Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6330

Search results for: sandwich composite material

6330 Experimental Study of Various Sandwich Composites

Authors: R. Naveen, E. Vanitha, S. Gayathri


The use of Sandwich composite materials in aerospace and civil infrastructure application has been increasing especially due to their enormously low weight that leads to a reduction in the total weight and fuel consumption, high flexural and transverse shear stiffness, and corrosion resistance. The essential properties of sandwich materials vary according to the application area of the structure. The objectives of this study are to identify the mechanical behaviour and failure mechanisms of sandwich structures made of bamboo, V- board and metal (Aluminium as face sheet and Foam as Core material). The three-point bending test and UTM (Universal testing machine) experimental tests are done for three specimens for each type of sandwich composites. From the experiment results of three sandwich composites, bamboo shows high Young’s modulus of elasticity and low density.

Keywords: bamboo sandwich composite, metal sandwich composite, sandwich composite, v-board sandwich composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
6329 Effect of Upper Face Sheet Material on Flexural Strength of Polyurethane Foam Hybrid Sandwich Material

Authors: M. Atef Gabr, M. H. Abdel Latif, Ramadan El Gamsy


Sandwich panels comprise a thick, light-weight plastic foam such as polyurethane (PU) sandwiched between two relatively thin faces. One or both faces may be flat, lightly profiled or fully profiled. Until recently sandwich panel construction in Egypt has been widely used in cold-storage buildings, cold trucks, prefabricated buildings and insulation in construction. Recently new techniques are used in mass production of Sandwich Materials such as Reaction Injection Molding (RIM) and Vacuum bagging technique. However, in recent times their use has increased significantly due to their widespread structural applications in building systems. Structural sandwich panels generally used in Egypt comprise polyurethane foam core and thinner (0.42 mm) and high strength about 550 MPa (yield strength) flat steel faces bonded together using separate adhesives and By RIM technique. In this paper, we will use a new technique in sandwich panel preparation by using different face sheet materials in combination with polyurethane foam to form sandwich panel structures. Previously, PU Foam core with same thin 2 faces material was used, but in this work, we use different face materials and thicknesses for the upper face sheet such as Galvanized steel sheets (G.S),Aluminum sheets (Al),Fiberglass sheets (F.G) and Aluminum-Rubber composite sheets (Al/R) with polyurethane foam core 10 mm thickness and 45 Kg/m3 Density and Galvanized steel as lower face sheet. Using Aluminum-Rubber composite sheets as face sheet is considered a hybrid composite sandwich panel which is built by Hand-Layup technique by using PU glue as adhesive. This modification increases the benefits of the face sheet that will withstand different working environments with relatively small increase in its weight and will be useful in several applications. In this work, a 3-point bending test is used assistant professor to measure the most important factor in sandwich materials that is strength to weight ratio(STW) for different combinations of sandwich structures and make a comparison to study the effect of changing the face sheet material on the mechanical behavior of PU sandwich material. Also, the density of the different prepared sandwich materials will be measured to obtain the specific bending strength.

Keywords: hybrid sandwich panel, mechanical behavior, PU foam, sandwich panel, 3-point bending, flexural strength

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6328 Static Characterization of a Bio-Based Sandwich in a Humid Environment

Authors: Zeineb Kesentini, Abderrahim El Mahi, Jean Luc Rebiere, Rachid El Guerjouma, Moez Beyaoui, Mohamed Haddar


Industries’ attention has been drawn to green and sustainable materials as a result of the present energy deficit and environmental damage. Sandwiches formed of auxetic structures made up of periodic cells are also being investigated by industry. Several tests have emphasized the exceptional properties of these materials. In this study, the sandwich's core is a one-cell auxetic core. Among plant fibers, flax fibers are chosen because of their good mechanical properties comparable to those of glass fibers. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA), as a green material, is available from starch, and its production process requires fewer fossil resources than petroleum-based plastics. A polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with flax fiber filament was employed in this study. The manufacturing process used to manufacture the test specimens is 3D printing. The major drawback of a 100% bio-based material is its low resistance to moisture absorption. In this study, a sandwich based on PLA / flax with an auxetic core is characterized statically for different period of immersion in water. Bending tests are carried out on the composite sandwich for three immersion time. Results are compared to those of non immersed specimens. It is found that non aged sandwich has the ultimate bending stiffness.

Keywords: auxetic, bending tests, biobased composite, sandwich structure, 3D printing

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6327 Flexural Test of Diversing Foam Core Sandwich Composites

Authors: Santhana Krishnan R, Preetha C


Sandwich construction with strong and stiffness facing and light weight cores is increasingly cores being used in structures where the predominant loads are flexural. The objective of this study is to improve the flexural performances of foam core sandwich composite via structural core modifications considering the ease of application. The performances of single core perforated and divided core perforated sandwich composites are compared with each other. The future demands of sandwich composites in recent years on aeronautics and marine industries are being increasing in their research needs and these materials has their superior properties for upgrading engineering products.

Keywords: sandwich composites, perforated cores, flexural test, single and divided core perforated

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6326 Crack Propagation Effect at the Interface of a Composite Beam

Authors: Mezidi Amar


In this research work, crack propagation at the interface of a composite beam is considered. The behavior of composite beams (CB) depends upon a law based on relationship between tangential or normal efforts with inelastic propagation. Throughout this study, composite beams are classified like composite beams with partial connection or sandwich beams of three layers. These structural systems are controlled by the same nature of differential equations regarding their behavior in the plane, as well as out-of-plane. Multi-layer elements with partial connection are typically met in the field of timber construction where the elements are assembled by joining. The formalism of the behavior in the plane and out-of-plane of these composite beams is obtained and their results concerning the engineering aspect or simple of interpretation are proposed for the case of composite beams made up of rectangular section and simply supported section. An apparent analytical peculiarity or paradox in the bending behavior of elastic–composite beams with interlayer slip, sandwich beam or other similar problems subjected to boundary moments exists. For a fully composite beam subjected to end moments, the partial composite model will render a non-vanishing uniform value for the normal force in the individual subelement. Obtained results are similar to those for the case of vibrations in the plane as well for the composite beams as for the sandwich beams where eigen-frequencies increase with related rigidity.

Keywords: composite beam, behaviour, interface, deflection, propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
6325 Hexagonal Honeycomb Sandwich Plate Optimization Using Gravitational Search Algorithm

Authors: A. Boudjemai, A. Zafrane, R. Hocine


Honeycomb sandwich panels are increasingly used in the construction of space vehicles because of their outstanding strength, stiffness and light weight properties. However, the use of honeycomb sandwich plates comes with difficulties in the design process as a result of the large number of design variables involved, including composite material design, shape and geometry. Hence, this work deals with the presentation of an optimal design of hexagonal honeycomb sandwich structures subjected to space environment. The optimization process is performed using a set of algorithms including the gravitational search algorithm (GSA). Numerical results are obtained and presented for a set of algorithms. The results obtained by the GSA algorithm are much better compared to other algorithms used in this study.

Keywords: optimization, gravitational search algorithm, genetic algorithm, honeycomb plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
6324 Numerical Study for Compressive Strength of Basalt Composite Sandwich Infill Panel

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Jung Kyu Choi, Yong Ju Kwak, Oh Hyeon Jeon, Woo Young Jung


In this study, we investigated the buckling performance of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panels. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material of frame structure, a basic Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) infill wall system consists of two FRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. Furthermore, this type of component is for retrofitting and strengthening frame structure to withstand the seismic disaster. In-plane compression was considered in the numerical analysis with ABAQUS platform to determine the buckling failure load of BFRP infill panel system. The present result shows that the sandwich BFRP infill panel system has higher resistance to buckling failure than those of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) infill panel system, i.e. 16% increase in buckling resistance capacity.

Keywords: Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP), buckling performance, FEM analysis, sandwich infill panel

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6323 Sandwich Structure Composites: Effect of Kenaf on Mechanical Properties

Authors: Maizatulnisa Othman, Mohamad Bukhari, Zahurin Halim, Souad A. Muhammad, Khalisani Khalid


Sandwich structure composites produced by epoxy core and aluminium skin were developed as potential building materials. Interface bonding between core and skin was controlled by varying kenaf content. Five different weight percentage of kenaf loading ranging from 10 wt% to 50 wt% were employed in the core manufacturing in order to study the mechanical properties of the sandwich composite. Properties of skin aluminium with epoxy were found to be affected by drying time of the adhesive. Mechanical behavior of manufactured sandwich composites in relation with properties of constituent materials was studied. It was found that 30 wt% of kenaf loading contributed to increase the flexural strength and flexural modulus up to 102 MPa and 32 Gpa, respectively. Analysis were done on the flatwise and edgewise compression test. For flatwise test, it was found that 30 wt% of fiber loading could withstand maximum force until 250 kN, with compressive strength results at 96.94 MPa. However, at edgewise compression test, the sandwich composite with same fiber loading only can withstand 31 kN of the maximum load with 62 MPa of compressive strength results.

Keywords: sandwich structure composite, epoxy, aluminium, kenaf fiber

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6322 [Keynote Talk]: Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Functionally Graded Radiation Shielding Nanoengineered Sandwich Composites

Authors: Nasim Abuali Galehdari, Thomas J. Ryan, Ajit D. Kelkar


In recent years, nanotechnology has played an important role in the design of an efficient radiation shielding polymeric composites. It is well known that, high loading of nanomaterials with radiation absorption properties can enhance the radiation attenuation efficiency of shielding structures. However, due to difficulties in dispersion of nanomaterials into polymer matrices, there has been a limitation in higher loading percentages of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to provide a methodology to fabricate and then to characterize the functionally graded radiation shielding structures, which can provide an efficient radiation absorption property along with good structural integrity. Sandwich structures composed of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric as face sheets and functionally graded epoxy nanocomposite as core material were fabricated. A method to fabricate a functionally graded core panel with controllable gradient dispersion of nanoparticles is discussed. In order to optimize the design of functionally graded sandwich composites and to analyze the stress distribution throughout the sandwich composite thickness, a finite element method was used. The sandwich panels were discretized using 3-Dimensional 8 nodded brick elements. Classical laminate analysis in conjunction with simplified micromechanics equations were used to obtain the properties of the face sheets. The presented finite element model would provide insight into deformation and damage mechanics of the functionally graded sandwich composites from the structural point of view.

Keywords: nanotechnology, functionally graded material, radiation shielding, sandwich composites, finite element method

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6321 Experimental Investigation on the Fire Performance of Corrugated Sandwich Panels made from Renewable Material

Authors: Avishek Chanda, Nam Kyeun Kim, Debes Bhattacharyya


The use of renewable substitutes in various semi-structural and structural applications has experienced an increase since the last few decades. Sandwich panels have been used for many decades, although research on understanding the effects of the core structures on the panels’ fire-reaction properties is limited. The current work investigates the fire-performance of a corrugated sandwich panel made from renewable, biodegradable, and sustainable material, plywood. The bench-scale fire testing apparatus, cone-calorimeter, was employed to evaluate the required fire-reaction properties of the sandwich core in a panel configuration, with three corrugated layers glued together with face-sheets under a heat irradiance of 50 kW/m2. The study helped in documenting a unique heat release trend associated with the fire performance of the 3-layered corrugated sandwich panels and in understanding the structural stability of the samples in the event of a fire. Furthermore, the total peak heat release rate was observed to be around 421 kW/m2, which is significantly low compared to many polymeric materials in the literature. The total smoke production was also perceived to be very limited compared to other structural materials, and the total heat release was also nominal. The time to ignition of 21.7 s further outlined the advantages of using the plywood component since polymeric composites, even with flame-retardant additives, tend to ignite faster. Overall, the corrugated plywood sandwich panels had significant fire-reaction properties and could have important structural applications. The possible use of structural panels made from bio-degradable material opens a new avenue for the use of similar structures in sandwich panel preparation.

Keywords: corrugated sandwich panel, fire-reaction properties, plywood, renewable material

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6320 The Free Vibration Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Beam using 3D and Continuum Model

Authors: Gürkan Şakar, Fevzi Çakmak Bolat


In this study free vibration analysis of aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures were carried out experimentally and numerically. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of sandwich structures fabricated with different configurations for clamped-free boundary condition were determined. The effects of lower and upper face sheet thickness, the core material thickness, cell diameter, cell angle and foil thickness on the vibration characteristics were examined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS package. While the sandwich structures were modeled in ANSYS the continuum model was used. Later, the numerical results were compared with the experimental findings.

Keywords: sandwich structure, free vibration, numeric analysis, 3D model, continuum model

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
6319 Influence of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube on Interface Fracture of Sandwich Composite

Authors: Alak Kumar Patra, Nilanjan Mitra


Interface fracture toughness of glass-epoxy (G/E) PVC core sandwich composite with and without MWCNT has been investigated through experimental methods. Results demonstrate an improvement in interface fracture toughness values (GC) of samples with a certain percentages of MWCNT. In addition, dispersion of MWCNT in epoxy resin through sonication followed by mixing of hardener and vacuum assisted resin transfer method (VARTM) used in this study is an easy and cost effective methodology in comparison to previously adopted other methods limited to laminated composites. The study also identifies the optimum weight percentage of MWCNT addition in the resin system for maximum performance gain in interfacial fracture toughness. The results are supported by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis and fracture micrograph of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) investigation.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, foam, glass-epoxy, interfacial fracture, sandwich composite

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6318 Geometric Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Cylindrical Composite Sandwich Shells Subjected to Underwater Blast Load

Authors: Mustafa Taskin, Ozgur Demir, M. Mert Serveren


The precise study of the impact of underwater explosions on structures is of great importance in the design and engineering calculations of floating structures, especially those used for military purposes, as well as power generation facilities such as offshore platforms that can become a target in case of war. Considering that ship and submarine structures are mostly curved surfaces, it is extremely important and interesting to examine the destructive effects of underwater explosions on curvilinear surfaces. In this study, geometric nonlinear dynamic analysis of cylindrical composite sandwich shells subjected to instantaneous pressure load is performed. The instantaneous pressure load is defined as an underwater explosion and the effects of the liquid medium are taken into account. There are equations in the literature for pressure due to underwater explosions, but these equations have been obtained for flat plates. For this reason, the instantaneous pressure load equations are arranged to be suitable for curvilinear structures before proceeding with the analyses. Fluid-solid interaction is defined by using Taylor's Plate Theory. The lower and upper layers of the cylindrical composite sandwich shell are modeled as composite laminate and the middle layer consists of soft core. The geometric nonlinear dynamic equations of the shell are obtained by Hamilton's principle, taken into account the von Kàrmàn theory of large displacements. Then, time dependent geometric nonlinear equations of motion are solved with the help of generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM) and dynamic behavior of cylindrical composite sandwich shells exposed to underwater explosion is investigated. An algorithm that can work parametrically for the solution has been developed within the scope of the study.

Keywords: cylindrical composite sandwich shells, generalized differential quadrature method, geometric nonlinear dynamic analysis, underwater explosion

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6317 Optimization of FGM Sandwich Beams Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Authors: Saeed Kamarian, Mahmoud Shakeri


Sandwich structures are used in a variety of engineering applications including aircraft, construction and transportation where strong, stiff and light structures are required. In this paper, frequency maximization of Functionally Graded Sandwich (FGS) beams resting on Pasternak foundations is investigated. A generalized power-law distribution with four parameters is considered for material distribution through the thicknesses of face layers. Since the search space is large, the optimization processes becomes so complicated and too much time consuming. Thus a novel meta–heuristic called Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) which is a socio-politically motivated global search strategy is implemented to improve the speed of optimization process. Results show the success of applying ICA for engineering problems especially for design optimization of FGM sandwich beams.

Keywords: sandwich beam, functionally graded materials, optimization, imperialist competitive algorithm

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6316 Numerical Study of Elastic Performances of Sandwich Beam with Carbon-Fibre Reinforced Skins

Authors: Soukaina Ounss, Hamid Mounir, Abdellatif El Marjani


Sandwich materials with composite reinforced skins are mostly required in advanced construction applications with a view to ensure resistant structures. Their lightweight, their high flexural stiffness and their optimal thermal insulation make them a suitable solution to obtain efficient structures with performing rigidity and optimal energy safety. In this paper, the mechanical behavior of a sandwich beam with composite skins reinforced by unidirectional carbon fibers is investigated numerically through analyzing the impact of reinforcements specifications on the longitudinal elastic modulus in order to select the adequate sandwich configuration that has an interesting rigidity and an accurate convergence to the analytical approach which is proposed to verify performed numerical simulations. Therefore, concerned study starts by testing flexion performances of skins with various fibers orientations and volume fractions to determine those to use in sandwich beam. For that, the combination of a reinforcement inclination of 30° and a volume ratio of 60% is selected with the one with 60° of fibers orientation and 40% of volume fraction, this last guarantees to chosen skins an important rigidity with an optimal fibers concentration and a great enhance in convergence to analytical results in the sandwich model for the reason of the crucial core role as transverse shear absorber. Thus, a resistant sandwich beam is elaborated from a face-sheet constituted from two layers of previous skins with fibers oriented in 60° and an epoxy core; concerned beam has a longitudinal elastic modulus of 54 Gpa (gigapascal) that equals to the analytical value by a negligible error of 2%.

Keywords: fibers orientation, fibers volume ratio, longitudinal elastic modulus, sandwich beam

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6315 Pedestrian Safe Bumper Design from Commingled Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Reinforced Sandwich Composites

Authors: L. Onal


The aim of this study is to optimize manufacturing process for thermoplastic sandwich composite structures for the pedestrian safety of automobiles subjected to collision condition. In particular, cost-effective manufacturing techniques for sandwich structures with commingled GF/PP skins and low-density foam cores are being investigated. The performance of these structures under bending load is being studied. Samples are manufactured using compression moulding technique. The relationship of this performance to processing parameters such as mould temperature, moulding time, moulding pressure and sequence of the layers during moulding is being investigated. The results of bending tests are discussed in the light of the moulding conditions and conclusions are given regarding optimum set of processing conditions using the compression moulding route

Keywords: twintex, flexural properties, automobile composites, sandwich structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
6314 Flexural Response of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Sandwich Panels with 3D Woven Honeycomb Core

Authors: Elif Kalkanli, Constantinos Soutis


The use of textile preform in the advanced fields including aerospace, automotive and marine has exponentially grown in recent years. These preforms offer excellent advantages such as being lightweight and low-cost, and also, their suitability for creating different fiber architectures with different materials whilst improved mechanical properties in certain aspects. In this study, a novel honeycomb core is developed by a 3Dweaving process. The assembly of the layers is achieved thanks to innovative weaving design. Polyester yarn is selected for the 3D woven honeycomb core (3DWHC). The core is used to manufacture a sandwich panel with 2x2 twill glass fiber composite face sheets. These 3DWHC sandwich panels will be tested in three-point bending. The in-plane and out-of-plane (through-the-thickness) mechanical response of the core will be examined as a function of cell size in addition to the flexural response of the sandwich panel. The failure mechanisms of the core and the sandwich skins will be reported in addition to flexural strength and stiffness. Possible engineering applications will be identified.

Keywords: 3D woven, assembly, failure modes, honeycomb sandwich panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
6313 Influence of Single and Multiple Skin-Core Debonding on Free Vibration Characteristics of Innovative GFRP Sandwich Panels

Authors: Indunil Jayatilake, Warna Karunasena, Weena Lokuge


An Australian manufacturer has fabricated an innovative GFRP sandwich panel made from E-glass fiber skin and a modified phenolic core for structural applications. Debonding, which refers to separation of skin from the core material in composite sandwiches, is one of the most common types of damage in composites. The presence of debonding is of great concern because it not only severely affects the stiffness but also modifies the dynamic behaviour of the structure. Generally, it is seen that the majority of research carried out has been concerned about the delamination of laminated structures whereas skin-core debonding has received relatively minor attention. Furthermore, it is observed that research done on composite slabs having multiple skin-core debonding is very limited. To address this gap, a comprehensive research investigating dynamic behaviour of composite panels with single and multiple debonding is presented. The study uses finite-element modelling and analyses for investigating the influence of debonding on free vibration behaviour of single and multilayer composite sandwich panels. A broad parametric investigation has been carried out by varying debonding locations, debonding sizes and support conditions of the panels in view of both single and multiple debonding. Numerical models were developed with Strand7 finite element package by innovatively selecting the suitable elements to diligently represent their actual behavior. Three-dimensional finite element models were employed to simulate the physically real situation as close as possible, with the use of an experimentally and numerically validated finite element model. Comparative results and conclusions based on the analyses are presented. For similar extents and locations of debonding, the effect of debonding on natural frequencies appears greatly dependent on the end conditions of the panel, giving greater decrease in natural frequency when the panels are more restrained. Some modes are more sensitive to debonding and this sensitivity seems to be related to their vibration mode shapes. The fundamental mode seems generally the least sensitive mode to debonding with respect to the variation in free vibration characteristics. The results indicate the effectiveness of the developed three-dimensional finite element models in assessing debonding damage in composite sandwich panels

Keywords: debonding, free vibration behaviour, GFRP sandwich panels, three dimensional finite element modelling

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6312 Structural Identification for Layered Composite Structures through a Wave and Finite Element Methodology

Authors: Rilwan Kayode Apalowo, Dimitrios Chronopoulos


An approach for identifying the geometric and material characteristics of layered composite structures through an inverse wave and finite element methodology is proposed. These characteristics are obtained through multi-frequency single shot measurements. However, it is established that the frequency regime of the measurements does not matter, meaning that both ultrasonic and structural dynamics frequency spectra can be employed. Taking advantage of a full FE (finite elements) description of the periodic composite, the scheme is able to account for arbitrarily complex structures. In order to demonstrate the robustness of the presented scheme, it is applied to a sandwich composite panel and results are compared with that of experimental characterization techniques. Excellent agreement is obtained with the experimental measurements.

Keywords: structural identification, non-destructive evaluation, finite elements, wave propagation, layered structures, ultrasound

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6311 Free Vibration Analysis of Symmetric Sandwich Beams

Authors: Ibnorachid Zakaria, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali, Farah Abdoun


The aim of the present work is to study the linear free symmetric vibration of three-layer sandwich beam using the energy method. The zigzag model is used to describe the displacement field. The theoretical model is based on the top and bottom layers behave like Euler-Bernoulli beams while the core layer like a Timoshenko beam. Based on Hamilton’s principle, the governing equation of motion sandwich beam is obtained in order to calculate the linear frequency parameters for a clamped-clamped and simple supported-simple-supported beams. The effects of material properties and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies are also investigated.

Keywords: linear vibration, sandwich, shear deformation, Timoshenko zig-zag model

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6310 Geometrically Linear Symmetric Free Vibration Analysis of Sandwich Beam

Authors: Ibnorachid Zakaria, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali, Farah Abdoun


The aim of the present work is to study the linear free symmetric vibration of three-layer sandwich beam using the energy method. The zigzag model is used to describe the displacement field. The theoretical model is based on the top and bottom layers behave like Euler-Bernoulli beams while the core layer like a Timoshenko beam. Based on Hamilton’s principle, the governing equation of motion sandwich beam is obtained in order to calculate the linear frequency parameters for a clamped-clamped and simple supported-simple-supported beams. The effects of material properties and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies are also investigated.

Keywords: linear vibration, sandwich, shear deformation, Timoshenko zig-zag model

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6309 Static Relaxation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Pipes

Authors: Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Mohamed K. Hassan, A. F. Mohamed, Shadi M. Munshi, A. M. Hashem


Pips made from glass fiber reinforced polymer has competitive role in petroleum industry. The need of evaluating the mechanical behavior of (GRP) pipes is essential objects. Stress relaxation illustrates how polymers relieve stress under constant strain. Static relaxation test is carried out at room temperature. The material gives poor static relaxation strength, two loading cycles have been observed for the tested specimen.

Keywords: GRP, sandwich composite material, static relaxation, stress relief

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6308 The Mechanical Behavior of a Cement-Fiber Composite Material

Authors: K. Harrat, M. Hidjeb, M. T’kint


The aim of the present research work is to characterize a cement palm date fiber composite in order to be used in isolation and in the manufacture of new structural materials. This technique may possibly participate seriously in the preservation of the environment and develop a growing need for plant products. On one hand, It has been shown that the presence of natural fiber in the composite materials manufacture, based on hydraulic binder, has improved the mechanical behaviour of the material. On the Other hand, It has been proven that the durability of composite materials reinforced with untreated fibers was largely affected by the presence of organic matter. In order to extract the organic material, the fibers were treated with boiling water and then coated with different types of products. A considerable improvement in the sensitivity to water of the fibers, as well as in the mechanical strength and in the ductility of the composite material was observed. The fiber being sensitive to water, the study put the emphasis on its dimensional stability.

Keywords: cement composite, durability, heat treatment, mechanical behaviour, vegetal fiber

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6307 Local Buckling of Web-Core and Foam-Core Sandwich Panels

Authors: Ali N. Suri, Ahmad A. Al-Makhlufi


Sandwich construction is widely accepted as a method of construction especially in the aircraft industry. It is a type of stressed skin construction formed by bonding two thin faces to a thick core, the faces resist all of the applied edge loads and provide all or nearly all of the required rigidities, the core spaces the faces to increase cross section moment of inertia about common neutral axis and transmit shear between them provides a perfect bond between core and faces is made. Material for face sheets can be of metal or reinforced plastics laminates, core material can be metallic cores of thin sheets forming corrugation or honeycomb, or non-metallic core of Balsa wood, plastic foams, or honeycomb made of reinforced plastics. For in plane axial loading web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels can fail by local buckling of plates forming the cross section with buckling wave length of the order of length of spacing between webs. In this study local buckling of web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels is carried out for given materials of facing and core, and given panel overall dimension for different combinations of cross section geometries. The Finite Strip Method is used for the analysis, and Fortran based computer program is developed and used.

Keywords: local buckling, finite strip, sandwich panels, web and foam core

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6306 Characterization of Carbon/Polyamide 6,6 (C/PA66) Composite Material for Dry and Wet Conditions

Authors: Tariq Bashir, Muhammad Waseem Tahir, Ulf Stigh, Behnaz Baghaie, Mikael Skrifvars


Absorption of moisture may cause many problems in a composite material, such as delamination, degradation of the strength and increase in the weight. For small coupons, the increase in weight may be negligible, however, for large structures increase in weight due to moisture absorption may be quite significant. Polyamides (PA6, PA66) absorb more moisture as compared to other thermoplastics. There are many parameters which affect the moisture absorption of the composite material for example temperature, pressure, type of matrix and fibers, thickness of the material and relative humidity (RH) etc. So, it is utmost important to investigate the impact of moisture on PA66 based composites which can be done by characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials both for dry and wet conditions. In this study, laminates of C/PA66 composite are manufactured by first heating the commingled material in conventional oven at a temperature of 220 °C followed by pressing in a manual hot press for 20 minutes with preheated platen at 220 °C. To observe the moisture absorption of the composite, coupons of the material were placed in a climate chamber at five different conditions 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% RH for 24 hours. Five specimens were used for each condition. These coupons were weighed before placing in the climate chamber and just after removing from the chamber to observe the moisture absorption of the material. The mechanical characterization such as tensile strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and DMTA of C/PA66 material are performed at 0, 50 and 100 % RH. The work is going on for the testing of the material and results will be presented in full paper.

Keywords: Carbon/Polyamide 66 composites, structural composites, mechanical characterizations, wet and dry conditions

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6305 Preparation of Water Hyacinth and Oil Palm Fiber for Plastic Waste Composite

Authors: Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumon Soparatana, Nestchanok Yongpraderm, Atiporn Jinpayoon, Supinya Sutthima, Saroj Klangkongsub, Worapong Pattayawan


This research aims to utilize the agricultural waste and plastic waste in Thailand in a study of the optimum conditions for preparing composite materials from water hyacinth and oil palm fiber and plastic waste in landfills. The water hyacinth and oil palm fiber were prepared by alkaline treatment with NaOH (5, 15 wt%) at 25-60 °C for 1 h. The treated fiber (5 and 10 phr) was applied to plastic waste composite. The composite was prepared by using a screw extrusion process from 185 °C to 200 °C with a screw speed of 60 rpm. The result confirmed that alkaline treatment can remove lignin, hemicellulose and other impurities on the fiber surface and also increase the cellulose content. The optimum condition of composite material is 10 phr of fiber coupling with 3 wt% PE-g-MA as compatibilizer. The composite of plastic waste and oil palm fiber has good adhesion between fiber and plastic matrix. The PE-g-MA has improved fiber-plastic interaction. The results suggested that the composite material from plastic waste and agricultural waste has the potential to be used as value-added products.

Keywords: agricultural waste, waste utilization, biomaterials, cellulose fiber, composite material

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6304 The Effect of Honeycomb Core Thickness on the Repeated Low-Velocity Impact Behavior of Sandwich Beams

Authors: S. H. Abo Sabah, A. B. H. Kueh, M. A. Megat Johari, T. A. Majid


In a recent study, a new bio-inspired honeycomb sandwich beam (BHSB) mimicking the head configuration of the woodpecker was developed. The beam consists of two carbon/epoxy composite face sheets, aluminum honeycomb core, and rubber core to enhance the repeated low-velocity impact resistance of sandwich structures. This paper aims to numerically enhance the repeated low-velocity impact resistance of the BHSB via optimizing the aluminum honeycomb core thickness. The beam was investigated employing three core thicknesses: 20 mm, 25 mm, and 30 mm at three impact energy levels (13.5 J, 15.55 J, 21.43 J). The results revealed that increasing the thickness of the aluminum honeycomb core to a certain level enhances the sandwich beam stiffness. The beam with the 25 mm honeycomb core thickness was the only beam that can sustain five repeated impacts achieving the highest impact resistance efficiency index, especially at high energy levels. Furthermore, the bottom face sheet of this beam developed the lowest stresses indicating that this thickness has a relatively better performance during impact events since it allowed minimal stress to reach the bottom face sheet. Overall, increasing the aluminum core thickness will increase the height of its cells subjecting it to buckling phenomenon. Therefore, this study suggests that the optimal thickness of the aluminum honeycomb core should be 65 % of the overall thickness of the sandwich beam to have the best impact resistance.

Keywords: sandwich beams, core thickness, impact behavior, finite element analysis, modeling

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6303 Comparison of Homogeneous and Micro-Mechanical Modelling Approach for Paper Honeycomb Materials

Authors: Yiğit Gürler, Berkay Türkcan İmrağ, Taylan Güçkıran, İbrahim Şimşek, Alper Taşdemirci


Paper honeycombs, which is a sandwich structure, consists of two liner faces and one paper honeycomb core. These materials are widely used in the packaging industry due to their low cost, low weight, good energy absorption capabilities and easy recycling properties. However, to provide maximum protection to the products in cases such as the drop of the packaged products, the mechanical behavior of these materials should be well known at the packaging design stage. In this study, the necessary input parameters for the modeling study were obtained by performing compression tests in the through-thickness and in-plane directions of paper-based honeycomb sandwich structures. With the obtained parameters, homogeneous and micro-mechanical numerical models were developed in the Ls-Dyna environment. The material card used for the homogeneous model is MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB, and the material card used for the micromechanical model is MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY. As a result, the effectiveness of homogeneous and micromechanical modeling approaches for paper-based honeycomb sandwich structure was investigated using force-displacement curves. Densification points and peak points on these curves will be compared.

Keywords: environmental packaging, mechanical characterization, Ls-Dyna, sandwich structure

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6302 Development and Characterization of Sandwich Bio-Composites Based on Short Alfa Fiber and Jute Fabric

Authors: Amine Rezzoug, Selsabil Rokia Laraba, Mourad Ancer, Said Abdi


Composite materials are taking center stage in different fields thanks to their mechanical characteristics and their ease of preparation. Environmental constraints have led to the development of composite with natural reinforcements. The sandwich structure has the advantage to have good flexural proprieties for low density, which is why it was chosen in this work. The development of these materials is related to an energy saving strategy and environmental protection. The present work refers to the study of the development and characterization of sandwiches composites based on hybrids laminates with natural reinforcements (Alfa and Jute), a metal fabric was introduced into composite in order to have a compromise between weight and properties. We use different configurations of reinforcements (jute, metallic fabric) to develop laminates in order to use them as thin facings for sandwiches materials. While the core was an epoxy matrix reinforced with Alfa short fibers, a chemical treatment sodium hydroxide was cared to improve the adhesion of the Alfa fibers. The mechanical characterization of our materials was made by the tensile and bending test, to highlight the influence of jute and Alfa. After testing, the fracture surfaces are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical microscopy allowed us to calculate the degree of porosity and to observe the morphology of the individual layers. Laminates based on jute fabric have shown better results in tensile test as well as to bending, compared to those of the metallic fabric (100%, 65%). Sandwich Panels were also characterized in terms of bending test. Results we had provide, shows that this composite has sufficient properties for possible replacing conventional composite materials by considering the environmental factors.

Keywords: bending test, bio-composites, sandwiches, tensile test

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6301 Optimal Design of Composite Cylindrical Shell Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Haider M. Alsaeq


The present research is an attempt to figure out the best configuration of composite cylindrical shells of the sandwich type, i.e. the lightest design of such shells required to sustain a certain load over a certain area. The optimization is based on elastic-plastic geometrically nonlinear incremental-iterative finite element analysis. The nine-node degenerated curved shell element is used in which five degrees of freedom are specified at each nodal point, with a layered model. The formulation of the geometrical nonlinearity problem is carried out using the well-known total Lagrangian principle. For the structural optimization problem, which is dealt with as a constrained nonlinear optimization, the so-called Modified Hooke and Jeeves method is employed by considering the weight of the shell as the objective function with stress and geometrical constraints. It was concluded that the optimum design of composite sandwich cylindrical shell that have a rigid polyurethane foam core and steel facing occurs when the area covered by the shell becomes almost square with a ratio of core thickness to facing thickness lies between 45 and 49, while the optimum height to length ration varies from 0.03 to 0.08 depending on the aspect ratio of the shell and its boundary conditions.

Keywords: composite structure, cylindrical shell, optimization, non-linear analysis, finite element

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