors: Friday G. Okibe, Edit B. Agbaji, Victor O. Ajibola, Christain C. Onoyima

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Controlled drug delivery systems reduce dose-dependent toxicity associated with potent drugs, including anticancer drugs. In this research, hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites (HASA) were successfully prepared and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The FTIR result showed absorption peaks characteristics of pure hydroxyapatite (HA), and also confirmed the chemical interaction between hydroxyapatite and sodium alginate in the formation of the composite. Image analysis from SEM revealed nano-sized hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites with irregular morphologies. Particle size increased with the formation of the nanocomposites relative to pure hydroxyapatite, with no significant change in particles morphologies. Drug loading and in-vitro drug release study were carried out using synthetic body fluid as the release medium, at pH 7.4 and 37 °C and under perfect sink conditions. The result shows that drug loading is highest for pure hydroxyapatite and decreased with increasing quantity of sodium alginate. However, the release study revealed that HASA-5%wt and HASA-20%wt presented better release profile than pure hydroxyapatite, while HASA-33%wt and HASA-50%wt have poor release profiles. This shows that Methotrexate-loaded hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate if prepared under optimal conditions is a potential carrier for effective delivery of Methotrexate.

Keywords: drug-delivery, hydroxyapatite, methotrexate, nanocomposites, sodium alginate

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72 Keratin Fiber Fabrication from Biowaste for Biomedical Application

Authors: Ashmita Mukherjee, Yogesh Harishchandra Kabutare, Suritra Bandyopadhyay, Paulomi Ghosh

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Uncontrolled bleeding in the battlefield and the operation rooms can lead to serious injuries, trauma and even be lethal. Keratin was reported to be a haemostatic material which rapidly activates thrombin followed by activation of fibrinogen leading to the formation of insoluble fibrin. Also platelets, the main initiator of haemostasis are reported to adhere to keratin. However, the major limitation of pure keratin as a biomaterial is its poor physical property and corresponding low mechanical strength. To overcome this problem, keratin was cross-linked with alginate to increase its mechanical stability. In our study, Keratin extracted from feather waste showed yield of 80.5% and protein content of 8.05 ± 0.43 mg/mL (n=3). FTIR and CD spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the essential functional groups and preservation of the secondary structures of keratin. The keratin was then cross-linked with alginate to make a dope. The dope was used to draw fibers of desired diameters in a suitable coagulation bath using a customized wet spinning setup. The resultant morphology of keratin fibers was observed under a brightfield microscope. The FT-IR analysis implied that there was a presence of both keratin and alginate peaks in the fibers. The cross-linking was confirmed in the keratin alginate fibers by a shift of the amide A and amide B peaks towards the right and disappearance of the peak for N-H stretching (1534.68 cm-1). Blood was drawn in citrate vacutainers for whole blood clotting test and blood clotting kinetics, which showed that the keratin fibers could accelerate blood coagulation compared to that of alginate fibers and tissue culture plate. Additionally, cross-linked keratin-alginate fiber was found to have lower haemolytic potential compared to alginate fiber. Thus, keratin cross-linked fibers can have potential applications to combat unrestrained bleeding.

Keywords: biomaterial, biowaste, fiber, keratin

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71 Pectin Degrading Enzyme: Entrapment of Pectinase Using Different Synthetic and Non-Synthetic Polymers for Continuous Degradation of Pectin Polymer

Authors: Haneef Ur Rehman, Afsheen Aman, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Shah Ali Ul Qader

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Pectinase is a heterogeneous group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of pectin substances and widely has been used in food and textile industries. In current study, pectinase from B. licheniformis KIBGE-IB21 was immobilized within different polymers (calcium alginate beads, polyacrylamide gel and agar-agar matrix) to enhance its catalytic properties. Polyacrylamide gel was found to be most promising one and gave maximum (89%) immobilization yield. While less immobilization yield was observed in case of calcium alginate beads that only retained 46 % activity. The reaction time for maximum pectinolytic activity was increased from 5.0 to 10 minutes after immobilization. The temperature of pectinase for maximum enzyme activity was increased from 45 °C to 50 °C and 55 °C when it was immobilized within agar-agar and calcium alginate beads, respectively. The optimum pH of pectinase didn’t alter when it was immobilized within polyacrylamide gel and calcium alginate beads, but in case of agar-agar it was changed from pH 10 to pH 9.0. Thermal stability of pectinase was improved after immobilization and immobilized pectinase showed higher toleration against different temperatures as compared to free enzyme. It can be concluded that the entrapment is a simple, single step and promising procedure to immobilized pectinase within different synthetic and non-synthetic polymers and enhanced its catalytic properties.

Keywords: pectinase, characterization immobilization, polyacrylamide, agar-agar, calcium alginate beads

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70 Optimization of Mechanical Properties of Alginate Hydrogel for 3D Bio-Printing Self-Standing Scaffold Architecture for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Ibtisam A. Abbas Al-Darkazly

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In this study, the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel material for self-standing 3D scaffold architecture with proper shape fidelity are investigated. In-lab built 3D bio-printer extrusion-based technology is utilized to fabricate 3D alginate scaffold constructs. The pressure, needle speed and stage speed are varied using a computer-controlled system. The experimental result indicates that the concentration of alginate solution, calcium chloride (CaCl2) cross-linking concentration and cross-linking ratios lead to the formation of alginate hydrogel with various gelation states. Besides, the gelling conditions, such as cross-linking reaction time and temperature also have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel. Various experimental tests such as the material gelation, the material spreading and the printability test for filament collapse as well as the swelling test were conducted to evaluate the fabricated 3D scaffold constructs. The result indicates that the fabricated 3D scaffold from composition of 3.5% wt alginate solution, that is prepared in DI water and 1% wt CaCl2 solution with cross-linking ratios of 7:3 show good printability and sustain good shape fidelity for more than 20 days, compared to alginate hydrogel that is prepared in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The fabricated self-standing 3D scaffold constructs measured 30 mm × 30 mm and consisted of 4 layers (n = 4) show good pore geometry and clear grid structure after printing. In addition, the percentage change of swelling degree exhibits high swelling capability with respect to time. The swelling test shows that the geometry of 3D alginate-scaffold construct and of the macro-pore are rarely changed, which indicates the capability of holding the shape fidelity during the incubation period. This study demonstrated that the mechanical and physical properties of alginate hydrogel could be tuned for a 3D bio-printing extrusion-based system to fabricate self-standing 3D scaffold soft structures. This 3D bioengineered scaffold provides a natural microenvironment present in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which could be seeded with the biological cells to generate the desired 3D live tissue model for in vitro and in vivo tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: biomaterial, calcium chloride, 3D bio-printing, extrusion, scaffold, sodium alginate, tissue engineering

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69 PLGA Nanoparticles Entrapping dual anti-TB drugs of Amikacin and Moxifloxacin as a Potential Host-Directed Therapy for Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

Authors: Sharif Abdelghany

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Polymeric nanoparticles have been widely investigated as a controlled release drug delivery platform for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). These nanoparticles were also readily internalised into macrophages, leading to high intracellular drug concentration. In this study two anti-TB drugs, amikacin and moxifloxacin were encapsulated into PLGA nanoparticles. The novelty of this work appears in: (1) the efficient encapsulation of two hydrophilic second-line anti-TB drugs, and (2) intramacrophage delivery of this synergistic combination potentially for rapid treatment of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Two water-oil-water (w/o/w) emulsion strategies were employed in this study: (1) alginate coated PLGA nanoparticles, and (2) alginate entrapped PLGA nanoparticles. The average particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) of the alginate coated PLGA nanoparticles were found to be unfavourably high with values of 640 ± 32 nm and 0.63 ± 0.09, respectively. In contrast, the alginate entrapped PLGA nanoparticles were within the desirable particle size range of 282 - 315 nm and the PDI was 0.08 - 0.16, and therefore were chosen for subsequent studies. Alginate entrapped PLGA nanoparticles yielded a drug loading of over 10 µg/mg powder for amikacin, and more than 5 µg/mg for moxifloxacin and entrapment efficiencies range of approximately 25-31% for moxifloxacin and 51-59% for amikacin. To study macrophage uptake efficiency, the nanoparticles of alginate entrapped nanoparticle formulation were loaded with acridine orange as a marker, seeded to THP-1 derived macrophages and viewed under confocal microscopy. The particles were readily internalised into the macrophages and highly concentrated in the nucleus region. Furthermore, the anti-mycobacterial activity of the drug-loaded particles was evaluated using M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages, which revealed a significant reduction (4 log reduction) of viable bacterial count compared to the untreated group. In conclusion, the amikacin-moxifloxacin alginate entrapped PLGA nanoparticles are promising for further in vivo studies.

Keywords: moxifloxacin and amikacin, nanoparticles, multidrug resistant TB, PLGA

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68 Magnetic Biomaterials for Removing Organic Pollutants from Wastewater

Authors: L. Obeid, A. Bee, D. Talbot, S. Abramson, M. Welschbillig

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The adsorption process is one of the most efficient methods to remove pollutants from wastewater provided that suitable adsorbents are used. In order to produce environmentally safe adsorbents, natural polymers have received increasing attention in recent years. Thus, alginate and chitosane are extensively used as inexpensive, non-toxic and efficient biosorbents. Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds. Chitosan is an amino-polysaccharide; this cationic polymer is obtained by deacetylation of chitin the major constituent of crustaceans. Furthermore, it has been shown that the encapsulation of magnetic materials in alginate and chitosan beads facilitates their recovery from wastewater after the adsorption step, by the use of an external magnetic field gradient, obtained with a magnet or an electromagnet. In the present work, we have studied the adsorption affinity of magnetic alginate beads and magnetic chitosan beads (called magsorbents) for methyl orange (MO) (an anionic dye), methylene blue (MB) (a cationic dye) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) (a hydrophobic pollutant). The effect of different parameters (pH solution, contact time, pollutant initial concentration…) on the adsorption of pollutant on the magnetic beads was investigated. The adsorption of anionic and cationic pollutants is mainly due to electrostatic interactions. Consequently methyl orange is highly adsorbed by chitosan beads in acidic medium and methylene blue by alginate beads in basic medium. In the case of a hydrophobic pollutant, which is weakly adsorbed, we have shown that the adsorption is enhanced by adding a surfactant. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant, was used to increase the adsorption of PNP by magnetic alginate beads. Adsorption of CPC by alginate beads occurs through two mechanisms: (i) electrostatic attractions between cationic head groups of CPC and negative carboxylate functions of alginate; (ii) interaction between the hydrocarbon chains of CPC. The hydrophobic pollutant is adsolubilized within the surface aggregated structures of surfactant. Figure c shows that PNP can reach up to 95% of adsorption in presence of CPC. At highest CPC concentrations, desorption occurs due to the formation of micelles in the solution. Our magsorbents appear to efficiently remove ionic and hydrophobic pollutants and we hope that this fundamental research will be helpful for the future development of magnetically assisted processes in water treatment plants.

Keywords: adsorption, alginate, chitosan, magsorbent, magnetic, organic pollutant

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67 Microencapsulation for Enhancing the Survival of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus during Spray Drying of Sweetened Yoghurt

Authors: Dibyakanta Seth, Hari Niwas Mishra, Sankar Chandra Deka

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Microencapsulation is an established method of protecting bacteria from the adverse conditions. An improved extrusion spraying technique was used to encapsulate mixed bacteria culture of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus using sodium alginate as the coating material. The effect of nozzle air pressure (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa), sodium alginate concentration (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3% w/v), different concentration of calcium chloride (0.1, 0.2, 1 M) and initial cell loads (10⁷, 10⁸, 10⁹ cfu/ml) on the viability of encapsulated bacteria were investigated. With the increase in air pressure the size of microcapsules decreased, however the effect was non-significant. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the viability of encapsulated cells when the concentration of calcium chloride was increased. Increased level of sodium alginate significantly increased the survival ratio of encapsulated bacteria (P < 0.01). Encapsulation with 3% alginate was treated as optimum since a higher concentration of alginate increased the gel strength of the solution and thus was difficult to spray. Under optimal conditions 3% alginate, 10⁹ cfu/ml cell load, 20 min hardening time in 0.1 M CaCl2 and 400 kPa nozzle air pressure, the viability of bacteria cells was maximum compared to the free cells. The microcapsules made at the optimal condition when mixed with yoghurt and subjected to spray drying at 148°C, the survival ratio was 2.48×10⁻¹ for S. thermophilus and 7.26×10⁻¹ for L. bulgaricus. In contrast, the survival ratio of free cells of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus were 2.36×10⁻³ and 8.27×10⁻³, respectively. This study showed a decline in viable cells count of about 0.5 log over a period of 7 weeks while there was a decline of about 1 log in cultures which were incorporated as free cells in yoghurt. Microencapsulation provided better protection at higher acidity compared to free cells. This study demonstrated that microencapsulation of yoghurt culture in sodium alginate is an effective technique of protection against extreme drying conditions.

Keywords: extrusion, microencapsulation, spray drying, sweetened yoghurt

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66 Preparation of Composite Alginate/Perlite Beads for Pb (II) Removal in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Hasan Türe, Kader Terzioglu, Evren Tunca

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Contamination of aqueous environment by heavy metal ions is a serious and complex problem, owing to their hazards to human being and ecological systems. The treatment methods utilized for removing metal ions from aqueous solution include membrane separation, ion exchange and chemical precipitation. However, these methods are limited by high operational cost. Recently, biobased beads are considered as promising biosorbent to remove heavy metal ions from water. The aim of present study was to characterize the alginate/perlite composite beads and to investigate the adsorption performance of obtained beads for removing Pb (II) from aqueous solution. Alginate beads were synthesized by ionic gelation methods and different amount of perlite (aljinate:perlite=1, 2, 3, 4, 5 wt./wt.) was incorporated into alginate beads. Samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of perlite level, the initial concentration of Pb (II), initial pH value of Pb(II) solution and effect of contact time on the adsorption capacity of beads were investigated by using batch method. XRD analysis indicated that perlite includes silicon or silicon and aluminum bearing crystalline phase. The diffraction pattern of perlite containing beads is similar to that of that perlite powder with reduced intensity. SEM analysis revealed that perlite was embedded into alginate polymer and SEM-EDX (Energy-Dispersive X-ray) showed that composite beads (aljinate:perlite=1) composed of C (41.93 wt.%,), O (43.64 wt.%), Na (10.20 wt.%), Al (0.74 wt.%), Si (2.72 wt.%) ve K (0.77 wt.%). According to TGA analysis, incorporation of perlite into beads significantly improved the thermal stability of the samples. Batch experiment indicated that optimum pH value for Pb (II) adsorption was found at pH=7 with 1 hour contact time. It was also found that the adsorption capacity of beads decreased with increases in perlite concentration. The results implied that alginate/perlite composite beads could be used as promising adsorbents for the removal of Pb (II) from wastewater. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by TUBITAK (Project No: 214Z146).

Keywords: alginate, adsorption, beads, perlite

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65 Hydrogels Beads of Alginate/Seaweed Powder for Plants Nutrition

Authors: Brenda O. Mazzola, Adriel Larsen, Romina P. Ollier, Leandro N. Ludueña, Vera A. Alvarez, Jimena S. Gonzalez

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Seaweed is a natural renewable resource with great potential that is not being used by the domestic industry. Here, it was used a kind of invasive algae U. Pinnatifida that causes serious ecological damage on the Argentinian coasts. Alginate is one of the most widely used materials for encapsulation, and has the advantage that is a natural polysaccharide derived from a marine plant. It can form thermally stable hydrogel in the presence of calcium cation. In addition, the hydrogel can be easily produced into particulate form by using simple and gentle method. The aim of this work was to obtain and to characterize novel compounds (alginate/seaweed powder) for the soil nutrition. Alginate water solutions were prepared by concentrations of 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, in those solutions 10g/L of seaweed powder was added. Then the dispersions were transferred from a beaker to the atomizer by a peristaltic pump (with 0.05 to 0.1 L/h flow). A tank was filled with 1 L of calcium chloride solution (4 g/L), and the solution was agitated with a magnetic stirrer. The beads were analyzed by means TGA, FTIR and swelling determinations. In addition, the improvements in the soil were qualitative measured. It was obtained beads with different diameters depend on the initial concentration and the flow used. A better dispersions of seaweed and optimal diameter for the plant nutrition applications were obtained for 40g/L concentration and 0.1 L/h flow. The beads show thermal stability and high swelling degree. It can be successfully obtained alginate beads with seaweed powder with a novelty application as plant nutrient.

Keywords: biodegradable, characterization, hydrogel, plant nutrition, seaweed

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64 Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos in Real Wastewater by Acromobacter xylosoxidans SRK5 Immobilized in Calcium Alginate

Authors: Saira Khalid, Imran Hashmi

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Agrochemical industries produce huge amount of wastewater containing pesticides and other harmful residues. Environmental regulations make it compulsory to bring pesticides to a minimum level before releasing wastewater from industrial units.The present study was designed with the objective to investigate biodegradation of CP in real wastewater using bacterial cells immobilized in calcium alginate. Bacterial strain identified as Acromobacter xylosoxidans SRK5 (KT013092) using 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence analysis was used. SRK5 was immobilized in calcium alginate to make calcium alginate microspheres (CAMs). Real wastewater from industry having 50 mg L⁻¹ of CP was inoculated with free cells or CAMs and incubated for 96 h at 37˚C. CP removal efficiency with CAMs was 98% after 72 h of incubation, and no lag phase was observed. With free cells, 12h of lag phase was observed. After 96 h of incubation 87% of CP removal was observed when inoculated with free cells. No adsorption was observed on vacant CAMs. Phytotoxicity assay demonstrated considerable loss in toxicity. Almost complete COD removal was achieved at 96 h with CAMs. Study suggests the use of immobilized cells of SRK5 for bioaugmentation of industrial wastewater for CP degradation instead of free cells.

Keywords: biodegradation, chlorpyrifos, immobilization, wastewater

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63 Electrospun Alginate Nanofibers Containing Spirulina Extract Double-Layered with Polycaprolactone Nanofibers

Authors: Seon Yeong Byeon, Hwa Sung Shin

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Nanofibrous sheets are of interest in the beauty industries due to the properties of moisturizing, adhesion to skin and delivery of nutrient materials. The benefit and function of the cosmetic products should not be considered without safety thus a non-toxic manufacturing process is ideal when fabricating the products. In this study, we have developed cosmetic patches consisting of alginate and Spirulina extract, a marine resource which has antibacterial and antioxidant effects, without addition of harmful cross-linkers. The patches obtained their structural stabilities by layer-upon-layer electrospinning of an alginate layer on a formerly spread polycaprolactone (PCL) layer instead of crosslinking method. The morphological characteristics, release of Spirulina extract, water absorption, skin adhesiveness and cytotoxicity of the double-layered patches were assessed. The image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the addition of Spirulina extract has made the fiber diameter of alginate layers thinner. Impregnation of Spirulina extract increased their hydrophilicity, moisture absorption ability and skin adhesive ability. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patches resulted in releasing the Spirulina extract within 30 min. The patches were detected to have no cytotoxicity in the human keratinocyte cell-based MTT assay, but rather showed increased cell viability. All the results indicate the bioactive and hydro-adhesive double-layered patches have an excellent applicability to bioproducts for personal skin care in the trend of ‘A mask pack a day’.

Keywords: alginate, cosmetic patch, electrospun nanofiber, polycaprolactone, Spirulina extract

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62 Fixed-Bed Column Studies of Green Malachite Removal by Use of Alginate-Encapsulated Aluminium Pillared Clay

Authors: Lazhar mouloud, Chemat Zoubida, Ouhoumna Faiza

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The main objective of this study, concerns the modeling of breakthrough curves obtained in the adsorption column of malachite green into alginate-encapsulated aluminium pillared clay in fixed bed according to various operating parameters such as the initial concentration, the feed rate and the height fixed bed, applying mathematical models namely: the model of Bohart and Adams, Wolborska, Bed Depth Service Time, Clark and Yoon-Nelson. These models allow us to express the different parameters controlling the performance of the dynamic adsorption system. The results have shown that all models were found suitable for describing the whole or a definite part of the dynamic behavior of the column with respect to the flow rate, the inlet dye concentration and the height of fixed bed.

Keywords: adsorption column, malachite green, pillared clays, alginate, modeling, mathematic models, encapsulation.

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61 Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Cement

Authors: W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj

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Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) is one of the most attractive bioceramics due to its moldable and shape ability to fill complicated bony cavities or small dental defect positions. In this study, CPCs were produced by using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca4O(PO4)2) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, CaHPO4) in equimolar ratio (1/1) with aqueous solutions of acetic acid (C2H4O2) and disodium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) in combination with sodium alginate in order to improve theirs moldable characteristic. The concentrations of the aqueous solutions and sodium alginate were varied to investigate the effects of different aqueous solution and alginate on properties of the cements. The cement paste was prepared by mixing cement powder (P) with aqueous solution (L) in a P/L ratio of 1.0 g/ 0.35 ml. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyses phase formation of the cements. Setting times and compressive strength of the set CPCs were measured using the Gilmore apparatus and Universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that CPCs could be produced by using both basic (Na2HPO4.2H2O) and acidic (C2H4O2) solutions. XRD results show the precipitation of hydroxyapatite in all cement samples. No change in phase formation among cements using difference concentrations of Na2HPO4.2H2O solutions. With increasing concentration of acidic solutions, samples obtained less hydroxyapatite with a high dicalcium phosphate dehydrate leaded to a shorter setting time. Samples with sodium alginate exhibited higher crystallization of hydroxyapatite than that of without alginate as a result of shorten setting time in basic solution but a longer setting time in acidic solution. The stronger cement was attained from samples using acidic solution with sodium alginate; however it was lower than using the basic solution.

Keywords: calcium phosphate cements, TTCP, DCPA, hydroxyapatite, properties

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60 Extraction of Rice Bran Protein Using Enzymes and Polysaccharide Precipitation

Authors: Sudarat Jiamyangyuen, Tipawan Thongsook, Riantong Singanusong, Chanida Saengtubtim

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Rice is a staple food as well as exported commodity of Thailand. Rice bran, a 10.5% constituent of rice grain, is a by-product of rice milling process. Rice bran is normally used as a raw material for rice bran oil production or sold as feed with a low price. Therefore, this study aimed to increase value of defatted rice bran as obtained after extracting of rice bran oil. Conventionally, the protein in defatted rice bran was extracted using alkaline extraction and acid precipitation, which results in reduction of nutritious components in rice bran. Rice bran protein concentrate is suitable for those who are allergenic of protein from other sources eg. milk, wheat. In addition to its hypoallergenic property, rice bran protein also contains good quantity of lysine. Thus it may act as a suitable ingredient for infant food formulations while adding variety to the restricted diets of children with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to compare properties of rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) extracted from defatted rice bran using enzymes together with precipitation step using polysaccharides (alginate and carrageenan) to those of a control sample extracted using a conventional method. The results showed that extraction of protein from rice bran using enzymes exhibited the higher protein recovery compared to that extraction with alkaline. The extraction conditions using alcalase 2% (v/w) at 50 C, pH 9.5 gave the highest protein (2.44%) and yield (32.09%) in extracted solution compared to other enzymes. Rice bran protein concentrate powder prepared by a precipitation step using alginate (protein in solution: alginate 1:0.006) exhibited the highest protein (27.55%) and yield (6.62%). Precipitation using alginate was better than that of acid. RBPC extracted with alkaline (ALK) or enzyme alcalase (ALC), then precipitated with alginate (AL) (samples RBP-ALK-AL and RBP-ALC-AL) yielded the precipitation rate of 75% and 91.30%, respectively. Therefore, protein precipitation using alginate was then selected. Amino acid profile of control sample, and sample precipitated with alginate, as compared to casein and soy protein isolated, showed that control sample showed the highest content among all sample. Functional property study of RBP showed that the highest nitrogen solubility occurred in pH 8-10. There was no statically significant between emulsion capacity and emulsion stability of control and sample precipitated by alginate. However, control sample showed a higher of foaming and lower foam stability compared to those of sample precipitated with alginate. The finding was successful in terms of minimizing chemicals used in extraction and precipitation steps in preparation of rice bran protein concentrate. This research involves in a production of value-added product in which the double amount of protein (28%) compared to original amount (14%) contained in rice bran could be beneficial in terms of adding to food products eg. healthy drink with high protein and fiber. In addition, the basic knowledge of functional property of rice bran protein concentrate was obtained, which can be used to appropriately select the application of this value-added product from rice bran.

Keywords: alginate, carrageenan, rice bran, rice bran protein

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59 Preliminary Design, Production and Characterization of a Coral and Alginate Composite for Bone Engineering

Authors: Sthephanie A. Colmenares, Fabio A. Rojas, Pablo A. Arbeláez, Johann F. Osma, Diana Narvaez

Abstract:

The loss of functional tissue is a ubiquitous and expensive health care problem, with very limited treatment options for these patients. The golden standard for large bone damage is a cadaveric bone as an allograft with stainless steel support; however, this solution only applies to bones with simple morphologies (long bones), has a limited material supply and presents long term problems regarding mechanical strength, integration, differentiation and induction of native bone tissue. Therefore, the fabrication of a scaffold with biological, physical and chemical properties similar to the human bone with a fabrication method for morphology manipulation is the focus of this investigation. Towards this goal, an alginate and coral matrix was created using two production techniques; the coral was chosen because of its chemical composition and the alginate due to its compatibility and mechanical properties. In order to construct the coral alginate scaffold the following methodology was employed; cleaning of the coral, its pulverization, scaffold fabrication and finally the mechanical and biological characterization. The experimental design had: mill method and proportion of alginate and coral, as the two factors, with two and three levels each, using 5 replicates. The coral was cleaned with sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide in an ultrasonic bath. Then, it was milled with both a horizontal and a ball mill in order to evaluate the morphology of the particles obtained. After this, using a combination of alginate and coral powder and water as a binder, scaffolds of 1cm3 were printed with a SpectrumTM Z510 3D printer. This resulted in solid cubes that were resistant to small compression stress. Then, using a ESQUIM DP-143 silicon mold, constructs used for the mechanical and biological assays were made. An INSTRON 2267® was implemented for the compression tests; the density and porosity were calculated with an analytical balance and the biological tests were performed using cell cultures with VERO fibroblast, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as visualization tool. The Young’s moduli were dependent of the pulverization method, the proportion of coral and alginate and the interaction between these factors. The maximum value was 5,4MPa for the 50/50 proportion of alginate and horizontally milled coral. The biological assay showed more extracellular matrix in the scaffolds consisting of more alginate and less coral. The density and porosity were proportional to the amount of coral in the powder mix. These results showed that this composite has potential as a biomaterial, but its behavior is elastic with a small Young’s Modulus, which leads to the conclusion that the application may not be for long bones but for tissues similar to cartilage.

Keywords: alginate, biomaterial, bone engineering, coral, Porites asteroids, SEM

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58 Polymerization: An Alternative Technology for Heavy Metal Removal

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud

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In this paper, the adsorption performance of a novel environmental friendly material, calcium alginate gel beads as a non-conventional technique for the successful removal of copper ions from aqueous solution are reported on. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity and process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosages, initial metal ion concentrations, stirring rates and contact times. It was observed that the optimum pH for maximum copper ions adsorption was at pH 5.0. For all contact times, an increase in copper ions concentration resulted in decrease in the percent of copper ions removal. Langmuir and Freundlich's isothermal models were used to describe the experimental adsorption. Adsorbent was characterization using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Keywords: adsorption, alginate polymer, isothermal models, equilibrium

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57 Hydrogel Hybridizing Temperature-Cured Dissolvable Gelatin Microspheres as Non-Anchorage Dependent Cell Carriers for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Dong-An Wang

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All kinds of microspheres have been extensively employed as carriers for drug, gene and therapeutic cell delivery. Most therapeutic cell delivery microspheres rely on a two-step methodology: fabrication of microspheres and subsequent seeding of cells onto them. In this study, we have developed a novel one-step cell encapsulation technique using a convenient and instant water-in-oil single emulsion approach to form cell-encapsulated gelatin microspheres. This technology is adopted for hyaline cartilage tissue engineering, in which autologous chondrocytes are used as therapeutic cells. Cell viability was maintained throughout and after the microsphere formation (75-100 µm diameters) process that avoids involvement of any covalent bonding reactions or exposure to any further chemicals. Further encapsulation of cell-laden microspheres in alginate gels were performed under 4°C via a prompt process. Upon the formation of alginate constructs, they were immediately relocated into CO2 incubator where the temperature was maintained at 37°C; under this temperature, the cell-laden gelatin microspheres dissolved within hours to yield similarly sized cavities and the chondrocytes were therefore suspended within the cavities inside the alginate gel bulk. Hence, the gelatin cell-laden microspheres served two roles: as cell delivery vehicles which can be removable through temperature curing, and as porogens within an alginate hydrogel construct to provide living space for cell growth and tissue development as well as better permeability for mutual diffusions. These cell-laden microspheres, namely “temperature-cured dissolvable gelatin microsphere based cell carriers” (tDGMCs), were further encapsulated in a chondrocyte-laden alginate scaffold system and analyzed by WST-1, gene expression analyses, biochemical assays, histology and immunochemistry stains. The positive results consistently demonstrated the promise of tDGMC technology in delivering these non-anchorage dependent cells (chondrocytes). It can be further conveniently translated into delivery of other non-anchorage dependent cell species, including stem cells, progenitors or iPS cells, for regeneration of tissues in internal organs, such as engineered hepatogenesis or pancreatic regeneration.

Keywords: biomaterials, tissue engineering, microsphere, hydrogel, porogen, anchorage dependence

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56 Formation of Microcapsules in Microchannel through Droplet Merging

Authors: Md. Danish Eqbal, Venkat Gundabala

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Microparticles and microcapsules are basically used as a carrier for cells, tissues, drugs, and chemicals. Due to its biocompatibility, non-toxicity and biodegradability, alginate based microparticles have numerous applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, organ repair and transplantation, etc. The production of uniform monodispersed microparticles was a challenge for the past few decades. However, emergence of microfluidics has provided controlled methods for the generation of the uniform monodispersed microparticles. In this work, we present a successful method for the generation of both microparticles and microcapsules (single and double core) using merging approach of two droplets, completely inside the microfluidic device. We have fabricated hybrid glass- PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device which has coflow geometry as well as the T junction channel. Coflow is used to generate the single as well as double oil-alginate emulsion in oil and T junction helps to form the calcium chloride droplets in oil. The basic idea is to match the frequency of the alginate droplets and calcium chloride droplets perfectly for controlled generation. Using the merging of droplets technique, we have successfully generated the microparticles and the microcapsules having single core as well as double and multiple cores. The cores in the microcapsules are very stable, well separated from each other and very intact as seen through cross-sectional confocal images. The size and the number of the cores along with the thickness of the shell can be easily controlled by controlling the flowrate of the liquids.

Keywords: double-core, droplets, microcapsules, microparticles

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55 Preparation of Natural Polymeric Scaffold with Desired Pore Morphology for Stem Cell Differentiation

Authors: Mojdeh Mohseni

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In the context of tissue engineering, the effect of microtopography as afforded by scaffold morphology is an important design parameter. Since the morphology of pores can effect on cell behavior, in this study, porous Chitosan (CHIT) - Gelatin (GEL)- Alginate (ALG) scaffolds with microtubule orientation structure were manufactured by unidirectional freeze-drying method and the effect of pore morphology on differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) was investigated. This study showed that, the provided scaffold with natural polymer had good properties for cell behavior and the pores with highest orientation rate have produced appropriate substrate for the differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: Chitosan, gelatin, Alginate, pore morphology, stem cell differentiation

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54 Formulation and in Vitro Characterization of Bioactives Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticle Incorporated into Multiphase Hydrogel System for the Treatment of Infected Burn Wound

Authors: Rajni Kant Panik, Deependra Singh, Manju Singh

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Despite significant advances in the treatment of severe burn injury, infection and sepsis persist as frequent causes of morbidity and mortality for burn victims due to extensive compromise of the skin and contiguous tissue that serve as a protective barrier against microbial invasion. In the setting of a burn wound infection, Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated pathogens from bloodstream infections in burn care hospitals. We aimed to develop a biocompatible system of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate hydrogel carrying multiple drugs- catalase and mupirocin in controlled manner for effective and complete burn wound healing. PLGA nanoparticles of Catalase and mupirocin were prepared by homogenization method and optimized system was incorporated in PVA-sodium alginate slurry. PVA-sodium alginate hydrogels were prepared by freeze thaw method. The prepared dispersion was casted into films to prepare multiphase hydrogel system and characterized by in vitro and in vivo studies. The study clearly showed the beneficial effect of antioxidant enzyme and antibiotic in the treatment of infected burn wound, as evidenced by the reduced incidence of wound infection and the shortening of healing time.

Keywords: burn wound, catalase, mupirocin, wound healing

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53 Controlled Release of Glucosamine from Pluronic-Based Hydrogels for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Authors: Papon Thamvasupong, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat

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Osteoarthritis affects a lot of people worldwide. Local injection of glucosamine is one of the alternative treatment methods to replenish the natural lubrication of cartilage. However, multiple injections can potentially lead to possible bacterial infection. Therefore, a drug delivery system is desired to reduce the frequencies of injections. A hydrogel is one of the delivery systems that can control the release of drugs. Thermo-reversible hydrogels can be beneficial to the drug delivery system especially in the local injection route because this formulation can change from liquid to gel after getting into human body. Once the gel is in the body, it will slowly release the drug in a controlled manner. In this study, various formulations of Pluronic-based hydrogels were synthesized for the controlled release of glucosamine. One of the challenges of the Pluronic controlled release system is its fast dissolution rate. To overcome this problem, alginate and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) were added to the polymer solution. The characteristics of the hydrogels were investigated including the gelation temperature, gelation time, hydrogel dissolution and glucosamine release mechanism. Finally, a mathematical model of glucosamine release from Pluronic-alginate-hyaluronic acid hydrogel was developed. Our results have shown that crosslinking Pluronic gel with alginate did not significantly extend the dissolution rate of the gel. Moreover, the gel dissolution profiles and the glucosamine release mechanisms were best described using the zeroth-order kinetic model, indicating that the release of glucosamine was primarily governed by the gel dissolution.

Keywords: controlled release, drug delivery system, glucosamine, pluronic, thermoreversible hydrogel

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52 Adsorptive Removal of Cd(II) Ions from Aqueous Systems by Wood Ash-Alginate Composite Beads

Authors: Tichaona Nharingo, Hope Tauya, Mambo Moyo

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Wood ash has been demonstrated to have favourable adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions but suffers the application problem of difficult to separate/isolate from the batch adsorption systems. Fabrication of wood ash beads using multifunctional group and non-toxic carbohydrate, alginate, may improve the applicability of wood ash in environmental pollutant remediation. In this work, alginate-wood ash beads (AWAB) were fabricated and applied to the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous systems. The beads were characterized by FTIR, TGA/DSC, SEM-EDX and their pHZPC before and after the adsorption of Cd(II) ions. Important adsorption parameters i.e. pH, AWAB dosage, contact time and ionic strength were optimized and the effect of initial concentration of Cd(II) ions to the adsorption process was established. Adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, adsorption mechanism and application of AWAB to real water samples spiked with Cd(II) ions were ascertained. The composite adsorbent was characterized by a heterogeneous macro pore surface comprising of metal oxides, multiple hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups that were involved in electrostatic interaction and Lewis acid-base interactions with the Cd(II) ions. The pseudo second order and the Freundlich isotherm models best fitted the adsorption kinetics and isotherm data respectively suggesting chemical sorption process and surface heterogeneity. The presence of Pb(II) ions inhibited the adsorption of Cd(II) ions (reduced by 40 %) attributed to the competition for the adsorption sites. The Cd(II) loaded beads could be regenerated using 0.1 M HCl and could be applied to four sorption-desorption cycles without significant loss in its initial adsorption capacity. The high maximum adsorption capacity, stability, selectivity and reusability of AWAB make the adsorbent ideal for application in the removal of Cd(II) ions from real water samples. Column type adsorption experiments need to be explored to establish the potential of the adsorbent in removing Cd(II) ions using continuous flow systems.

Keywords: adsorption, Cd(II) ions, regeneration, wastewater, wood ash-alginate beads

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51 Polymer Nanocomposite Containing Silver Nanoparticles for Wound Healing

Authors: Patrícia Severino, Luciana Nalone, Daniele Martins, Marco Chaud, Classius Ferreira, Cristiane Bani, Ricardo Albuquerque

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Hydrogels produced with polymers have been used in the development of dressings for wound treatment and tissue revitalization. Our study on polymer nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles shows antimicrobial activity and applications in wound healing. The effects are linked with the slow oxidation and Ag⁺ liberation to the biological environment. Furthermore, bacterial cell membrane penetration and metabolic disruption through cell cycle disarrangement also contribute to microbial cell death. The silver antimicrobial activity has been known for many years, and previous reports show that low silver concentrations are safe for human use. This work aims to develop a hydrogel using natural polymers (sodium alginate and gelatin) combined with silver nanoparticles for wound healing and with antimicrobial properties in cutaneous lesions. The hydrogel development utilized different sodium alginate and gelatin proportions (20:80, 50:50 and 80:20). The silver nanoparticles incorporation was evaluated at the concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM. The physico-chemical properties of the formulation were evaluated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The morphological characterization was made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Human fibroblast (L2929) viability assay was performed with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessment as well as an in vivo cicatrizant test. The results suggested that sodium alginate and gelatin in the (80:20) proportion with 4 mM of AgNO₃ in the (UV-Vis) exhibited a better hydrogel formulation. The nanoparticle absorption spectra of this analysis showed a maximum band around 430 - 450 nm, which suggests a spheroidal form. The TG curve exhibited two weight loss events. DSC indicated one endothermic peak at 230-250 °C, due to sample fusion. The polymers acted as stabilizers of a nanoparticle, defining their size and shape. Human fibroblast viability assay L929 gave 105 % cell viability with a negative control, while gelatin presented 96% viability, alginate: gelatin (80:20) 96.66 %, and alginate 100.33 % viability. The sodium alginate:gelatin (80:20) exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, with minimal bacterial growth at a ratio of 1.06 mg.mL⁻¹ in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 0.53 mg.mL⁻¹ in Staphylococcus aureus. The in vivo results showed a significant reduction in wound surface area. On the seventh day, the hydrogel-nanoparticle formulation reduced the total area of injury by 81.14 %, while control reached a 45.66 % reduction. The results suggest that silver-hydrogel nanoformulation exhibits potential for wound dressing therapeutics.

Keywords: nanocomposite, wound healing, hydrogel, silver nanoparticle

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50 Stability Study of Hydrogel Based on Sodium Alginate/Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) with Aloe Vera Extract for Wound Dressing Application

Authors: Klaudia Pluta, Katarzyna Bialik-Wąs, Dagmara Malina, Mateusz Barczewski

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Hydrogel networks, due to their unique properties, are highly attractive materials for wound dressing. The three-dimensional structure of hydrogels provides tissues with optimal moisture, which supports the wound healing process. Moreover, a characteristic feature of hydrogels is their absorption properties which allow for the absorption of wound exudates. For the fabrication of biomedical hydrogels, a combination of natural polymers ensuring biocompatibility and synthetic ones that provide adequate mechanical strength are often used. Sodium alginate (SA) is one of the polymers widely used in wound dressing materials because it exhibits excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, due to poor strength properties, often alginate-based hydrogel materials are enhanced by the addition of another polymer such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). This paper is concentrated on the preparation methods of sodium alginate/polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel system incorporating Aloe vera extract and glycerin for wound healing material with particular focus on the role of their composition on structure, thermal properties, and stability. Briefly, the hydrogel preparation is based on the chemical cross-linking method using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, Mn = 700 g/mol) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate as an initiator. In vitro degradation tests of SA/PVA/AV hydrogels were carried out in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (pH – 7.4) as well as in distilled water. Hydrogel samples were firstly cut into half-gram pieces (in triplicate) and immersed in immersion fluid. Then, all specimens were incubated at 37°C and then the pH and conductivity values were measurements at time intervals. The post-incubation fluids were analyzed using SEC/GPC to check the content of oligomers. The separation was carried out at 35°C on a poly(hydroxy methacrylate) column (dimensions 300 x 8 mm). 0.1M NaCl solution, whose flow rate was 0.65 ml/min, was used as the mobile phase. Three injections with a volume of 50 µl were made for each sample. The thermogravimetric data of the prepared hydrogels were collected using a Netzsch TG 209 F1 Libra apparatus. The samples with masses of about 10 mg were weighed separately in Al2O3 crucibles and then were heated from 30°C to 900°C with a scanning rate of 10 °C∙min−1 under a nitrogen atmosphere. Based on the conducted research, a fast and simple method was developed to produce potential wound dressing material containing sodium alginate, poly(vinyl alcohol) and Aloe vera extract. As a result, transparent and flexible SA/PVA/AV hydrogels were obtained. The degradation experiments indicated that most of the samples immersed in PBS as well as in distilled water were not degraded throughout the whole incubation time.

Keywords: hydrogels, wound dressings, sodium alginate, poly(vinyl alcohol)

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