Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 149

Search results for: Lohi sheep

149 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.

Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
148 Disposition Kinetics of Ciprofloxacin after Intramuscular Administration in Lohi Sheep

Authors: Zahid Iqbal, Ijaz Javed, Riaz Hussain, Ibadullah Jan, Amir Ali Khan

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the disposition kinetics of ciprofloxacin and calculate its optimal dosage in Pakistani sheep of Lohi breed. Injectable preparation of ciprofloxacin was given intramuscularly to eight sheep at a dose of 5 mg/Kg. Before administration of drug blood sample was drawn from each animal. Post drug administration, blood samples were also drawn at various predetermined time periods. Drug concentration in the blood samples was assessed through high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Data were best described by two compartment open model and different pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were calculated. Cmax of 1.97 ± 0.15 µg/ml was reached at Tmax of 0.88 ± 0.09 hours. Half life of absorption (t1/2 abs) was observed to be 0.63 ± 0.16 hours while t1/2 α (distribution half life) and t1/2 ß (elimination half life) were found to be 0.46 ± 0.05 and 2.93 ± 0.45 hours, respectively. Vd (apparent volume of distribution) was calculated as 2.89 ± 0.30 L/kg while AUC (area under the curve) was 7.19 ± 0.38 µg.hr/mL and CL (total body clearance) was 0.75 ± 0.04 L/hr/kg. Using these parameters, an optimal intramuscular dosage of ciprofloxacin in adult Lohi sheep was calculated as 21.43 mg/kg, advised to be repeated after 24 hours. From this, we came to the conclusion that calculated dose was much higher than the dose advised by the foreign manufacturer and to avoid antimicrobial resistance, it is advised that this locally investigated dosage regimen should be strictly followed in local sheep.

Keywords: pharmacokinetics, dosage regimen, ciprofloxacin, HPLC, sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
147 The Implementation of Animal Welfare for Garut Sheep Fighting Contest in West Java

Authors: Mustopa, Nadya R. Susilo, Rhizal D. Nuva

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the application of animal welfare in Garut sheep fighting contest at West Java. This study conducted by survey and discussion methods with 5 Garut sheep owners in the contest. The animal welfare is going to be proved by observing the condition of the cage, the cleanliness of it, the health of the sheep, feeding and water, also owner treatments for their sheep that will be served as a fighter. Observations made using stable conditions ACRES form with assessment scores ranged from 1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = regular, 4 = good and 5 = very good, animal welfare conditions seen by conducting observations and interviews with garut sheep owners. The result shows that the Garut sheep fighting contest has fulfilled the criteria of animal welfare application. Application of animal welfare principle by the owner of Garut sheep terms of ACRES (Animal Concerns Research and Education Society) below standard, the average score obtained was 1.76 which is mean in a very bad ratings. Besides considering the animal welfare application, sheep owners also do special treatments for their Garut sheep with the purpose to produce fighters that are healthy and strong. So, if the sheep wins in Garut sheep fight contest, it will purchase a high-value prices.

Keywords: animal welfare, contest, garut sheep, sheep fighting

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
146 Manure Management Systems in Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya, Türkiye

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

Abstract:

Goat and sheep milk is quite significant in human nutrition. It is considered as more important day by day. This study was carried out in order to determine applied manure management system and their possibilities of improvement in goat and sheep farm in between 2012 and 2013 years. In the study, it was investigated manure management systems of 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms. It was analyzed the manure collecting, storage and treatment features of farms and whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, it was determined that the applied manure management systems in the farm were insufficient. Planning the manure management systems in goat and sheep breeding is appropriate technical criteria is useful in respect of the animal welfare, animal health, the health of workers in the barn and environmental pollution.

Keywords: goat farm, sheep farm, manure storage, manure management

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
145 Assessment of Base Station Radiation Pollution in Areas of Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi, Levent Seyfi

Abstract:

The technological devices are more often being used days by day. Thus, electro magnetic pollution is being more important now than last decades. Especially mobile phones and their base stations are subject to assessment in respect of all living beings health as well as of human beings. In this context, it is worth to evaluate the situation of electromagnetic radiation exposing living beings such as animals. In this study, electromagnetic radiation levels to which sheep are exposed in Konya/Turkey are presented. The electromagnetic radiation is measured at 1800 MHz for GSM base stations. 1085 sheep farms are determined in areas of Konya center region (Selçuklu, Meram, and Karatay) in which sheep and goat breeding is widely carried out. In this study, 790 sheep and goat farms, 10.8 % for total farms in Konya region (7276), having more than 100 animals are assessed. Then, the data obtained are depicted. As a conclusion, the results should be evaluated together with the future measurements to determine the exact effect on health of sheep and their productivity.

Keywords: electromagnetic pollution, sheep housing, sheep and goat farm, environmental pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
144 MHC Class II DRB1 Gene Polymorphism in Lori Sheep Breed

Authors: Shahram Nanekarani, Majid Goodarzi, Majid Khosravi

Abstract:

The present study aimed at analyzing of ovine major histocompatibility complex class II (Ovar II) DRB1 gene second exon in Lori Sheep breed. The MHC plays a central role in the control of disease resistance and immunological response. Genomic DNA from blood samples of 124 sheep was extracted and a 296 bp MHC exon 2 fragment was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. PCR products were characterized by the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using Hin1I restriction enzyme. The PCRRFLP patterns showed three genotypes, AA, AB and BB with frequency of 0.282, 0.573 and 0.145, respectively. There was no significant (P > 0.05) deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for this locus in this population. The results of the present study indicate that exon 2 of the Ovar-DRB1 gene is highly polymorphic in Lori sheep and could be considered as an important marker assisted selection, for improvement of immunity in sheep.

Keywords: MHC-DRB1 gene, polymorphism, PCR-RFLP, lori sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
143 Spatial Distribution of Local Sheep Breeds in Antalya Province

Authors: Serife Gulden Yilmaz, Suleyman Karaman

Abstract:

Sheep breeding is important in terms of meeting both the demand of red meat consumption and the availability of industrial raw materials and the employment of the rural sector in Turkey. It is also very important to ensure the selection and continuity of the breeds that are raised in order to increase quality and productive products related to sheep breeding. The protection of local breeds and crossbreds also enables the development of the sector in the region and the reduction of imports. In this study, the data were obtained from the records of the Turkish Statistical Institute and Antalya Sheep & Goat Breeders' Association. Spatial distribution of sheep breeds in Antalya is reviewed statistically in terms of concentration at the local level for 2015 period spatially. For this reason; mapping, box plot, linear regression are used in this study. Concentration is introduced by means of studbook data on sheep breeding as locals and total sheep farm by mapping. It is observed that Pırlak breed (17.5%) and Merinos crossbreed (16.3%) have the highest concentration in the region. These breeds are respectively followed by Akkaraman breed (11%), Pirlak crossbreed (8%), Merinos breed (7.9%) Akkaraman crossbreed (7.9%) and Ivesi breed (7.2%).

Keywords: sheep breeds, local, spatial distribution, agglomeration, Antalya

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
142 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Mycoplasmosis in Sheep in Egypt

Authors: Walid Mousa, Mohamed Nayel, Ahmed Zaghawa, Akram Salama, Ahmed El-Sify, Hesham Rashad, Dina El-Shafey

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Mycoplasmosis in small ruminants constitutes a serious contagious problem in smallholders causing severe economic losses worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the clinical, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma species associated in sheep breeding herds in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt. Out of the examination of 400 sheep, 104 (26%) showed respiratory manifestations, nasal discharges, cough and conjunctivitis with systemic body reaction. Meanwhile, out of these examined sheep, only 56 (14%) were positive for mycoplasma isolation onto PPLO(Pleuropneumonia-like organisms) specific medium. The MIC for evaluating the efficacy of sensitivity of Mycoplasma isolates against different antibiotics groups revealed that both the Linospectin and Tylosin with 2ug, 0.25ug/ml concentration were the most effective antibiotics for Mycoplasma isolates. The application of PCR was the rapid, specific and sensitive molecular approach for detection of M. ovipneumoniae, and M. arginine at 390 and 326 bp, respectively, in all tested isolates. In conclusion, the diagnosis of Mycoplsamosis in sheep is important to achieve effective control measures and minimizing the disease dissemination among sheep herds.

Keywords: MIC, mycoplasmosis, PCR, sheep

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141 Haemobiogram after Intramuscular Administration of Amoxicillin to Sheep

Authors: Amer Elgerwi, Abdelrazzag El-Magdoub, Abubakr El-Mahmoudy

Abstract:

There are many bacterial infections affecting sheep that necessitates antibiotic intervention. Amoxicillin is among commonly used antibiotics in such case for its broad spectrum of activity. However, the side alterations in blood and organ function that may be associated during or after treatment are questionable. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the possible alterations in blood parameters and organ function bio markers of sheep that may occur following intramuscular injection of amoxicillin. Amoxicillin has been administered intramuscularly to 10 sheep at a dosage regimen of 7 mg/kg of body weight for 5 successive days. Two types of blood samples (with and without anticoagulant) were collected from the jugular vein pre- and post-administration of the drug. Amoxicillin significantly (P < 0.001) increased total leukocyte count and (P < 0.05) absolute eosinophilic count when compared with those of the control samples. Aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the corresponding control values. In addition, amoxicillin significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine but decreased phosphorus level when compared with those of prior-administration samples. These data may indicate that although the side changes caused by amoxicillin are minor in sheep, yet the liver and kidney functions should be monitored during its usage in therapy and it should be used with care for treatment of sheep with renal and/or hepatic impairments.

Keywords: amoxicillin, biogram, haemogram, sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
140 Effects of Corynebacterium cutis Lysate Administration on Hematology and Biochemistry Parameters with PPR Vaccine

Authors: Burak Dik, Oguzhan Avci, Irmak Dik, Emre Bahcivan

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alone and combined administration of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine with Corynebacterium cutis lysate (CCL) on the hematology and biochemistry parameters levels in sheep. CCL and PPR vaccine changes cell and organ activity. In this study, 12 ewes were divided into equal groups; first group; PPR vaccine was applied only one time 1 mL subcutan of armpit on 6 sheep, and the second group; CCL (1 mL) and PPR vaccine (1 mL) combination were applied only one time subcutan of armpit on 6 sheep. Blood samples were collected before treatment (0. hour, control) and after treatment (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) from the sheep. Plasma and serum samples were evaluated for hematology and biochemistry parameters and there were statistically significant in sheep. In conclusion, combined usage of PPR vaccine with CCL may not influence cells and organs. Repeated CCL treatment with vaccine can create hepatotoxic, renal and bone marrow effects in sheep.

Keywords: Corynebacterium cutis lysate, hematology, peste des petits ruminants, vaccine

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
139 Characterization of the Physical Properties of Sheep Wool Fiber in Amhara National Regional State

Authors: Erkihun Zelalem

Abstract:

Ethiopian’s sheep population, estimated to be 25.5 million heads, is found widely distributed across the diverse agro-ecological zones of the country. In the past, there were many projects that done to improve production of meat, milk and productivity of sheep breed. However, no significance research has been done so far on production of wool fiber in Ethiopia which could be taken as a potential fiber next to cotton. The measurement of the sheep wool fiber physical properties is critically important, technical, commercial and certification point of view. A total of 24 sheep from different breeds (Menz, Tikur, Farta and Washera) were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard measurements for wool fiber length (WFL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of wool fiber diameter (FDCV), breaking strength, elongation, crimp, cleanness and moisture content. Based on the result all parameters shows that there is a great potential of getting of wool fiber from the skin of sheep and according to the standards of its property and grading system based on wool fiber fineness is medium to course. These types of fibers can be making carpets, blankets, rugs, coverings and other products.

Keywords: Fiber, Fineness, Carpet, Fleece, Raw Wool

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
138 Polymorphism of Candidate Genes for Meat Production in Lori Sheep

Authors: Shahram Nanekarania, Majid Goodarzia

Abstract:

Calpastatin and callipyge have been known as one of the candidate genes in meat quality and quantity. Calpastatin gene has been located to chromosome 5 of sheep and callipyge gene has been localized in the telomeric region on ovine chromosome 18. The objective of this study was identification of calpastatin and callipyge genes polymorphism and analysis of genotype structure in population of Lori sheep kept in Iran. Blood samples were taken from 120 Lori sheep breed and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. Polymorphism was identified using the PCR-RFLP technique. The PCR products were digested with MspI and FaqI restriction enzymes for calpastatin gene and callipyge gene, respectively. In this population, three patterns were observed and AA, AB, BB genotype have been identified with the 0.32, 0.63, 0.05 frequencies for calpastatin gene. The results obtained for the callipyge gene revealed that only the wild-type allele A was observed, indicating that only genotype AA was present in the population under consideration.

Keywords: polymorphism, calpastatin, callipyge, PCR-RFLP, Lori sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
137 The Effects of Seasonal Variation on the Microbial-N Flow to the Small Intestine and Prediction of Feed Intake in Grazing Karayaka Sheep

Authors: Mustafa Salman, Nurcan Cetinkaya, Zehra Selcuk, Bugra Genc

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The objectives of the present study were to estimate the microbial-N flow to the small intestine and to predict the digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) in grazing Karayaka sheep based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, and allantoin) by the use of spot urine sampling under field conditions. In the trial, 10 Karayaka sheep from 2 to 3 years of age were used. The animals were grazed in a pasture for ten months and fed with concentrate and vetch plus oat hay for the other two months (January and February) indoors. Highly significant linear and cubic relationships (P<0.001) were found among months for purine derivatives index, purine derivatives excretion, purine derivatives absorption, microbial-N and DOMI. Through urine sampling and the determination of levels of excreted urinary PD and Purine Derivatives / Creatinine ratio (PDC index), microbial-N values were estimated and they indicated that the protein nutrition of the sheep was insufficient. In conclusion, the prediction of protein nutrition of sheep under the field conditions may be possible with the use of spot urine sampling, urinary excreted PD and PDC index. The mean purine derivative levels in spot urine samples from sheep were highest in June, July and October. Protein nutrition of pastured sheep may be affected by weather changes, including rainfall. Spot urine sampling may useful in modeling the feed consumption of pasturing sheep. However, further studies are required under different field conditions with different breeds of sheep to develop spot urine sampling as a model.

Keywords: Karayaka sheep, spot sampling, urinary purine derivatives, PDC index, microbial-N, feed intake

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
136 Renal Amyloidosis in Domestic Iranian Sheep

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Fateme Behbahani, Sara Omidi, Nadia Shahi, Alireza Farkhonde

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Amyloidosis represents a heterogenous group of diseases that have in common the deposition of fibrils composed of proteins of beta-pleated sheet structure, which can be specifically identified by histochemistry using the Congo red or similar stains. Between October 2013 to April 2014 (6 months) different patterns of renal amyloidosis was diagnosed on histopathological examination of kidneys belong to 196 out of 7065 slaughtered sheep subjected to postmortem examination. Microscopic examination of renal tissue sections stained with H&E and CR staining techniques revealed 3 patterns of renal amyloid deposition; including glomerular (22.72%), medullary (68.18%), and vascular (9.09%) were recognized. Renal medullary amyloidosis (RMA) was detected as the most prevalence pattern of renal amyloidosis in domestic sheep.

Keywords: sheep, amyloidosis, kidney, slaughterhouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
135 Identification of Anaplasma Species in Sheep of Khouzestan Province by PCR

Authors: Masoud Soltanialvar, Ali Bagherpour

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The aim of this study was to determinate the variety of Anaplasma species among sheep of khouzestan province, Iran. From April 2013 to June 2013, a total of 200 blood samples were collected via the jugular vein from healthy sheep (100), randomly. The extracted DNA from blood cells were amplified by Anaplasma-all primers, which amplify an approximately 1468bp DNA fragment from region of 16S rRNA gene from various members of the genus Anaplasma. For raising the test sensivity, the PCR products were amplified with the primers, which were designed from the region flanked by the first primers. The amplified nested PCR product had an expected PCR product with 345 nucleotides in length. In 100 sheep blood samples, 7 samples were Anaplasma spp. positive by first PCR and nested PCR. The results showed that 2 of total 100 blood samples (2%) were A.phagocytophilum positive by specific nested PCR based on 16S rRNA gene. The extracted DNA from positive Anaplasma spp. samples were amplified by Anaplasma ovis specific primers, which amplify an approximately 866bp DNA fragment from region of msp4 gene. 5 out of 100 sheep blood samples (5%) were positive for Anaplasma ovis. This study is the first molecular detection of A. ovis and A.phagocytophilum from sheep in Iran.

Keywords: Iran, anaplasma species, sheep, A. ovis, A. phagocytophilum, PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
134 Polymorphisms of Calpastatin Gene and Its Association with Growth Traits in Indonesian Thin Tail Sheep

Authors: Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong, Cece Sumantri, Ronny Rachman Noor, Rachmat Herman, Mohamad Yamin

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Calpastatin involved in various physiological processes in the body such as the protein turnover, growth, fusion and mioblast migration. Thus, allegedly Calpastatin gene diversity (CAST) have an association with growth and potential use as candidate genes for growth trait. This study aims to identify the association between the genetic diversity of CAST gene with some growth properties such as body dimention (morphometric), body weight and daily weight gain in sheep. A total of 157 heads of Thin Tail Sheep (TTS) reared intensively for fattening purposes in the uniform environmental conditions. Overall sheep used were male, and maintained for 3 months. The parameters of growth properties were measured among others: body weight gain (ADG) (g/head / day), body weight (kg), body length (cm), chest circumference (cm), height (cm). All the sheep were genotyped by using PCR-SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) methods. CAST gene in locus fragment intron 5 - exon 6 were amplified with a predicted length of about 254 bp PCR products. Then the sheep were stratified based on their CAST genotypes. The result of this research showed that no association were found between the CAST gene variations with morphometric body weight, but there was a significant association with daily body weight gain (ADG) in sheep observed. CAST-23 and CAST-33 genotypes has higher average daily gain than other genotypes. CAST-23 and CAST-33 genotypes that carrying the CAST-2 and CAST-3 alleles potential to be used in the selection of the nature of the growth trait of the TTS sheep.

Keywords: body weight, calpastatin, genotype, growth trait, thin tail sheep

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
133 Structural Analysis of Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya Province

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

Abstract:

Goat milk is a quite important in human nutrition. In order to meet the demand to the goat and sheep milk occurring in the recent years, an increase is seen in the demand to housing projects, which will enable animals to be sheltered in the suitable environments. This study was carried out in between 2012 and 2013, in order to identify the existing cases of sheep and goat housings in the province Konya and their possibilities to be developed. In the study, in the province Konya, 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms and 46 pieces of sheep and goat housings (14 sheep housings, 3 goat housings, and 29 housings, in which both sheep and goat are bred ) that are present in the farm were investigated as material. In the study, examining the general features of the farms that are present in the region and structural features of housings that are present in the farms, it is studied whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, the barns were evaluated as insufficient in terms of barn design, although 48% of they were built after 2000. In 63% of housings examined, stocking density of resting area was below the value of 1 m2/animal and in 59% of the housings, stocking density of courtyard area was below the 2 m2/animal. Feeding length, in 57% of housings has a value of 0.30 m and below. In the region, it will be possible to obtain the desired productivity level by building new barn designs, developed in accordance with the animal behaviors and welfare. Carrying out the necessary works is an important issue in terms of country and regional economy.

Keywords: barn design, goat housing, sheep housing, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
132 Effects of Some Factors Affecting Optimum Reproductive Capacity of Local Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria

Authors: D. Zahraddeen, N. M. Lemu, P. P. Barje, I. S. R. Butswat

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This study was conducted to investigate some of the factors affecting the optimum reproductive capacity of the indigenous breeds of sheep in Nigeria. A total of 767 sheep of different breeds were investigated. The reproductive indices considered were birth/weaning weights, litter size, parity, mortality, reproductive problems/disorders, body condition score (BCS), as well as growth traits. The results showed that litter size, parity, and BCS had significant (p < 0.05) effects on birth/weaning weights, mortality rates and growth traits of the sheep breeds studied. Similarly, the rearing method/system significantly (p < 0.05) influenced other reproductive traits such as birth/weaning weights, mortality, growth performance of lambs. However, the major reproductive problems/disorders in the ewes were dystocia (30.94%), retained placenta (16.91%), mastitis (15.83), pregnancy toxaemia (11.51%), uterine prolapse (6.48%) and vaginal prolapse (3.24%). In the rams, the incidence of reproductive problems included cryptorchidism (1.08%), orchitis (2.87%) and scrotal dermatophilosis (1.79%), among others. This study concludes that the four breeds of sheep (Balami, Yankasa, Uda, and West African Dwarf sheep) and their crosses exhibited varied genetic make-up and potentials. However, the large number of sheep farmers practicing the extensive production system might be responsible for the low reproductive performance of this species in the country. It is, therefore, recommended that significant improvement could be achieved through enhanced management practices of these animals.

Keywords: sheep, breeds, reproduction, disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
131 Characterization of the Immune Response of Inactivated RVF Vaccine: A Comparative Study in Sheep and Goats as Experimental Model

Authors: Ahmed Zaghawa

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Rift Valley Fever is an economically specific disease of the health and arboviral disease that affects many types of animals, causing significant economic losses in livestock, and it is transmitted to humans and has public health issues. The vaccine program is the backbone for the control of this disease. The goal of this study was to apply a new approach to evaluate the inactivated RVF vaccine developed in Egypt. In this study, the RVF vaccine was evaluated in young puppies and compared with sheep; the findings showed that young puppies were susceptible to infection with the inhibitory RVF virus and had a strong response of antibodies with two doses of the RVF vaccine within the two-week interval. The neutralization indices began to appear to the protective level on the 7th day at 1.35 and steadily elevated at 14,21 and 28 days to 1.35, 1.43, and 1.20, respectively, in comparison to the control group. While in sheep, the neutralization indices began to appear to the protective level on the 7th day at 1.10 and remain strongly at high titer at 14, 21, and 28 days with NI values 1.20, 1.50, and 1.50, respectively. The new approach for comparing the immune response in puppies and sheep via SNT indicated the high response in both species was evident as well as the neutralization indices values in young puppies at different periods after RVF vaccination reported the value of 1.08±0.03, 1.23±0.04, 1.30±0.03, and 1.45±0.02 after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-vaccination respectively. On the other side, a nearly similar immune response was noticed in sheep with NI values of 1.15±0.02, 1.27±0.02, 1.42±0.05, and 1.55±0.03 at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-vaccination, respectively. In conclusion, young puppies are similar to sheep in developing antibodies after vaccination with the RVF vaccine and can replace sheep for evaluating the efficacy of the RVF vaccine. Further studies are mandatory to assess more recent methods for evaluating inhibition of the RVF vaccine.

Keywords: immune response, puppies, RVF, sheep, vaccine

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
130 Acute Phase Proteins, Proinflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Sheep with Pneumonic Pasteurellosis

Authors: Wael M. El-Deeb

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The aim of this study was to assess the pathophysiological importance of lipid profile, acute phase proteins, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 36 Pasteurellamultocida-infected sheep, together with 20 healthy controls. Samples for bacteriological examination (nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage) were collected from all animals and subjected to bacteriological examinations. Moreover, heart blood and lung samples were collected from the dead pneumonic sheep and subjected also to bacteriological examinations. A lipid profile was determined, along with a blood picture and other biochemical parameters. The acute phase proteins (fibrinogen, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A), the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6), interferon-gamma and the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde, super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase were also measured. The examined biochemical parameters were increased in the pneumonic sheep, except for cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which were significantly lower than control group. Acute phase proteins and cytokines were significantly higher in the pneumonic sheep when compared to the healthy sheep. There was a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde; however, a significant decrease in the levels of super oxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase was observed. The present study shed the light on the possible pathphysiological role of lipid profile, acute phase proteins (APPs), proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers in pneumonic pasteurelosis in sheep.

Keywords: acute phase proteins, sheep, pasteurella, interleukins, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
129 Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Farm Animals by Copro-Culture

Authors: Mosaab A. Omar, Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody

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In the present study, examination of 442 faecal samples was performed: 171 from cattle, 128 from buffaloes and 143 from sheep. During the period from May, 2014 to April, 2015, fecal examination showed the infection rate with abomasal nematodes was 30% in cattle, 22.6% in buffaloes, and 31.4% in sheep. Fecal culture gave results of 47.5%, 30%, and 50.3% in cattle, buffaloes and sheep respectively. Seasonal infection with abomasal nematodes as shown by faecal culture in cattle, reveals the highest infection rate is in summer (55.9%), followed by spring (54.1%), autumn (50%), and winter (33.3%). Cooperia spp. is the most prevalent larva in both cattle and buffaloes; Strongyloides papillosus is the most predominant one in sheep. Here we introduce the first study of abomasal worms infection in ruminants in Qena, Egypt. The prevalence is found to be so high among the all examined animals, that we recommend that the authorities apply suitable control programs.

Keywords: haemonchus, ostertagia, seasonal dynamics, floatation

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
128 The Differences between Direct Examination and ELISA Test during the Diagnosis of Fasciolosis in Jaundiced Slaughtered Sheep in Iraq

Authors: Azad A. Meerkhan, Alaa Hani Razak, Bayan M. S. Younis

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The efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica was studied. 232 jaundiced sheep among 5208 sheep slaughter in the Duhok abattoir (regardless of the age and gender) between the period of May. 2012 to Oct. 2012 were examined by direct examination (Searching of adult flukes in the bile duct) and by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the prevalence of fascioliasis in the studied population which showed a high observed infection ratio in Sep. 2012 (12.2%) with the high (ELISA) result of infection in May. 2012 (25.36%). Significant differences were found between the two ways in all of the months with the highest difference in May. 2012 and the net deference between the both ways was 6.91%.

Keywords: fascioliasis, Fasciola hepatica, layers, liver fluk, ELISA, direct examination

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
127 Alterations of Malondialdehyde and Heat Shock Protein-27 in Sheep with Naturally Infected Liver Cystic Echinococcosis

Authors: K. Azimzadeh, S. Rasouli

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The present study investigates whether malondialdehyde (MDA) and heat shock protein-27 (HSP-27) are altered in sheep with cystic echinococcosis (CE). For this purpose, forty parasitized and thirty healthy sheep were selected based on severe cystic form observation in liver and lack of blood parasite along with no cystic conformation in carcass respectively. The results revealed a significant decrease (p<0.01) in albumin (Alb) and total plasma protein (TPP) and a significant increase (p<0.01) in HSP-27, MDA, total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin in the infected group compared with healthy ones.The results indicate low levels of TPP and Alb reveal liver damage in suffered sheep and MDA elevation demonstrates oxidative stress in infected group. In addition, HSP-27 enhancement may attribute to disease-induced stress conditions.

Keywords: malondialdehyde, heat shock protein-27, Echinococcosis, blood parasites

Procedia PDF Downloads 502
126 Measurement of Qashqaeian Sheep Fetus Parameters by Ultrasonography

Authors: Aboozar Dehghan, S. Sharifi, S. A. Dehghan, Ali Aliabadi, Arash Esfandiari

Abstract:

Ultrasonography is a safe, available and particular method in diagnostic imaging science. In ultrasonography most of body soft tissue imaged in B mode display. Iranian Qashqaeian sheep is an old and domestic breed in Zagros mountain area in central plateau of Iran. Population of this breed in Fars state (study location) is 250000 animals. Gestation age detection in sheep was performed by ultarasonography in Kivircik breed in 2010 in turkey. In this study 5 adult, clinically healthy, Iranian ewes and 1 Iranian ram were selected. We measured biparital diameter that thickened part of fetal skull include (BPD), trunk diameter (TD), fetal heart diameter(FHD), intercostals space of fetus (ICS) and fetal heart rate per minute (FHR) weekly after day 60 after pregnancy. Inguinal area in both sides shaved and cleaned by alcohol 70 degree and covered by enough copulating gel. Trans abdominal Ultarasonography was performed by a convex multi frequency transducer with 2.5-5 MHz frequency. Data were collected and analyzed by on way Annova method in Spss15 software. Mean of BPD, TD, FHD and ICS in day 60 were 14.58, 25.92, 3.53, 2.3mm. FHR can measure on day 109 to 150. TD after day 109 cannot displayed in 1 frame in scanning. Ultrasonography in sheep pregnancy is a particular method. Using this study can help in theriogeniologic disease that affected fetal growth. Differentiating between various sheep breed is a functional result of this study.

Keywords: qashqaeian sheep, fetometry, ultrasonography

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125 Seasonal Lambing in Crossbred of Katahdin Ewes in Tropical Regions of Chiapas, Mexico

Authors: Juan C. Martínez-Alfaro, Aracely Zúñiga, Fernando Ruíz-Zarate

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In recent years, the Katahdin sheep breeds have been one of the breeds with greater acceptance by sheep farmers in southwestern Mexico. The Hair Sheep breeds from tropical latitudes (16° to 21° North Latitude) show low estrus activity from January to May. By contrast, these breeds of sheep exhibit high estrus activity from August to December. However, the reproductive management of Hair Sheep crossbred is very limited, independently of the socioeconomic levels of sheep farmers. Thus, in crossbred of Hair Sheep, occurrence of lambing is greater in autumn (84%) than spring (16%). In this sense, the aim of this study was to determine the lambing in Crossbred of Katahdin sheep during different seasons of the year. The Hypothesis was that in crossbred of Katahdin sheep, the lambing period has a behavior seasonal in the Southwestern Mexico. The study design consisted in evaluating the lambing proportion in one herds of Katahdin ewes crossbred during one year (October 1st, 2015 to October 1st, 2016). The study was realized in a farm located in the municipality of Jiquipilas, in the State of Chiapas, Mexico (16° North Latitude). A total of 40 female sheep homogeneous in terms of physical condition, age and physiological state were selected; and they were fed in grazing continuous, mainly with Africa star grass (Cynodon lemfuensis) and they are provided with water and mineral salts ad libitum; during the dry season, the ewes were supplemented with a diet of maize and sorghum, and the reproductive management was continuous mating. The lambing proportion was analyzed by chi-squared test, using SAS statistical software. The proportion of Katahdin ewes crossbred that lambed during the study period was high (100%; 40/40), the prolificacy was 1.42 (lamb/lambing). The proportion of lambing was higher (P<0.05) in autumn (67.5%; 27/40), than winter, spring and summer (32.5%; 13/40; 0%; 0/40; 0%; 0/40; respectively). The proportion of lambing was greater (P<0.05) in November (50%; 20/40), compared to October, December and January (2.5%; 1/40; 27.5%; 11/40; 20%; 8/40, respectively). The results are consistent with the fact that in the Hair Sheep Breeds, the lambing appears behave seasonally. The most important finding is that the lambing period in the crossbred of Katahdin Sheep is similar to the crossbred of Hair Sheep in tropical regions of Mexico. Therefore, the period of greater sexual activity occurs in the spring season. In conclusion, the period of lambing in crossbred of Katahdin ewes appears behave seasonally. Further researches to assess the ovarian activity in different breeds of Hair Ewes are under assessment.

Keywords: Katahdin ewes, lambing, prolificacy, seasonality

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124 Prevalence of Haemo and Gastrointestinal Parasites of Small Ruminants in Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa State

Authors: Victoria Adamu Pam, Victor Ameh Adejoh, Akwashiki Ombugadu

Abstract:

The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminant has been on the increase leading to great economic and production losses with more fatal cases occurring in developing countries. This study was conducted to investigate and provide data on the prevalence and impact of haemo and gastro intestinal parasites of small ruminants in Akwanga LGA of Nasarawa State. One hundred fecal and blood samples were collected from goats and sheep. The fecal and blood samples were examined using floatation method and thin blood smear method respectively. Four gastro intestinal parasites were identified in the study, these are; Strongyloides spp, Paramphistome spp, Coccidia spp and Moniezia spp. while 2 heamo parasites were identified; Babesia spp. and Anaplasma spp. The most prevalent gastro intestinal parasite encountered was Strongyloide pp with 48(64.86%) and 48(77.42%) in sheep and goat respectively. This is followed by Paramphistome spp with 18(24.32%) in sheep only. The least prevalent was Coccidia spp with 8(10.8%) in sheep and Moniezia spp with 2 (3.23%) in goats. The most prevalent heamo parasites was Babesia spp with 10(71.43%) and 10(100.00%) in sheep and goat respectively while the least prevalent was Anaplasma spp with 4(28.57%) in sheep only. Statistically, there is no significant difference between haemo and gastrointestinal parasites of sheep and goats in the study area. (P > 0.05). The prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemo parasites in relation to sex showed that female had the highest prevalence of 50% than in the male 2.00% while In relation to age the prevalence was higher in adult 58% than in the Young 2.00%. Statistically, there is a significant difference (P < 0.05) between adult and young. The study indicates that parasitic infections are prevalent in ruminants in the study area.

Keywords: akwanga, gastrointestinal, haemo, parasites

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123 Characterisation of Pasteurella multocida from Asymptomatic Animals

Authors: Rajeev Manhas, M. A. Bhat, A. K. Taku, Dalip Singh, Deep Shikha, Gulzar Bader

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The study was aimed to understand the distribution of various serogroups of Pasteurella multocida in bovines, small ruminants, pig, rabbit, and poultry from Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir and to characterize the isolates with respect to LPS synthesizing genes, dermonecrotic toxin gene (toxA) gene and antibiotic resistance. For isolation, the nasopharyngeal swab procedure appeared to be better than nasal swab procedure, particularly in ovine and swine. Out of 200 samples from different animals, isolation of P. multocida could be achieved from pig and sheep (5 each) and from poultry and buffalo (2 each) samples only, which accounted for 14 isolates. Upon molecular serogrouping, 3 isolates from sheep and 2 isolates from poultry were found as serogroup A, 2 isolates from buffalo were confirmed as serogroup B and 5 isolates from pig were found to belong to serogroup D. However, 2 isolates from sheep could not be typed, hence, untypable. All the 14 isolates were subjected to mPCR genotyping. A total of 10 isolates, 5 each from pig and sheep, generated an amplicon specific to genotype L6 and L6 indicates Heddleston serovars 10, 11, 12 and 15. Similarly, 2 isolates from bovines generated an amplicon of genotype L2 which indicates Heddleston serovar 2/5. However, 2 isolates from poultry generated specific amplicon with L1 signifying Heddleston serovar 1, but these isolates also produced multiple bands with primer L5. Only, one isolate of capsular type A from sheep possessed the structural gene, toxA for dermonecrotoxin. There was variability in the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in sheep isolates, but overall the rate of tetracycline resistance was relatively high (64.28%) in our strains while all the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin. Except for the swine isolates and one toxigenic sheep isolate, the P. multocida isolates from this study were sensitive to quinolones. Although the level of resistance to commercial antibiotics was generally low, the use of tetracycline and erythromycin was not recommended.

Keywords: antibiogram, genotyping, Pasteurella multocida, serogrouping, toxA

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122 Serological Evidence of Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetti, Chlamydophila abortus, and Toxoplasma gondii Infections in Sheep and Goat Herds in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Nabeeha Hassan Abdel Jalil, Robert Barigye, Hamda Al Alawi, Afra Al Dhaheri, Fatma Graiban Al Muhairi, Maryam Al Khateri, Nouf Al Alalawi, Susan Olet, Khaja Mohteshamuddin, Ahmad Al Aiyan, Mohamed Elfatih Hamad

Abstract:

A serological survey was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, and Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goat herds in the UAE. A total of 915 blood samples [n= 222, [sheep]; n= 215, [goats]) were collected from livestock farms in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and Ras Al-Khaimah (RAK). An additional 478 samples (n= 244, [sheep]; n= 234, (goats]) were collected from the Al Ain livestock central market and tested by indirect ELISA for pathogen-specific antibodies with the Brucella antibodies being further corroborated by the Rose-Bengal agglutination test. Seropositivity for the four pathogens is variably documented in sheep and goats from the study area. Respectively, the overall livestock farm prevalence rates for Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii were 2.7%, 27.9%, 8.1%, and 16.7% for sheep, and 0.0%, 31.6%, 9.3%, and 5.1% for goats. Additionally, the seroprevalence rates Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii in samples from the livestock market were 7.4%, 21.7%, 16.4%, and 7.0% for sheep, and 0.9%, 32.5%, 19.2%, and 11.1% for goats respectively. Overall, sheep had 12.59 more chances than goats of testing seropositive for Brucella spp (OR, 12.59 [95% CI 2.96-53.6]) but less likely to be positive for C. burnetii-antibodies (OR, 0.73 [95% CI 0.54-0.97]). Notably, the differences in the seroprevalence rates of C. abortus and T. gondii in sheep and goats were not statistically significant (p > 0.0500). The present data indicate that all the four study pathogens are present in sheep and goat populations in the UAE where coxiellosis is apparently the most seroprevalent followed by chlamydophilosis, toxoplasmosis, and brucellosis. While sheep from the livestock market were more likely than those from farms to be Brucella-seropositive than those, the overall exposure risk of C. burnetii appears to be greater for goats than sheep. As more animals from the livestock market were more likely to be seropositive to Chlamydophila spp, it is possible that under the UAE animal production conditions, at least, coxiellosis and chlamydophilosis are more likely to increase the culling rate of domesticated small ruminants than toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. While anecdotal reports have previously insinuated that brucellosis may be a significant animal health risk in the UAE, the present data suggest C. burnetii, C. abortus and T. gondii to be more significant pathogens of sheep and goats in the country. Despite this possibility, the extent to which these pathogens may nationally be contributing to reproductive failure in sheep and goat herds is not known and needs to be investigated. Potentially, these agents may also carry a potentially zoonotic risk that needs to be investigated in risk groups like farm workers, and slaughter house personnel. An ongoing study is evaluating the seroprevalence of bovine coxiellosis in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the data thereof will further elucidate on the broader epidemiological dynamics of the disease in the national herd.

Keywords: Brucella spp, Chlamydophila abortus, goat, sheep, Toxoplasma gondii, UAE

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121 Identification of Babesia ovis Through Polymerase Chain Reaction in Sheep and Goat in District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad SAFDAR, Mehmet Ozaslan, Musarrat Abbas Khan

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Babesiosis is a haemoparasitic disease due to the multiplication of protozoan’s parasite, Babesia ovis in the red blood cells of the host, and contributes numerous economical losses, including sheep and goat ruminants. The early identification and successful treatment of Babesia Ovis spp. belong to the key steps of control and health management of livestock resources. The objective of this study was to construct a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method for the detection of Babesia spp. in small ruminants and to determine the risk factors involved in the spreading of babesiosis infections. A total of 100 blood samples were collected from 50 sheep and 50 goats along with different areas of Muzaffargarh, Pakistan, from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of sheep and goats were collected through questionnaires. Of 100 blood samples examined, 18 were positive for Babesia ovis upon microscopic studies, whereas 11 were positive for the presence of Babesia spp. by PCR assay. For the recognition of parasitic DNA, a set of 500bp oligonucleotide was designed by PCR amplification with sequence 18S rRNA gene for B. ovis. The prevalence of babesiosis in small ruminant’s sheep and goat detected by PCR was significantly higher in female animals (28%) than male herds (08%). PCR analysis of the reference samples showed that the detection limit of the PCR assay was 0.01%. Taken together, all data indicated that this PCR assay was a simple, fast, specific detection method for Babesia ovis species in small ruminants compared to other available methods.

Keywords: Babesia ovis, PCR amplification, 18S rRNA, sheep and goat

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120 Phenotypic Characterisation of Bapedi Sheep Breed

Authors: Fhulufhelo Ramukhithi, Kgothatso Masethe, Tlou Chokoe, Ayanda Maqhashu, Julius Sebei, Tshililo Raphulu, Joseph Mugwabana

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Phenotypic characterisation ensures that the physical appearance of an animal is well documented. The information provided by this phenotypic characterisation study is important for planning management and the use of animal genetic resources. The aim of this study was to characterise the phenotypic characteristics of Bapedi sheep. Bapedi sheep are at risk of extinction like most of the indigenous breeds. As a result, a total of 196 Bapedi ewes and 35 rams were used. Phenotypic-qualitative characteristics were evaluated through visual appraisal. Phenotypic-quantitative characteristics such as body parts measurements were obtained using a flexible tape (cm), while body weight were obtained by using a weighing scale (kg). Bapedi rams (97 %) had higher satisfactory body condition when compared to ewes (75 %). A higher proportion of Bapedi sheep that did not have ticks observed (ewes = 87 % and rams = 91 %). Brown and white colour combination (head x body) was dominating in Bapedi sheep (80 % ewes and 91 % rams). Bapedi ewes did not have any horns; however, 3 % of rams had them. Bapedi sheep had a higher proportion of brown eyes, moderate neck, stiff sideways ears and normal front legs. Bapedi rams had a higher proportion of well-balanced and good attached testicles. Bapedi ewes had average (45 %), small (40 %) and big udders (15 %). Bapedi rams had a significantly higher body weight, height, depth, hearth girth circumference, rump width, hind leg width and length compared to ewes. However, both Bapedi rams and ewes had similar age, body condition score, tail length, length below hock and knee. In conclusion, Bapedi sheep had a higher satisfactory body condition and brown and white colour combination. Some of Bapedi rams’ quantitative characteristics were higher compared to ewes.

Keywords: extinction, indigenous, phenotypic, smallstock

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