Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 77

Search results for: electromyography

77 Computational Tool for Surface Electromyography Analysis; an Easy Way for Non-Engineers

Authors: Fabiano Araujo Soares, Sauro Emerick Salomoni, Joao Paulo Lima da Silva, Igor Luiz Moura, Adson Ferreira da Rocha


This paper presents a tool developed in the Matlab platform. It was developed to simplify the analysis of surface electromyography signals (S-EMG) in a way accessible to users that are not familiarized with signal processing procedures. The tool receives data by commands in window fields and generates results as graphics and excel tables. The underlying math of each S-EMG estimator is presented. Setup window and result graphics are presented. The tool was presented to four non-engineer users and all of them managed to appropriately use it after a 5 minutes instruction period.

Keywords: S-EMG estimators, electromyography, surface electromyography, ARV, RMS, MDF, MNF, CV

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
76 Development of Electromyography (EMG) Signal Acquisition System by Simple Electronic Circuits

Authors: Divya Pradip Roy, Md. Zahirul Alam Chowdhury


Electromyography (EMG) sensors are generally used to record the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. The conventional EMG sensors available in the market are expensive. This research suggests a low cost EMG sensor design which can be built with simple devices within our reach. In this research, one instrumentation amplifier, two high pass filters, two low pass filters and an inverting amplifier is connected sequentially. The output from the circuit exhibits electrical potential generated by the muscle cells when they are neurologically activated. This electromyography signal is used to control prosthetic devices, identifying neuromuscular diseases and for various other purposes.

Keywords: EMG, high pass filter, instrumentation amplifier, inverting amplifier, low pass filter, neuromuscular

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
75 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A. Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

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74 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
73 Tensor Deep Stacking Neural Networks and Bilinear Mapping Based Speech Emotion Classification Using Facial Electromyography

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Yang Yung, Wenli Hu


Speech emotion classification is a dominant research field in finding a sturdy and profligate classifier appropriate for different real-life applications. This effort accentuates on classifying different emotions from speech signal quarried from the features related to pitch, formants, energy contours, jitter, shimmer, spectral, perceptual and temporal features. Tensor deep stacking neural networks were supported to examine the factors that influence the classification success rate. Facial electromyography signals were composed of several forms of focuses in a controlled atmosphere by means of audio-visual stimuli. Proficient facial electromyography signals were pre-processed using moving average filter, and a set of arithmetical features were excavated. Extracted features were mapped into consistent emotions using bilinear mapping. With facial electromyography signals, a database comprising diverse emotions will be exposed with a suitable fine-tuning of features and training data. A success rate of 92% can be attained deprived of increasing the system connivance and the computation time for sorting diverse emotional states.

Keywords: speech emotion classification, tensor deep stacking neural networks, facial electromyography, bilinear mapping, audio-visual stimuli

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
72 Relation of Electromyography, Strength and Fatigue During Ramp Isometric Contractions

Authors: Cesar Ferreira Amorim, Tamotsu Hirata, Runer Augusto Marson


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of strength ramp isometric contraction on changes in surface electromyography (sEMG) signal characteristics of the hamstrings muscles. All measurements were obtained from 20 healthy well trained healthy adults (age 19.5 ± 0.8 yrs, body mass 63.4 ± 1.5 kg, height: 1.65 ± 0.05 m). Subjects had to perform isometric ramp contractions in knee flexion with the force gradually increasing from 0 to 40% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in a 20s period. The root mean square (RMS) amplitude of sEMG signals obtained from the biceps femoris (caput longum) were calculated at four different strength levels (10, 20, 30, and 40% MVC) from the ramp isometric contractions (5s during the 20s task %MVC). The main results were a more pronounced increase non-linear in sEMG-RMS amplitude for the muscles. The protocol described here may provide a useful index for measuring of strength neuromuscular fatigue.

Keywords: biosignal, surface electromyography, ramp contractions, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
71 Comparison of Linear Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine Classifications for Electromyography Signals Acquired at Five Positions of Elbow Joint

Authors: Amna Khan, Zareena Kausar, Saad Malik


Bio Mechatronics has extended applications in the field of rehabilitation. It has been contributing since World War II in improving the applicability of prosthesis and assistive devices in real life scenarios. In this paper, classification accuracies have been compared for two classifiers against five positions of elbow. Electromyography (EMG) signals analysis have been acquired directly from skeletal muscles of human forearm for each of the three defined positions and at modified extreme positions of elbow flexion and extension using 8 electrode Myo armband sensor. Features were extracted from filtered EMG signals for each position. Performance of two classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been compared by analyzing the classification accuracies. SVM illustrated classification accuracies between 90-96%, in contrast to 84-87% depicted by LDA for five defined positions of elbow keeping the number of samples and selected feature the same for both SVM and LDA.

Keywords: classification accuracies, electromyography, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Myo armband sensor, support vector machine (SVM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
70 Impact of Kinesio Taping on Masseter Muscle: An Electromyographic Study

Authors: Joanna E. Owczarek, Izabela Zielinska


The incidence of temporomandibular disorders is 50% up to 80%. Kinesio taping (KT) is treatment method for musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of KT on masseter muscles’ tone evaluated by electromyography. 30 adults (aged 22±2.1) were examined. The tone of masseters before and after 4 days KT application on sternocleidomastoideus muscle was measured during resting mandibular position and clenching. Noraxon DTS device was used. Masseter muscles’ tone during clenching after KT application was relevently lower in comparison to its tone before the KT.

Keywords: electromyography, kinesio taping, masseter muscle, TMD

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
69 Electromyography Pattern Classification with Laplacian Eigenmaps in Human Running

Authors: Elnaz Lashgari, Emel Demircan


Electromyography (EMG) is one of the most important interfaces between humans and robots for rehabilitation. Decoding this signal helps to recognize muscle activation and converts it into smooth motion for the robots. Detecting each muscle’s pattern during walking and running is vital for improving the quality of a patient’s life. In this study, EMG data from 10 muscles in 10 subjects at 4 different speeds were analyzed. EMG signals are nonlinear with high dimensionality. To deal with this challenge, we extracted some features in time-frequency domain and used manifold learning and Laplacian Eigenmaps algorithm to find the intrinsic features that represent data in low-dimensional space. We then used the Bayesian classifier to identify various patterns of EMG signals for different muscles across a range of running speeds. The best result for vastus medialis muscle corresponds to 97.87±0.69 for sensitivity and 88.37±0.79 for specificity with 97.07±0.29 accuracy using Bayesian classifier. The results of this study provide important insight into human movement and its application for robotics research.

Keywords: electromyography, manifold learning, ISOMAP, Laplacian Eigenmaps, locally linear embedding

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
68 The Effect of Footrest Height on Muscle Fatigue and Discomfort in Prolonged Standing Activities

Authors: Zeinab Rasouli Kahaki, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Reza Khani Jazani, Mahnaz Saremi, Amir Kavousi


Work which requires prolonged standing, especially in a fixed position can cause discomfort and fatigue. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of height footrest in discomfort and fatigue lower extremities during long-standing activities. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 15 students with a mean (SD) age of 21.5 ± (2.3) and mean height of 163 ± (2.8). Participants attended 3 sessions each lasting one hour. They stood on three different surfaces: ceramic, footrest 10 and 25 cm. Surface electromyography was used to assess muscle fatigue. Body map and visual analog scale were employed to evaluate discomfort ratings of the lower extremities and the back. Data analyses were performed using ANOVA-R. Based on the results of electromyography there was no difference between soleus, anterior tibial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles fatigue and type of surfaces. There was a significant variation between the surfaces (p < 0.05) and different areas of the body discomfort level; so that the ceramic had the highest discomfort rating, while the lowest ratings were related to the footrest. Further investigations are recommended on the properties of the footrest.

Keywords: electromyography, fatigue, gastrocnemius, lower extremities, soleus, tibial

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67 Investigation of Surface Electromyograph Signal Acquired from the around Shoulder Muscles of Upper Limb Amputees

Authors: Amanpreet Kaur, Ravinder Agarwal, Amod Kumar


Surface electromyography is a strategy to measure the muscle activity of the skin. Sensors placed on the skin recognize the electrical current or signal generated by active muscles. A lot of the research has focussed on the detection of signal from upper limb amputee with activity of triceps and biceps muscles. The purpose of this study was to correlate phantom movement and sEMG activity in residual stump muscles of transhumeral amputee from the shoulder muscles. Eight non- amputee and seven right hand amputees were recruited for this study. sEMG data were collected for the trapezius, pectoralis and teres muscles for elevation, protraction and retraction of shoulder. Contrast between the amputees and non-amputees muscles action have been investigated. Subsequently, to investigate the impact of class separability for different motions of shoulder, analysis of variance for experimental recorded data was carried out. Results were analyzed to recognize different shoulder movements and represent a step towards the surface electromyography controlled system for amputees. Difference in F ratio (p < 0.05) values indicates the distinction in mean therefore these analysis helps to determine the independent motion. The identified signal would be used to design more accurate and efficient controllers for the upper-limb amputee for researchers.

Keywords: around shoulder amputation, surface electromyography, analysis of variance, features

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
66 Electromyography Controlled Robotic Toys for Autistic Children

Authors: Uvais Qidwai, Mohamed Shakir


This paper presents an initial study related to the use of robotic toys as teaching and therapeutic aid tools for teachers and care-givers as well as parents of children with various levels of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some of the most common features related to the behavior of a child with ASD are his/her social isolation, living in their own world, not being physically active, and not willing to learn new things. While the teachers, parents, and all other related care-givers do their best to improve the condition of these kids, it is usually quite an uphill task. However, one remarkable observation that has been reported by several teachers dealing with ASD children is the fact that the same children do get attracted to toys with lights and sounds. Hence, this project targets the development/modifications of such existing toys into appropriate behavior training tools which the care-givers can use as they would desire. Initially, the remote control is in hand of the trainer, but after some time, the child is entrusted with the control of the robotic toy to test for the level of interest. It has been found during the course of this study that children with quite low learning activity got extremely interested in the robot and even advanced to controlling the robot with the Electromyography (EMG). It has been observed that the children did show some hesitation in the beginning 5 minutes of the very first sessions of such interaction but were very comfortable afterwards which has been considered as a very strong indicator of the potential of this technique in teaching and rehabilitation of children with ASD or similar brain disorders.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), robotic toys, IR control, electromyography, LabVIEW based remote control

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
65 Low Cost Surface Electromyographic Signal Amplifier Based on Arduino Microcontroller

Authors: Igor Luiz Bernardes de Moura, Luan Carlos de Sena Monteiro Ozelim, Fabiano Araujo Soares


The development of a low cost acquisition system of S-EMG signals which are reliable, comfortable for the user and with high mobility shows to be a relevant proposition in modern biomedical engineering scenario. In the study, the sampling capacity of the Arduino microcontroller Atmel Atmega328 with an A/D converter with 10-bit resolution and its reconstructing capability of a signal of surface electromyography are analyzed. An electronic circuit to capture the signal through two differential channels was designed, signals from Biceps Brachialis of a healthy man of 21 years was acquired to test the system prototype. ARV, MDF, MNF and RMS estimators were used to compare de acquired signals with physiological values. The Arduino was configured with a sampling frequency of 1.5 kHz for each channel, and the tests with the circuit designed offered a SNR of 20.57dB.

Keywords: electromyography, Arduino, low-cost, atmel atmega328 microcontroller

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
64 Effects of Flexible Flat Feet on Electromyographic Activity of Erector Spinae and Multifidus

Authors: Abdallah Mohamed Kamel Mohamed Ali, Samah Saad Zahran, Mohamed Hamed Rashad


Background: Flexible flatfoot (FFF) has been considered as a risk factor for several lower limb injuries and mechanical low back pain. This was attributed to the dysfunction of the lumbopelvic-hip complex musculature. Objective: To investigate the influence of FFF on electromyographic activities of erector spinae and multifidus. Methods: A cross-section study was held between an FFF group (20 subjects) and a normal foot group (20 subjects). A surface electromyography was used to assess the electromyographic activity of erector spinae and multifidus. Group differences were assessed by the T-test. Results: There was a significant increase in EMG activities of erector spinae and multifidus in the FFF group compared with the normal group. Conclusion: There is an increase in EMG activities in erector spinae and multifidus in FFF subjects compared with normal subjects.

Keywords: electromyography, flatfoot, low back pain, paraspinal muscles

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
63 Developing Wearable EMG Sensor Designed for Parkinson's Disease (PD) Monitoring, and Treatment

Authors: Bulcha Belay Etana


Electromyography is used to measure the electrical activity of muscles for various health monitoring applications using surface electrodes or needle electrodes. Recent developments in electromyogram signal acquisition using textile electrodes open the door for wearable health monitoring which enables patients to monitor and control their health issues outside of traditional healthcare facilities. The aim of this research is therefore to develop and analyze wearable textile electrodes for the acquisition of electromyography signals for Parkinson’s patients and apply an appropriate thermal stimulus to relieve muscle cramping. In order to achieve this, textile electrodes are sewn with a silver-coated thread in an overlapping zigzag pattern into an inextensible fabric, and stainless steel knitted textile electrodes attached to a sleeve were prepared and its electrical characteristics including signal to noise ratio were compared with traditional electrodes. To relieve muscle cramping, a heating element using stainless steel conductive yarn Sewn onto a cotton fabric, coupled with a vibration system were developed. The system was integrated using a microcontroller and a Myoware muscle sensor so that when muscle cramping occurs, measured by the system activates the heating elements and vibration motors. The optimum temperature considered for treatment was 35.50c, so a Temperature measurement system was incorporated to deactivate the heating system when the temperature reaches this threshold, and the signals indicating muscle cramping have subsided. The textile electrode exhibited a signal to noise ratio of 6.38dB while the signal to noise ratio of the traditional electrode was 7.05dB. The rise time of the developed heating element was about 6 minutes to reach the optimum temperature using a 9volt power supply. The treatment of muscle cramping in Parkinson's patients using heat and muscle vibration simultaneously with a wearable electromyography signal acquisition system will improve patients’ livelihoods and enable better chronic pain management.

Keywords: electromyography, heating textile, vibration therapy, parkinson’s disease, wearable electronic textile

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62 A Contactless Capacitive Biosensor for Muscle Activity Measurement

Authors: Charn Loong Ng, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz


As elderly population grows globally, the percentage of people diagnosed with musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) increase proportionally. Electromyography (EMG) is an important biosignal that contributes to MSD’s clinical diagnose and recovery process. Conventional conductive electrode has many disadvantages in the continuous EMG measurement application. This research has design a new surface EMG biosensor based on the parallel-plate capacitive coupling principle. The biosensor is developed by using a double-sided PCB with having one side of the PCB use to construct high input impedance circuitry while the other side of the copper (CU) plate function as biosignal sensing metal plate. The metal plate is insulated using kapton tape for contactless application. The result implicates that capacitive biosensor is capable to constantly capture EMG signal without having galvanic contact to human skin surface. However, there are noticeable noise couple into the measured signal. Post signal processing is needed in order to present a clean and significant EMG signal. A complete design of single ended, non-contact, high input impedance, front end EMG biosensor is presented in this paper.

Keywords: contactless, capacitive, biosensor, electromyography

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
61 Effect of Hand Grip Strength on Shoulder Muscles Activity in Patients with Subacromial Impingement

Authors: Mohamed E. Abdelrahamn, Mahmoud Aly Hassan, Mohamed Sarhan


Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is a common shoulder disorder. Patients often complain from a decrease in electromyography (EMG) activity of the rotator cuff muscles especially the supraspinatus muscle during glenohumeral elevation. Objective: The purpose of the study is to assess the effect of applying 50% of maximum voluntary contraction of hand grip strength on the EMG activity of the shoulder muscles in patients with SIS. Methods: Thirty male and female patients participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 25 to 40 years. EMG activity of supraspinatus muscle and middle deltoid muscle was assessed without and with applying 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Results: A significant difference was found for both supraspinatus and middle deltoid muscles, indicating that the gripping resulted in increasing muscle activity. Conclusion: Applying 50% MVC of hand grip strength could increase the supraspinatus and middle deltoid muscles activity in patients of SIS. This might be useful in the development and monitoring of shoulder rehabilitation strategies.

Keywords: electromyography, supraspinatus muscle, deltoid muscle, subacromial impingement syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
60 Effects of an Envious Experience on Schadenfreude and Economic Decisions Making

Authors: Pablo Reyes, Vanessa Riveros Fiallo, Cesar Acevedo, Camila Castellanos, Catalina Moncaleano, Maria F. Parra, Laura Colmenares


Social emotions are physiological, cognitive and behavioral phenomenon that intervene in the mechanisms of adaptation of individuals and their context. These are mediated by interpersonal relationship and language. Such emotions are subdivided into moral and comparison. The present research emphasizes two comparative emotions: Envy and Schadenfreude. Envy arises when a person lack of quality, possessions or achievements and these are superior in someone else. The Schadenfreude (SC) expresses the pleasure that someone experienced by the misfortune of the other. The relationship between both emotions has been questioned before. Hence there are reports showing that envy increases and modulates SC response. Other documents suggest that envy causes SC response. However, the methodological approach of the topic has been made through self-reports, as well as the hypothetical scenarios. Given this problematic, the neuroscience social framework provides an alternative and demonstrates that social emotions have neurophysiological correlates that can be measured. This is relevant when studying social emotions that are reprehensible like envy or SC are. When tested, the individuals tend to report low ratings due to social desirability. In this study, it was drawn up a proposal in research's protocol and the progress on its own piloting. The aim is to evaluate the effect of feeling envy and Schadenfreude has on the decision-making process, as well as the cooperative behavior in an economic game. To such a degree, it was proposed an experimental model that will provoke to feel envious by performing games against an unknown opponent. The game consists of asking general knowledge questions. The difficulty level in questions and the strangers' facial response have been manipulated in order to generate an ecological comparison framework and be able to arise both envy and SC emotions. During the game, an electromyography registry will be made for two facial muscles that have been associated with the expressiveness of envy and SC emotions. One of the innovations of the current proposal is the measurement of the effect that emotions have on a specific behavior. To that extent, it was evaluated the effect of each condition on the dictators' economic game. The main intention is to evaluate if a social emotion can modulate actions that have been associated with social norms, in the literacy. The result of the evaluation of a pilot model (without electromyography record and self-report) have shown an association between envy and SC, in a way that as the individuals report a greater sense of envy, the greater the chance to experience SC. The results of the economic game show a slight tendency towards profit maximization decisions. It is expected that at the time of using real cash this behavior will be strengthened and also to correlate with the responses of electromyography.

Keywords: envy, schadenfreude, electromyography, economic games

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59 Electromyography Analysis during Walking and Seated Stepping in the Elderly

Authors: P. Y. Chiang, Y. H. Chen, Y. J. Lin, C. C. Chang, W. C. Hsu


The number of the elderly in the world population and the rate of falls in this increasing numbers of older people are increasing. Decreasing muscle strength and an increasing risk of falling are associated with the ageing process. Because the effects of seated stepping training on the walking performance in the elderly remain unclear, the main purpose of the proposed study is to perform electromyography analysis during walking and seated stepping in the elderly. Four surface EMG electrodes were sticked on the surface of lower limbs muscles, including vastus lateralis (VL), and gastrocnemius (GT) of both sides. Before test, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the respective muscle was obtained using manual muscle testing. The analog raw data of EMG signals were digitized with a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz. The signals were fully rectified and the linear envelope were calculated. Stepping motion cycle was separated into two phases by stepping timing (ST) and pedal return timing (PRT). ST refer to the time when the pedal marker reached the highest height, representing the contra-lateral leg was going to release the pedal. PRT refer to the time when the pedal marker reached the lowest height, representing the contra-lateral leg was going to step the pedal. We assumed that ST acted the same role in initial contact during walking, and PRT for toe-off. The period from ST to next PRT was called pushing phase (PP), during which the leg would start to step with resistance, and we compare this phase with the stance phase in level walking. The period from PRT to next ST was called returning phase (RP), during which leg would not have any resistance in this phase, and we compare this phase with the swing phase in level walking. VL and Gastro muscular activation had similar patterns in both side. The ability may transfer to those needed during loading response, mid-stance and terminal swing phase. User needed to make more effort in stepping compared with walking with similar timing; thus the strengthening of the VL and Gastro may be helpful to improve the walking endurance and efficiency for the elderly.

Keywords: elderly, electromyography, seated stepping, walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
58 Electromyographic Analysis of Trunk Muscle Activity of Healthy Individuals While Catching a Ball on Three Different Seating Surfaces

Authors: Hanan H. ALQahtani, Karen Jones


Catching a ball during sitting is a functional exercise commonly used in rehabilitation to enhance trunk muscle activity. To progress this exercise, physiotherapists incorporate a Swiss ball or change seat height. However, no study has assessed the effect of different seating surfaces on trunk muscle activity while catching a ball. Objective: To investigate the effect of catching a ball during sitting on a Swiss ball, a low seat and a high seat on trunk muscle activity. Method: A repeated-measures, counterbalanced design was used. A total of 26 healthy participants (15 female and 11 male) performed three repetitions of catching a ball on each seating surface. Using surface electromyography (sEMG), the activity of the bilateral transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and lumbar multifidus (MF) was recorded. Trunk muscle activity was normalized using maximum voluntary isometric contraction and analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ .05. Results: No significant differences were observed in the activity of RA, TrA/IO, ES or MF between a low seat and a Swiss ball. However, the activity of the right and left ES on a low seat was significantly greater than on a high seat (p = .017 and p = .017, respectively). Conversely, the activity of the right and left RA on a high seat was significantly greater than on a low seat (p = .007 and p = .004, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that replacing a low seat with a Swiss ball while catching a ball is insufficient to increase trunk muscle activity, whereas changing the seat height could induce different trunk muscle activities. However, research conducted on patients is needed before translating these results into clinical settings.

Keywords: catching, electromyography, seating, trunk

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
57 UEMG-FHR Coupling Analysis in Pregnancies Complicated by Pre-Eclampsia and Small for Gestational Age

Authors: Kun Chen, Yan Wang, Yangyu Zhao, Shufang Li, Lian Chen, Xiaoyue Guo, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang


The coupling strength between uterine electromyography (UEMG) and Fetal heart rate (FHR) signals during peripartum reflects the fetal biophysical activities. Therefore, UEMG-FHR coupling characterization is instructive in assessing placenta function. This study introduced a physiological marker named elevated frequency of UEMG-FHR coupling (E-UFC) and explored its predictive value for pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA). Placental insufficiency patients (n=12) and healthy volunteers (n=24) were recruited and participated. UEMG and FHR were recorded non-invasively by a trans-abdominal device in women at term with singleton pregnancy (32-37 weeks) from 10:00 pm to 8:00 am. The product of the wavelet coherence and the wavelet cross-spectral power between UEMG and FHR was used to weight these two effects in order to quantify the degree of the UEMG-FHR coupling. E-UFC was exacted from the resultant spectrogram by calculating the mean value of the high-coherence (r > 0.5) frequency band. Results showed the high-coherence between UEMG and FHR was observed in the frequency band (1/512-1/16Hz). In addition, E-UFC in placental insufficiency patients was weaker compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) at group level. These findings suggested the proposed approach could be used to quantitatively characterize the fetal biophysical activities, which is beneficial for early detection of placental insufficiency and reduces the occurrence of adverse pregnancy.

Keywords: uterine electromyography, fetal heart rate, coupling analysis, wavelet analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
56 Innovative Technologies Functional Methods of Dental Research

Authors: Sergey N. Ermoliev, Margarita A. Belousova, Aida D. Goncharenko


Application of the diagnostic complex of highly informative functional methods (electromyography, reodentography, laser Doppler flowmetry, reoperiodontography, vital computer capillaroscopy, optical tissue oximetry, laser fluorescence diagnosis) allows to perform a multifactorial analysis of the dental status and to prescribe complex etiopathogenetic treatment. Introduction. It is necessary to create a complex of innovative highly informative and safe functional diagnostic methods for improvement of the quality of patient treatment by the early detection of stomatologic diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the etiology and pathogenesis of functional disorders identified in the pathology of hard tissue, dental pulp, periodontal, oral mucosa and chewing function, and the creation of new approaches to the diagnosis of dental diseases. Material and methods. 172 patients were examined. Density of hard tissues of the teeth and jaw bone was studied by intraoral ultrasonic densitometry (USD). Electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles was assessed by electromyography (EMG). Functional state of dental pulp vessels assessed by reodentography (RDG) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Reoperiodontography method (RPG) studied regional blood flow in the periodontal tissues. Microcirculatory vascular periodontal studied by vital computer capillaroscopy (VCC) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). The metabolic level of the mucous membrane was determined by optical tissue oximetry (OTO) and laser fluorescence diagnosis (LFD). Results and discussion. The results obtained revealed changes in mineral density of hard tissues of the teeth and jaw bone, the bioelectric activity of masticatory muscles, regional blood flow and microcirculation in the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. LDF and OTO methods estimated fluctuations of saturation level and oxygen transport in microvasculature of periodontal tissues. With LFD identified changes in the concentration of enzymes (nicotinamide, flavins, lipofuscin, porphyrins) involved in metabolic processes Conclusion. Our preliminary results confirmed feasibility and safety the of intraoral ultrasound densitometry technique in the density of bone tissue of periodontium. Conclusion. Application of the diagnostic complex of above mentioned highly informative functional methods allows to perform a multifactorial analysis of the dental status and to prescribe complex etiopathogenetic treatment.

Keywords: electromyography (EMG), reodentography (RDG), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), reoperiodontography method (RPG), vital computer capillaroscopy (VCC), optical tissue oximetry (OTO), laser fluorescence diagnosis (LFD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
55 Applying Biosensors’ Electromyography Signals through an Artificial Neural Network to Control a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Mylena McCoggle, Shyra Wilson, Andrea Rivera, Rocio Alba-Flores


This work introduces the use of EMGs (electromyography) from muscle sensors to develop an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for pattern recognition to control a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The objective of this endeavor exhibits interfacing drone applications beyond manual control directly. MyoWare Muscle sensor contains three EMG electrodes (dual and single type) used to collect signals from the posterior (extensor) and anterior (flexor) forearm and the bicep. Collection of raw voltages from each sensor were connected to an Arduino Uno and a data processing algorithm was developed with the purpose of interpreting the voltage signals given when performing flexing, resting, and motion of the arm. Each sensor collected eight values over a two-second period for the duration of one minute, per assessment. During each two-second interval, the movements were alternating between a resting reference class and an active motion class, resulting in controlling the motion of the drone with left and right movements. This paper further investigated adding up to three sensors to differentiate between hand gestures to control the principal motions of the drone (left, right, up, and land). The hand gestures chosen to execute these movements were: a resting position, a thumbs up, a hand swipe right motion, and a flexing position. The MATLAB software was utilized to collect, process, and analyze the signals from the sensors. The protocol (machine learning tool) was used to classify the hand gestures. To generate the input vector to the ANN, the mean, root means squared, and standard deviation was processed for every two-second interval of the hand gestures. The neuromuscular information was then trained using an artificial neural network with one hidden layer of 10 neurons to categorize the four targets, one for each hand gesture. Once the machine learning training was completed, the resulting network interpreted the processed inputs and returned the probabilities of each class. Based on the resultant probability of the application process, once an output was greater or equal to 80% of matching a specific target class, the drone would perform the motion expected. Afterward, each movement was sent from the computer to the drone through a Wi-Fi network connection. These procedures have been successfully tested and integrated into trial flights, where the drone has responded successfully in real-time to predefined command inputs with the machine learning algorithm through the MyoWare sensor interface. The full paper will describe in detail the database of the hand gestures, the details of the ANN architecture, and confusion matrices results.

Keywords: artificial neural network, biosensors, electromyography, machine learning, MyoWare muscle sensors, Arduino

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54 Quadriceps Muscle Activity in Response to Slow and Fast Perturbations following Fatiguing Exercise

Authors: Nosratollah Hedayatpour, Hamid Reza Taheri, Mehrdad Fathi


Introduction: Quadriceps femoris muscle is frequently involved in various movements e.g., jumping, landing) during sport and/or daily activities. During ballistic movement when individuals are faced with unexpected knee perturbation, fast twitch muscle fibers contribute to force production to stabilize knee joint. Fast twitch muscle fiber is more susceptible to fatigue and therefor may reduce the ability of the quadriceps muscle to stabilize knee joint during fast perturbation. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatigue on postural response of the knee extensor muscles to fast and slow perturbations. Methods: Fatigue was induced to the quadriceps muscle using a KinCom Isokinetic Dynamometer (Chattanooga, TN). Bipolar surface electromyography (EMG) signals were simultaneously recorded from quadriceps components (vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis) during pre- and post-fatigue postural perturbation performed at two different velocities of 120 ms and 250 mes. Results: One-way ANOVA showed that maximal voluntary knee extension force and time to task failure, and associated EMG activities were significantly reduced after fatiguing knee exercise (P< 0.05). Two-ways ANOVA also showed that ARV of EMG during backward direction was significantly larger than forward direction (P< 0.05), and during fast-perturbation it was significantly higher than slow-perturbation (P< 0.05). Moreover, ARV of EMG was significantly reduced during post fatigue perturbation, with the largest reduction identified for fast-perturbation compared with slow perturbation (P< 0.05). Conclusion: A larger reduction in muscle activity of the quadriceps muscle was observed during post fatigue fast-perturbation to stabilize knee joint, most likely due to preferential recruitment of fast twitch muscle fiber which are more susceptible to fatigue. This may partly explain that why knee injuries is common after fast ballistic movement.

Keywords: electromyography, fast-slow perturbations, fatigue, quadriceps femoris muscle

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53 Analysis of Stress and Strain in Head Based Control of Cooperative Robots through Tetraplegics

Authors: Jochen Nelles, Susanne Kohns, Julia Spies, Friederike Schmitz-Buhl, Roland Thietje, Christopher Brandl, Alexander Mertens, Christopher M. Schlick


Industrial robots as part of highly automated manufacturing are recently developed to cooperative (light-weight) robots. This offers the opportunity of using them as assistance robots and to improve the participation in professional life of disabled or handicapped people such as tetraplegics. Robots under development are located within a cooperation area together with the working person at the same workplace. This cooperation area is an area where the robot and the working person can perform tasks at the same time. Thus, working people and robots are operating in the immediate proximity. Considering the physical restrictions and the limited mobility of tetraplegics, a hands-free robot control could be an appropriate approach for a cooperative assistance robot. To meet these requirements, the research project MeRoSy (human-robot synergy) develops methods for cooperative assistance robots based on the measurement of head movements of the working person. One research objective is to improve the participation in professional life of people with disabilities and, in particular, mobility impaired persons (e.g. wheelchair users or tetraplegics), whose participation in a self-determined working life is denied. This raises the research question, how a human-robot cooperation workplace can be designed for hands-free robot control. Here, the example of a library scenario is demonstrated. In this paper, an empirical study that focuses on the impact of head movement related stress is presented. 12 test subjects with tetraplegia participated in the study. Tetraplegia also known as quadriplegia is the worst type of spinal cord injury. In the experiment, three various basic head movements were examined. Data of the head posture were collected by a motion capture system; muscle activity was measured via surface electromyography and the subjective mental stress was assessed via a mental effort questionnaire. The muscle activity was measured for the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), the upper trapezius (UT) or trapezius pars descendens, and the splenius capitis (SPL) muscle. For this purpose, six non-invasive surface electromyography sensors were mounted on the head and neck area. An analysis of variance shows differentiated muscular strains depending on the type of head movement. Systematically investigating the influence of different basic head movements on the resulting strain is an important issue to relate the research results to other scenarios. At the end of this paper, a conclusion will be drawn and an outlook of future work will be presented.

Keywords: assistance robot, human-robot interaction, motion capture, stress-strain-concept, surface electromyography, tetraplegia

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52 An Ergonomic Evaluation of Three Load Carriage Systems for Reducing Muscle Activity of Trunk and Lower Extremities during Giant Puppet Performing Tasks

Authors: Cathy SW. Chow, Kristina Shin, Faming Wang, B. C. L. So


During some dynamic giant puppet performances, an ergonomically designed load carrier system is necessary for the puppeteers to carry a giant puppet body’s heavy load with minimum muscle stress. A load carrier (i.e. prototype) was designed with two small wheels on the foot; and a hybrid spring device on the knee in order to assist the sliding and knee bending movements respectively. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three load carriers including two other commercially available load mounting systems, Tepex and SuitX, and the prototype. Ten male participants were recruited for the experiment. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to collect the participants’ muscle activities during forward moving and bouncing and with and without load of 11.1 kg that was 60 cm above the shoulder. Five bilateral muscles including the lumbar erector spinae (LES), rectus femoris (RF), bicep femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GM) were selected for data collection. During forward moving task, the sEMG data showed smallest muscle activities by Tepex harness which exhibited consistently the lowest, compared with the prototype and SuitX which were significantly higher on left LES 68.99% and 64.99%, right LES 26.57% and 82.45%; left RF 87.71% and 47.61%, right RF 143.57% and 24.28%; left BF 80.21% and 22.23%, right BF 96.02% and 21.83%; right TA 6.32% and 4.47%; left GM 5.89% and 12.35% respectively. The result above reflected mobility was highly restricted by tested exoskeleton devices. On the other hand, the sEMG data from bouncing task showed the smallest muscle activities by prototype which exhibited consistently the lowest, compared with the Tepex harness and SuitX which were significantly lower on lLES 6.65% and 104.93, rLES 23.56% and 92.19%; lBF 33.21% and 93.26% and rBF 24.70% and 81.16%; lTA 46.51% and 191.02%; rTA 12.75% and 125.76%; IGM 31.54% and 68.36%; rGM 95.95% and 96.43% respectively.

Keywords: exoskeleton, giant puppet performers, load carriage system, surface electromyography

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51 Pelvic Floor Electrophysiology Patterns Associated with Obstructed Defecation

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat


Pelvic floor electrophysiological tests are essential for assessment of patients with obstructed defecation. The present study was conducted to determine the different patterns of pelvic floor electrophysiology that are associated with obstructed defecation. The present cross sectional study included 25 patients with obstructed defecation. A control group of 20 apparently healthy subjects were included. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, proctosigmoidoscopy, lateral proctography (evacuation proctography), dynamic pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, anal manometry and electrophysiological studies. Electrophysiological studies were including pudendal nerve motor conduction study, pudendo-anal reflex, needle electromyography of external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles, pudendal somatosensory evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential. The control group was subjected to electrophysiological studies which included pudendal nerve motor conduction study, pudendo-anal reflex, pudendal somatosensory evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential. The most common pelvic floor electrodiagnostic pattern characteristics of obstructed defecation was pudendal neuropathy, denervation and anismus of external anal sphincter and puborectalis with complete interference pattern of external anal sphincter and puborectalis at squeezing and cough and no localized defect in external anal sphincter. In conclusion, there were characteristic pelvic floor electrodiagnostic patterns associated with obstructed defecation.

Keywords: obstructed defecation, pudendal nerve terminal motor latency, pudendoanal reflex, sphincter electromyography

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
50 Comparison of Trunk and Hip Muscle Activities and Anterior Pelvic Tilt Angle during Three Different Bridging Exercises in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Da-Eun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Sil-Ah Choi, A-Reum Shin


Bridging exercise in supine position with the hips and knees flexed have been commonly performed as one of the therapeutic exercises and is a comfortable and pain-free position to most individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Many previous studies have investigated the beneficial way of performing bridging exercises to improve activation of abdominal and gluteal muscle and reduce muscle activity of hamstrings (HAM) and erector spinae (ES) and compensatory lumbopelvic motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different bridging exercises on the HAM, ES, gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), and transverse abdominis/internal abdominis oblique (TrA/IO) activities and anterior pelvic tilt angle in subjects with CLBP. Seventeen subjects with CLBP participated in this study. They performed bridging under three different conditions (with 30° hip abduction, isometric hip abduction, and isometric hip adduction). Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity, and the ImageJ software was used to calculate anterior pelvic tilt angle. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of the measured variables. HAM activity was significantly lower in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction than in bridging with isometric hip adduction. Gmax and Gmed activities were significantly greater in bridging with isometric hip abduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip adduction. TrA/IO muscle activity was significantly greater and anterior pelvic tilt angle was significantly lower in bridging with isometric hip adduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction. Bridging with isometric hip abduction using Thera-Band can effectively reduce HAM activity, and increase Gmax and Gmed activities in subjects with CLBP. Bridging with isometric hip adduction using a pressure biofeedback unit can be a beneficial exercise to improve TrA/IO activity and minimize anterior pelvic tilt in subjects with CLBP.

Keywords: bridging exercise, electromyography, low back pain, lower limb exercise

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49 Antagonist Coactivation in Athletes Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Authors: Milad Pirali, Sohrab Keyhani, Mohhamad Ali Sanjari, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi


Purpose: The effect of hamstring antagonist activity on the knee extensors torque of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is not clear and persistent muscle weakness is common after ACLR. Hamstring activation when acting as antagonist is considered very important for knee strengths. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine hamstring antagonist coactivation during maximal effort of the isokinetic knee extension in ACLR athletes with hamstring autograft. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 20 professional athletes who underwent primary ACLR (hamstring tendon autograft)with 6-24 months postoperative and 20 healthy subjects as control group. Each subjects performed maximal effort isokinetic knee extension and flexion in 60/˚ s and 180/˚ s velocities for the involved and uninvolved limb. Synchronously, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF). The antagonist integrated EMG (IEMG) values were normalized to the IEMG of the same muscle during maximal isokinetic eccentric effort at the same velocities and ROM. Results: A one-way analysis of variance designs shows significantly greater IEMG coactivation of hamstring and decreased activation of Vm in ACLR when compared to uninvolved and control group leg in 60/˚ s and 180/˚ s velocities. Likewise peak torque to body weight was decreased in ACLR compared to uninvolved and control group during knee extension in both velocities (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Decreased extensors moment caused by decreased quadriceps inhibition and increased hamstring coactivation. In addition, these result indicated to decrease of motor unit recruitment in the VM (as a kinesiologicmonitore of the knee). It is appearing that strengthening of the quadriceps to be an important for rehabilitation program after ACLR for preparation in athletes endeavors. Therefore, we suggest that having more emphasis and focus on quadriceps strength and less emphasis on hamstring following ACLR.

Keywords: ACLR-coactivation, dynamometry, electromyography, isokinetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
48 High-Resolution Facial Electromyography in Freely Behaving Humans

Authors: Lilah Inzelberg, David Rand, Stanislav Steinberg, Moshe David Pur, Yael Hanein


Human facial expressions carry important psychological and neurological information. Facial expressions involve the co-activation of diverse muscles. They depend strongly on personal affective interpretation and on social context and vary between spontaneous and voluntary activations. Smiling, as a special case, is among the most complex facial emotional expressions, involving no fewer than 7 different unilateral muscles. Despite their ubiquitous nature, smiles remain an elusive and debated topic. Smiles are associated with happiness and greeting on one hand and anger or disgust-masking on the other. Accordingly, while high-resolution recording of muscle activation patterns, in a non-interfering setting, offers exciting opportunities, it remains an unmet challenge, as contemporary surface facial electromyography (EMG) methodologies are cumbersome, restricted to the laboratory settings, and are limited in time and resolution. Here we present a wearable and non-invasive method for objective mapping of facial muscle activation and demonstrate its application in a natural setting. The technology is based on a recently developed dry and soft electrode array, specially designed for surface facial EMG technique. Eighteen healthy volunteers (31.58 ± 3.41 years, 13 females), participated in the study. Surface EMG arrays were adhered to participant left and right cheeks. Participants were instructed to imitate three facial expressions: closing the eyes, wrinkling the nose and smiling voluntary and to watch a funny video while their EMG signal is recorded. We focused on muscles associated with 'enjoyment', 'social' and 'masked' smiles; three categories with distinct social meanings. We developed a customized independent component analysis algorithm to construct the desired facial musculature mapping. First, identification of the Orbicularis oculi and the Levator labii superioris muscles was demonstrated from voluntary expressions. Second, recordings of voluntary and spontaneous smiles were used to locate the Zygomaticus major muscle activated in Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles. Finally, recording with a wireless device in an unmodified natural work setting revealed expressions of neutral, positive and negative emotions in face-to-face interaction. The algorithm outlined here identifies the activation sources in a subject-specific manner, insensitive to electrode placement and anatomical diversity. Our high-resolution and cross-talk free mapping performances, along with excellent user convenience, open new opportunities for affective processing and objective evaluation of facial expressivity, objective psychological and neurological assessment as well as gaming, virtual reality, bio-feedback and brain-machine interface applications.

Keywords: affective expressions, affective processing, facial EMG, high-resolution electromyography, independent component analysis, wireless electrodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 134