Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 722

Search results for: ideal

722 Zero Divisor Graph of a Poset with Respect to Primal Ideals

Authors: Hossein Pourali


In this paper, we extend the concepts of primal and weakly primal ideals for posets. Further, the diameter of the zero divisor graph of a poset with respect to a non-primal ideal is determined. The relation between primary and primal ideals in posets is also studied.

Keywords: ‎associated prime ideal, ‎‎ideal, ‎‎primary ideal, primal ideal‎, prime‎ ‎ideal, semiprime ideal, ‎weakly primal ideal, zero divisors graph

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721 Fuzzy Ideal Topological Spaces

Authors: Ali Koam, Ismail Ibedou, S. E. Abbas


In this paper, it is introduced the notion of r-fuzzy ideal separation axioms Tᵢi = 0; 1; 2 based on a fuzzy ideal I on a fuzzy topological space (X; τ). An r-fuzzy ideal connectedness related to the fuzzy ideal I is introduced which has relations with a previous r-fuzzy fuzzy connectedness. An r-fuzzy ideal compactness related to Ι is introduced which has also relations with many other types of fuzzy compactness.

Keywords: fuzzy ideal, fuzzy separation axioms, fuzzy compactness, fuzzy connectedness

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720 Fuzzy Implicative Pseudo-Ideals of Pesudo-BCK Algebras

Authors: Alireza Gilani


In this paper, we consider the fuzzification of implicative pseudo-ideal in a pseudo-BCK algebra, and then we investigate some of their properties. We prove that the family of fuzzy implicative pseudo-ideal is completely distributive lattice.

Keywords: BCK-algebra, pseudo-BCK algebra, pseudo-ideal, implicative pseudo-ideal

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
719 Identification of Ideal Plain Sufu (Fermented Soybean Curds) Based on Ideal Profile Method and Assessment of the Consistency of Ideal Profiles Obtained from Consumers

Authors: Yan Ping Chen, Hau Yin Chung


The Ideal Profile Method (IPM) is a newly developed descriptive sensory analysis conducted by consumers without previous training. To perform this test, both the perceived and the ideal intensities from the judgements of consumers on products’ attributes, as well as their hedonic ratings were collected for formulating an ideal product (the most liked one). In addition, Ideal Profile Analysis (IPA) was conducted to check the consistency of the ideal data at both the panel and consumer levels. In this test, 12 commercial plain sufus bought from Hong Kong local market were tested by 113 consumers according to the IPM, and rated on 22 attributes. Principal component analysis was used to profile the perceived and the ideal spaces of tested products. The consistency of ideal data was then checked by IPA. The result showed that most consumers shared a common ideal. It was observed that the sensory product space and the ideal product space were structurally similar. Their first dimensions all opposed products with intense fermented related aroma to products with less fermented related aroma. And the predicted ideal profile (the estimated liking score around 7.0 in a 9.0-point scale) got higher hedonic score than the tested products (the average liking score around 6.0 in a 9.0-point scale). For the majority of consumers (95.2%), the stated ideal product considered as a potential ideal through checking the R2 coefficient value. Among all the tested products, sample-6 was the most popular one with consumer liking percentage around 30%. This product with less fermented and moldy flavour but easier to melt in mouth texture possessed close sensory profile according to the ideal product. This experiment validated that data from untrained consumers could be guided as useful information. Appreciated sensory characteristics could be served as reference in the optimization of the commercial plain sufu.

Keywords: ideal profile method, product development, sensory evaluation, sufu (fermented soybean curd)

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718 Some Properties in Jordan Ideal on 3-Prime Near-Rings

Authors: Abdelkarim Boua, Abdelhakim Chillali


The study of non-associative structures in algebraic structures has become a separate entity; for, in the case of groups, their corresponding non-associative structure i.e. loops is dealt with separately. Similarly there is vast amount of research on the nonassociative structures of semigroups i.e. groupoids and that of rings i.e. nonassociative rings. However it is unfortunate that we do not have a parallel notions or study of non-associative near-rings. In this work we shall attempt to generalize a few known results and study the commutativity of Jordan ideal in 3-prime near-rings satisfying certain identities involving the Jordan ideal. We study the derivations satisfying certain differential identities on Jordan ideals of 3-prime near-rings. Moreover, we provide examples to show that hypothesis of our results are necessary. We give some new results and examples concerning the existence of Jordan ideal and derivations in near-rings. These near-rings can be used to build a new codes.

Keywords: 3-prime near-rings, near-rings, Jordan ideal, derivations

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717 Analytical Design of IMC-PID Controller for Ideal Decoupling Embedded in Multivariable Smith Predictor Control System

Authors: Le Hieu Giang, Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Linh


In this paper, the analytical tuning rules of IMC-PID controller are presented for the multivariable Smith predictor that involved the ideal decoupling. Accordingly, the decoupler is first introduced into the multivariable Smith predictor control system by a well-known approach of ideal decoupling, which is compactly extended for general nxn multivariable processes and the multivariable Smith predictor controller is then obtained in terms of the multiple single-loop Smith predictor controllers. The tuning rules of PID controller in series with filter are found by using Maclaurin approximation. Many multivariable industrial processes are employed to demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented method. The simulation results show the superior performances of presented method in compared with the other methods.

Keywords: ideal decoupler, IMC-PID controller, multivariable smith predictor, Padé approximation

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716 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Model Updating with Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee


Model updating method has received increasing attention in damage detection structures based on measured modal parameters. Therefore, a probability-based damage detection (PBDD) procedure based on a model updating procedure is presented in this paper, in which a one-stage model-based damage identification technique based on the dynamic features of a structure is investigated. The presented framework uses a finite element updating method with a Monte Carlo simulation that considers the uncertainty caused by measurement noise. Enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) is used as the main algorithm for model updating. Ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM) is a multiagent algorithm based on the ideal gas molecular movement. Ideal gas molecules disperse rapidly in different directions and cover all the space inside. This is embedded in the high speed of molecules, collisions between them and with the surrounding barriers. In IGMM algorithm to accomplish the optimal solutions, the initial population of gas molecules is randomly generated and the governing equations related to the velocity of gas molecules and collisions between those are utilized. In this paper, an enhanced version of IGMM, which removes unchanged variables after specified iterations, is developed. The proposed method is implemented on two numerical examples in the field of structural damage detection. The results show that the proposed method can perform well and competitive in PBDD of structures.

Keywords: enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM), ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM), model updating method, probability-based damage detection (PBDD), uncertainty quantification

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715 Delivery System Design of the Local Part to Reduce the Logistic Costs in an Automotive Industry

Authors: Alesandro Romero, Inaki Maulida Hakim


This research was conducted in an automotive company in Indonesia to overcome the problem of high logistics cost. The problem causes high of additional truck delivery. From the breakdown of the problem, chosen one route, which has the highest gap value, namely for RE-04. Research methodology will be started from calculating the ideal condition, making simulation, calculating the ideal logistic cost, and proposing an improvement. From the calculation of the ideal condition, box arrangement was done on the truck; the average efficiency was 97,4 % with three trucks delivery per day. Route simulation making uses Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software as a visualization for the company about how the system is occurred on route RE-04 in ideal condition. Furthermore, from the calculation of logistics cost of the ideal condition, it brings savings of Rp53.011.800,00 in a month. The last step is proposing improvements on the area of route RE-04. The route arrangement is done by Saving Method and sequence of each supplier with the Nearest Neighbor. The results of the proposed improvements are three new route groups, where was expected to decrease logistics cost Rp3.966.559,40 per day, and increase the average of the truck efficiency 8,78% per day.

Keywords: efficiency, logistic cost, milkrun, saving methode, simulation

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714 The Relationship among Personality, Culture Personality and Ideal Tourist/Business Destinations

Authors: Tamás Gyulavári, Erzsébet Malota


The main purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of congruence between the perceived self and perceived culture personality on the evaluation of the examined countries as ideal business/tourist destinations. A measure of Culture Personality (CP) has been developed and implemented to assess the perception of French and Turkish culture. Results show that very similar personality structure of both cultures can be extracted along the dimensions of Competence, Interpersonal approach, Aura, Life approach and Rectitude. Regarding the congruence theory, we found that instead of the effect of similarity between the perceived culture personality and actual self, the more positively culture personality is perceived relative to the perceived self, the more positive attitude the individual has toward the country as business and tourist destination.

Keywords: culture personality, ideal business/tourist destination, personality, scale development

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713 Body Mass Hurts Adolescent Girls More than Thin-Ideal Images

Authors: Javaid Marium, Ahmad Iftikhar


This study was aimed to identify factors that affect negative mood and body image dissatisfaction in women. positive and negative affect, self esteem, body image satisfaction and figure rating scale was administered to 97 female undergraduate students. This served as a base line data for correlation analysis in the first instance. One week later participants who volunteered to appear in the second phase of the study (N=47) were shown thin- ideal images as an intervention and soon after they completed positive and negative affect schedule and body image states scale again as a post test. Results indicated body mass as a strong negative predictor of body image dis/satisfaction, self esteem was a moderate predictor and mood was not a significant predictor. The participants whose actual body shape was markedly discrepant with the ideally desired body shape had significantly low level of body image satisfaction (p < .001) than those with low discrepancy. Similar results were found for self esteem (p < .004). Both self esteem and body mass predicted body satisfaction about equally and significantly. However, on viewing thin-ideal images, the participants of different body weight showed no change in their body image satisfaction than before. Only the overweight participants were significantly affected on negative mood as a short term reaction after viewing the thin ideal images. Comparing the three groups based on their body mass, one-way ANOVA revealed significant difference on negative mood as well as body image satisfaction. This reveals body mass as a potent and stable factor that consistently and strongly affected body satisfaction not the transient portrayal of thin ideal images.

Keywords: body image satisfaction, thin-ideal images, media, mood affects, self esteem

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712 A Resolution on Ideal University Teachers Perspective of Turkish Students

Authors: Metin Özkan


In the last decade, Turkish higher education has been expanded dramatically. With this expansion, Turkey has come a long way in establishing an efficient system of higher education which is moving into a ‘mass’ system with institutions spanning the whole country. This expansion as a quantitative target leads to questioning the quality of higher education services. Especially, the qualities of higher education services depend on mainly quality of educators. Qualities of educators are most important in Turkish higher education system due to rapid rise in the number of universities and students. Therefore, it is seen important that reveals the portrait of ideal university teacher from the point of view student enrolled in Turkish higher education system. The purpose of this current study is to determine the portrait of ideal university teacher according to the views of Turkish Students. This research is carried out with descriptive scanning method and combined and mixed of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Research data of qualitative section were collected at Gaziantep University with the participation of 45 students enrolled in 15 different faculties. Quantitative section was performed on 217 students. The data were obtained through semi-structured interview and “Ideal University Teacher Assessment” form developed by the researcher. The interview form consists of basically two parts. The first part of the interview was about personal information, the second part included questions about the characteristic of ideal university teacher. The questions which constitute the second part of the interview are; "what is a good university teacher like?” and “What human qualities and professional skills should a university teacher have? ". Assessment form which was created from the qualitative data obtained from interviews was used to attain scaling values for pairwise comparison and ranking judgment. According to study results, it has been found that ideal university teacher characteristics include the features like patient, tolerant, comprehensive and tolerant. Ideal university teacher, besides, implement the teaching methods like encouraging the students’ critical thinking, accepting the students’ recommendations on how to conduct the lesson and making use of the new technologies etc. Motivating and respecting the students, adopting a participative style, adopting a sincere way of manner also constitute the ideal university features relationships with students.

Keywords: faculty, higher education, ideal university teacher, teacher behavior

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711 The Efficacy of an Ideal RGP Fitting on Higher Order Aberrations (HOA) in 65 Keratoconus Patients

Authors: Ghandehari-Motlagh, Mohammad


Purpose: To evaluate of the effect of an ideal fit of RGPs on HOA and keratoconus indices. Methods: In this cohort study, 65 keratoconus eyes with more than 3 lines(Snellen)improvement between BSCVA and BCVA(RGP) were imaged with Pentacam HR and their topometric and Zernike analysis findings without RGP were recorded. After 6 months or later of RGP fitting (Rose-K,Boston XO2), imaging with pentacam was repeated and the above information were recorded. Results: 65 different grades of keratoconus eyes with mean age of 27.32 yrs/old(SD +_5.51)enrolled including M 28(43.1%) and F 37(56.9%). 44(67.7%) with family Hx of Kc and 21(31.25%)without any Kc in their families. 54 (83.1%) with and 11 (16.9%) without any ocular allergy Hx. Maximum percent of age of onset of kc was 15 ys/old(29.2%).This study showed there are meaningful correlations between with and without RGP Pentacam indices and HOA in each grade of Kc.92.3% of patients had foreign body sensation but 96.9% had 11-20 hours/day RGP wear that confirms on psychologic effect of an ideal fit on patient’s motivation. Conclusion: With the three points touch principle of RGP fitting in Kc corneas, the patients will have a decrease in HOA and so delayed need for PK or LK.

Keywords: keratoconus, rigid gas permeable lens, aberration, fitting

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710 Real, Ideal, or False Self- Presentation among Young Adult and Middle Adult Facebook Users

Authors: Maria Joan Grafil, Hannah Wendam, Christine Joyce Yu


The use of social networking sites had been a big part of life of most people. One of the most popular among these is Facebook. Users range from young adults to late adults. While it is more popular among emerging and young adults, this social networking site gives people opportunities to express the self. Via Facebook, people have the opportunity to think about what they prefer to show others. This study identified which among the multiple facets of the self (real self, false self or ideal self) is dominantly presented by young adults and middle adults in using the social networking site Facebook. South Metro Manila was the locale of this study where 100 young adult participants (aged 18-25) were students from nearby universities and the 100 middle adult participants (aged 35-45) were working residents within the area. Participants were comprised of 53% females and 47% males. The data was gathered using a self-report questionnaire to determine which online self-presentation (real self-presentation, false self-presentation, or ideal self-presentation) of the participants has greater extent when engaging in the social networking site Facebook. Using means comparison, results showed that both young adults and middle adults engaged primarily in real self-presentation.

Keywords: false self, ideal self, middle adult, real self, self presentation, young adult

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709 A Study on the Ideal and Actual Coping Responses of Public and Private College School Teachers on Job-Related Stress

Authors: Zaralyn Bernardo, Dante Boac, Annabelle Del Rosario


Professional individuals who are in a primary role to impart learning with the new generation are alarmingly tend to have a vast decrease in their workforce due to stress at work. Thus, the study used mixed method research design to explore the ideal and actual coping patterns of college school teachers, both private and public, using Coping Response Inventory-Adult (CRI-Adult). It was suggested that in order for coping to be effective there must be a congruence or good match between coping efforts and preferred coping style. Results basically provided the same information on sources of teacher stress. However, workload and low salary were more likely heightened, for public and private school, respectively. There is also a significant difference between the ideal and actual coping style of college school teachers. Though the public school teachers leaned towards problem-focused as their ideal way of coping, both public and private teachers are somewhat inclined to use emotion-focused coping in actual situation. Results of FGD identified the factors that contribute to the incongruence or mismatch in their preferred style of coping and actual efforts to cope. Identified factors based on thematic analysis (TA) are clustered into themes such as affectivity and rehearsal of the preferred coping responses, sensitivity to pressure impairs coping efficacy, seeking for social acceptance and approval, indefinite appraisal of perceived stress, emotional dysregulation, and impulsivity, immediate desire to terminate negative emotion and adversity. Most of the factors somewhat provide partial elucidation on the engagement of the respondents on emotion-focused coping.

Keywords: coping responses subtypes, appraisal, teacher stress, ideal and actual coping

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708 A Straightforward Approach for Determining the Weights of Decision Makers Based on Angle Cosine and Projection Method

Authors: Qiang Yang, Ping-An Du


Group decision making with multiple attribute has attracted intensive concern in the decision analysis area. This paper assumes that the contributions of all the decision makers (DMs) are not equal to the decision process based on different knowledge and experience in group setting. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel approach to determine weights of DMs in the group decision making problems. In this paper, the weights of DMs are determined in the group decision environment via angle cosine and projection method. First of all, the average decision of all individual decisions is defined as the ideal decision. After that, we define the weight of each decision maker (DM) by aggregating the angle cosine and projection between individual decision and ideal decision with associated direction indicator μ. By using the weights of DMs, all individual decisions are aggregated into a collective decision. Further, the preference order of alternatives is ranked in accordance with the overall row value of collective decision. Finally, an example in a chemical company is provided to illustrate the developed approach.

Keywords: angel cosine, ideal decision, projection method, weights of decision makers

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707 The Lexical Eidos as an Invariant of a Polysemantic Word

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak


Phenomenological analysis is not based on natural language, but ideal language which is able to be a carrier of ideal meanings – eidos representing typical structures or essences. For this purpose, it’s necessary to release from the spatio-temporal definiteness of a subject and then state its noetic essence (eidos) by means of free fantasy generation. Herewith, as if a totally new objectness is created - the universal, confirming the thesis that thinking process takes place in generalizations passing by numerous means through the specific to the general and from the general through the specific to the singular.

Keywords: lexical eidos, phenomenology, noema, polysemantic word, semantic core

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706 Mixed Micellization Study of Adiphenine Hydrochloride with 1-Decyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

Authors: Abbul B. Khan, Neeraj Dohare, Rajan Patel


The mixed micellization of adiphenine hydrochloride (ADP) with 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C10mim.Cl), was investigated at different mole fractions and temperatures by surface tension measurements. The synergistic behavior (i.e., non-ideal behavior) for binary mixtures was explained by the deviation of critical micelle concentration (cmc) from ideal critical micelle concentration (cmc*), micellar mole fraction (Xim) from ideal micellar mole fraction (Xiideal), the values of interaction parameter (β) and activity coefficients (fi) (for both mixed micelles and mixed monolayer). The excess free energy (∆Gex) for the ADP- C10mim.Cl binary mixtures explain the stability of mixed micelles in comparison to micelles of pure ADP and C10mim.Cl. Interfacial parameters, i.e., Gibbs surface excess (Гmax), minimum head group area at air/ water interface (Amin), and free energy of micellization (ΔG0m) were also evaluated for the systems.

Keywords: adiphenine hydrochloride, critical micelle concentration, interaction parameter, activity coefficient

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705 A Study of Closed Sets and Maps with Ideals

Authors: Asha Gupta, Ramandeep Kaur


The purpose of this paper is to study a class of closed sets, called generalized pre-closed sets with respect to an ideal (briefly Igp-closed sets), which is an extension of generalized pre-closed sets in general topology. Then, by using these sets, the concepts of Igp- compact spaces along with some classes of maps like continuous and closed maps via ideals have been introduced and analogues of some known results for compact spaces, continuous maps and closed maps in general topology have been obtained.

Keywords: ideal, gp-closed sets, gp-closed maps, gp-continuous maps

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704 Union-Primes and Immediate Neighbors

Authors: Shai Sarussi


The union of a nonempty chain of prime ideals in a noncommutative ring is not necessarily a prime ideal. An ideal is called union-prime if it is a union of a nonempty chain of prime ideals but is not a prime. In this paper, some relations between chains of prime ideals and the induced chains of union-prime ideals are shown; in particular, the cardinality of such chains and the cardinality of the sets of cuts of such chains are discussed. For a ring R and a nonempty full chain of prime ideals C of R, several characterizations for the property of immediate neighbors in C are given.

Keywords: prime ideals, union-prime ideals, immediate neighbors, Kaplansky's conjecture

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703 Breastfeeding Experiences of Nutritionist who are Mothers in Quito- Ecuador

Authors: Maria Jose Mendoza Gordillo


Introduction: Research regarding breastfeeding is devoted to how essential breastfeeding is to guarantee wellbeing for the mother and the baby from a medical standpoint relegating the cultural, material and social barriers for breastfeeding. Consequently, worldwide breastfeeding rates are low, and Ecuador is not the exception, especially among working mothers. Worldwide, health care providers have low rates of breastfeeding due to several barriers to lactation, such as the work schedule, a lack of private places for pumping while at work, and negative emotions. Goals and Methods: This study aimed to explore how do Ecuadorian women embrace their identities as nutritionists and mothers within their breastfeeding experience. The primary data come from 20 synchronous semi-structured interviews, which follow a topic guide. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data analysis followed the Phronetic Iterative Approach. Results: Women shifted the preconceived idea of the ideal breastfeeding that came from the medicalized discourse of breastfeeding, and that was constructed in their training as nutritionists. Although these women believe that breast milk and breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby, the internalized ideal of breastfeeding shifted through the experience of motherhood. When these women developed their identity as mothers, they understood that the ideal breastfeeding is different from the medicalized discourse. Although they have that clash between the ideal and the external reality, they continued breastfeeding their babies and those experiences made them improve their professional practice. Conclusions: The narratives that women shared illustrate how complex it was to manage the different roles and identities that they wanted to fulfill to keep their identity of a good mother who breastfeeds her baby and, at the same time, a good healthcare provider identity. The process of breastfeeding for this group of women who are mothers and healthcare professionals appears to be a unique relational and identity negotiation process.

Keywords: breastfeeding, identity, nutritionist, qualitative

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702 Analysis of the Current and Ideal Situation of Iran’s Football Talent Management Process from the Perspective of the Elites

Authors: Mehran Nasiri, Ardeshir Poornemat


The aim of this study was to investigate the current and ideal situations of the process of talent identification in Iranian football from the point of view of Iranian instructors of the Asian Football Confederation (AFC). This research was a descriptive-analytical study; in data collection phase a questionnaire was used, whose face validity was confirmed by experts of Physical Education and Sports Science. The reliability of questionnaire was estimated through the use of Cronbach's alpha method (0.91). This study involved 122 participants of Iranian instructors of the AFC who were selected based on stratified random sampling method. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the variables and inferential statistics (Chi-square) were used to test the hypotheses of the study at significant level (p ≤ 0.05). The results of Chi-square test related to the point of view of Iranian instructors of the AFC showed that the grass-roots scientific method was the best way to identify football players (0.001), less than 10 years old were the best ages for talent identification (0.001), the Football Federation was revealed to be the most important organization in talent identification (0.002), clubs were shown to be the most important institution in developing talents (0.001), trained scouts of Football Federation were demonstrated to be the best and most appropriate group for talent identification (0.001), and being referred by the football academy coaches was shown to be the best way to attract talented football players in Iran (0.001). It was also found that there was a huge difference between the current and ideal situation of the process of talent identification in Iranian football from the point of view of Iranian instructors of the AFC. Hence, it is recommended that the policy makers of talent identification for Iranian football provide a comprehensive, clear and systematic model of talent identification and development processes for the clubs and football teams, so that the talent identification process helps to nurture football talents more efficiently.

Keywords: current situation, talent finding, ideal situation, instructors (AFC)

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701 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Kriging Surrogates and Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee


Surrogate model has received increasing attention for use in detecting damage of structures based on vibration modal parameters. However, uncertainties existing in the measured vibration data may lead to false or unreliable output result from such model. In this study, an efficient approach based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to take into account the effect of uncertainties in developing a surrogate model. The probability of damage existence (PDE) is calculated based on the probability density function of the existence of undamaged and damaged states. The kriging technique allows one to genuinely quantify the surrogate error, therefore it is chosen as metamodeling technique. Enhanced version of ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) algorithm is used as main algorithm for model updating. The developed approach is applied to detect simulated damage in numerical models of 72-bar space truss and 120-bar dome truss. The simulation results show the proposed method can perform well in probability-based damage detection of structures with less computational effort compared to direct finite element model.

Keywords: probability-based damage detection (PBDD), Kriging, surrogate modeling, uncertainty quantification, artificial intelligence, enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM)

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700 An Integrated Fuzzy Inference System and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution Approach for Evaluation of Lean Healthcare Systems

Authors: Aydin M. Torkabadi, Ehsan Pourjavad


A decade after the introduction of Lean in Saskatchewan’s public healthcare system, its effectiveness remains a controversial subject among health researchers, workers, managers, and politicians. Therefore, developing a framework to quantitatively assess the Lean achievements is significant. This study investigates the success of initiatives across Saskatchewan health regions by recognizing the Lean healthcare criteria, measuring the success levels, comparing the regions, and identifying the areas for improvements. This study proposes an integrated intelligent computing approach by applying Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). FIS is used as an efficient approach to assess the Lean healthcare criteria, and TOPSIS is applied for ranking the values in regards to the level of leanness. Due to the innate uncertainty in decision maker judgments on criteria, principals of the fuzzy theory are applied. Finally, FIS-TOPSIS was established as an efficient technique in determining the lean merit in healthcare systems.

Keywords: lean healthcare, intelligent computing, fuzzy inference system, healthcare evaluation, technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, multi-criteria decision making, MCDM

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699 The Effect of Particle Porosity in Mixed Matrix Membrane Permeation Models

Authors: Z. Sadeghi, M. R. Omidkhah, M. E. Masoomi


The purpose of this paper is to examine gas transport behavior of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) combined with porous particles. Main existing models are categorized in two main groups; two-phase (ideal contact) and three-phase (non-ideal contact). A new coefficient, J, was obtained to express equations for estimating effect of the particle porosity in two-phase and three-phase models. Modified models evaluates with existing models and experimental data using Matlab software. Comparison of gas permeability of proposed modified models with existing models in different MMMs shows a better prediction of gas permeability in MMMs.

Keywords: mixed matrix membrane, permeation models, porous particles, porosity

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698 Key Performance Indicators and the Model for Achieving Digital Inclusion for Smart Cities

Authors: Khalid Obaed Mahmod, Mesut Cevik


The term smart city has recently appeared with many concepts and definitions, but as a clear and simple definition, it can be said that a smart city is a geographical location that has gained efficiency and flexibility in providing public services to citizens through the use of technological and communication technologies, where smart cities connect the various components of the city through major networks. And subsidiary in addition to a set of applications, thus being able to collect data and provide technological solutions to manage resources and provide services. The basis of the work of the smart city is the use of artificial intelligence and Internet of Things technology. The work presents the concept of smart cities, the pillars, criteria, and evaluation indicators on which smart cities depend, and the reasons that prompted the world to move towards its establishment. It also provides a simplified hypothetical way to measure the ideal smart city model by identifying some indicators and key pillars and testing them to determine whether the city can be considered an ideal smart city.

Keywords: smart city, factors, indicators, logic gates, pillars

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697 Gluteal Augmentation: A Historical Perspective on Society's Fascination with Buttock Size

Authors: Shane R. Jackson


Gluteal augmentation with fat grafting, commonly referred to as the Brazilian Butt Lift, is the fastest-growing cosmetic surgical procedure, despite the risks and controversy that surrounds it. While many commentators attribute this rise in popularity with current societal trends towards public sharing of private life, the fascination with buttock size is in fact a much older human trait. By searching beyond medical literature and delving into historical sources, from ancient civilisations, through the Renaissance and Victorian eras to the ‘Instagram generation’ of the present day, this paper examines the differences – and similarities – in society’s ideal buttock shape and size. Furthermore, the ways in which these various cultures have altered their appearance to achieve this ideal are also examined, looking at the influence of the broader historical context. A deeper understanding of the historical, cultural and psychosocial factors that influence a patient’s desire for buttock augmentation allows the clinician to formulate a well-rounded surgical plan.

Keywords: augmentation, Brazilian butt lift, buttock, fat graft, gluteal

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696 Ideal School of the Future from the Parents´ View: Quantitative Research of Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Králové

Authors: Yveta Pohnětalová


The topic of possible forms of future schools according to rapid changes of life in the 21st century has become to reach several economic and social prognoses. In our research, we have tried to find out what the future school form is according to pupils’ parent’s view. School is a part of life of each person and based on own experience there is a certain individual picture created about a possible look of future education. The aim of our quantitative research was to find out how parents of first grade primary school pupils see the ideal school of the future. The quantitative research realized at the Faculty of Education of the University of Hradec Králové (Czech Republic). By statistical analysis of gained data from 120 respondents, there have been several views of schools of future identified in terms of mission and also the way of education. But a common indicator according to addressed parents would be more focused on the overall personality development rather than the field practice which is related to a realistic idea that school of the future is not and will not be the only source of education.

Keywords: parents’ approach, school of the future, survey, ways of education

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695 Fractional-Order PI Controller Tuning Rules for Cascade Control System

Authors: Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Hieu Giang, Le Linh


The fractional–order proportional integral (FOPI) controller tuning rules based on the fractional calculus for the cascade control system are systematically proposed in this paper. Accordingly, the ideal controller is obtained by using internal model control (IMC) approach for both the inner and outer loops, which gives the desired closed-loop responses. On the basis of the fractional calculus, the analytical tuning rules of FOPI controller for the inner loop can be established in the frequency domain. Besides, the outer loop is tuned by using any integer PI/PID controller tuning rules in the literature. The simulation study is considered for the stable process model and the results demonstrate the simplicity, flexibility, and effectiveness of the proposed method for the cascade control system in compared with the other methods.

Keywords: Bode’s ideal transfer function, fractional calculus, fractional–order proportional integral (FOPI) controller, cascade control system

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694 GIS Model for Sanitary Landfill Site Selection Based on Geotechnical Parameters

Authors: Hecson Christian, Joel Macwan


Landfill site selection in an urban area is a critical issue in the planning process. With the growth of the urbanization, it has a mammoth impact on the economy, ecology, and environmental health of the region. Outsized amount of wastes are produced and the problem gets soared every day. Hence, selection of ideal site for sanitary landfill is a challenge for urban planners and solid waste managers. Disposal site is a function of many parameters. Among all, Geotechnical parameters are very vital as the same is related to surrounding open land. Moreover, the accessible safe and acceptable land is also scarce. Therefore, in this paper geotechnical parameters are used to develop a GIS model to identify an ideal location for landfill purpose. Metropolitan city of Surat is highly populated and fastest growing urban area in India. The research objectives are to conduct field experiments to collect data and to transfer the facts in GIS platform to evolve a model, to find ideal location. Planners’ preferences were obtained to use analytical hierarchical process (AHP) to find weights of each parameter. Integration of GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques are applied to improve decision-making. It augments an environment for transformation and combination of geographical data and planners’ preferences. GIS performs deterministic overlay and buffer operations. MCDA methods evaluate alternatives based on the decision makers’ subjective values and priorities. Research results have shown many alternative locations. Economic analysis of selected site from actual operations point of view is not included in this research.

Keywords: GIS, AHP, MCDA, Geo-technical

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693 BER of the Leaky Feeder under Rayleigh Fading Multichannel Reception with Imperfect Phase Estimation

Authors: Hasan Farahneh, Xavier Fernando


Leaky Feeder (LF) has been a proven technology for many decades and its promises broadband wireless access in short range but being overlooked until now. The LF is a natural MIMO transceiver ideal for micro and pico cells. In this work, the LF is considered as a linear antenna array MultiInput-Single-Output (MISO) and derive the average bit error rate (BER) in Rayleigh fading channel considering ideal and independent paths (iid) which consider there is no correlation and mutual coupling between transmit antennas (slots) or receiver antenna considering QPSK modulation with imperfect phase estimation. We consider maximal ratio transmission (MRT) at the transmit end and maximal ratio combining (MRC) at the receiving end. Analytical expressions are derived for the BER with radiating cable transmitters. The effects of slot spacing and carrier frequency on the BER are also studied. Numerical evaluations show the radiating cable transmitter offer much lower BER than a single antenna transmitter with same SNR.

Keywords: leaky feeder, BER, QPSK, rayleigh fading, channel gain, phase mismatch

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