Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 154

Search results for: Punjab

154 Study of Radiological and Chemical Effects of Uranium in Ground Water of SW and NE Punjab, India

Authors: Komal Saini, S. K. Sahoo, B. S. Bajwa

Abstract:

The Laser Fluorimetery Technique has been used for the microanalysis of uranium content in water samples collected from different sources like the hand pumps, tube wells in the drinking water samples of SW & NE Punjab, India. The geographic location of the study region in NE Punjab is between latitude 31.21º- 32.05º N and longitude 75.60º-76.14º E and for SW Punjab is between latitude 29.66º-30.48º N and longitude 74.69º-75.54º E. The purpose of this study was mainly to investigate the uranium concentration levels of ground water being used for drinking purposes and to determine its health effects, if any, to the local population of these regions. In the present study 131 samples of drinking water collected from different villages of SW and 95 samples from NE, Punjab state, India have been analyzed for chemical and radiological toxicity. In the present investigation, uranium content in water samples of SW Punjab ranges from 0.13 to 908 μgL−1 with an average of 82.1 μgL−1 whereas in samples collected from NE- Punjab, it ranges from 0 to 28.2 μgL−1 with an average of 4.84 μgL−1. Thus, revealing that in the SW- Punjab 54 % of drinking water samples have uranium concentration higher than international recommended limit of 30 µgl-1 (WHO, 2011) while 35 % of samples exceeds the threshold of 60 µgl-1 recommended by our national regulatory authority of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), Department of Atomic Energy, India, 2004. On the other hand in the NE-Punjab region, none of the observed water sample has uranium content above the national/international recommendations. The observed radiological risk in terms of excess cancer risk ranges from 3.64x10-7 to 2.54x10-3 for SW-Punjab, whereas for NE region it ranges from 0 to 7.89x10-5. The chemical toxic effect in terms of Life-time average Daily Dose (LDD) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) have also been calculated. The LDD for SW-Punjab varies from 0.0098 to 68.46 with an average of 6.18 µg/ kg/day whereas for NE region it varies from 0 to 2.13 with average 0.365 µg/ kg/day, thus indicating presence of chemical toxicity in SW Punjab as 35% of the observed samples in the SW Punjab are above the recommendation limit of 4.53 µg/ kg/day given by AERB for 60 µgl-1 of uranium. Maximum & Minimum values for hazard quotient for SW Punjab is 0.002 & 15.11 with average 1.36 which is considerably high as compared to safe limit i.e. 1. But for NE Punjab HQ varies from 0 to 0.47. The possible sources of high uranium observed in the SW- Punjab will also be discussed.

Keywords: uranium, groundwater, radiological and chemical toxicity, Punjab, India

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153 A New Genus Longicheles (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae) for Pakistan Fauna from Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

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Macrochelid mites are poorly studied from the planes of Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted as a part of PhD thesis research partially funded by the Royal Society of Entomology, UK. The genus Longicheles was first time reported from the Pakistan. Samples were collected on the monthly basis from different districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. The genus Longicheles was frequently found from five districts (Faisalabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Jhung, Layyah, and Rajanpur) of Punjab province. Taxonomic studies were performed in Acarology Lab., Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad with slide deposition. Taxonomic work was performed by using Phase contrast microscope and adobe illustrator (drawings) for finishing of picture. The detail descriptions of two (Longicheles mandibularis and Longicheles hortorum) females are given along with diagrams and key.

Keywords: macrochelidae, longicheles, new records, Punjab

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
152 Occurrence and Spatial Distribution of Pesticide Residues in Butter and Ghee (Clarified Butter Fat) in Punjab (India)

Authors: J. S. Bedi, J. P. S. Gill, R. S. Aulakh, Prabhjit Kaur

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The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter and ghee samples collected from six different districts of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both SIM and Scan mode. Results indicated the presence of HCH and pp DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee even after their ban/restriction on usage in India. Residues of HCH were detected in 25.5 and 23.2 % samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of pp DDE were recorded in 29.3 and 25.0 % butter and ghee samples, respectively. More importantly, the presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos was observed in few butter and ghee samples indicating the serious concerns. The spatial variation of pesticide residues occurrence indicated the cotton belt of Punjab as most affected.

Keywords: butter, ghee, pesticides residues, Punjab

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151 Information Literacy among Faculty and Students of Medical Colleges of Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh

Authors: Sanjeev Sharma, Suman Lata

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With the availability of diverse printed, electronic literature and web sites on medical and health related information, it is impossible for the medical professional to get the information he seeks in the shortest possible time. For all these problems information literacy is the only solution. Thus, information literacy is recognized as an important aspect of medical education. In the present study, an attempt has been made to know the information literacy skills of the faculty and students at medical colleges of Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. The scope of the study was confined to the 12 selected medical colleges of three States (Haryana, Punjab, and Chandigarh). The findings of the study were based on the data collected through 1018 questionnaires filled by the respondents of the medical colleges. It was found that Online Medical Websites (such as WebMD, eMedicine and Mayo Clinic etc.) were frequently used by 63.43% of the respondents of Chandigarh which is slightly more than Haryana (61%) and Punjab (55.65%). As well, 30.86% of the respondents of Chandigarh, 27.41% of Haryana and 27.05% of Punjab were familiar with the controlled vocabulary tool; 25.14% respondents of Chandigarh, 23.80% of Punjab, 23.17% of Haryana were familiar with the Boolean operators; 33.05% of the respondents of Punjab, 28.19% of Haryana and 25.14% of Chandigarh were familiar with the use and importance of the keywords while searching an electronic database; and 51.43% of the respondents of Chandigarh, 44.52% of Punjab and 36.29% of Haryana were able to make effective use of the retrieved information. For accessing information in electronic format, 47.74% of the respondents rated their skills high, while the majority of respondents (76.13%) were unfamiliar with the basic search technique i.e. Boolean operator used for searching information in an online database. On the basis of the findings, it was suggested that a comprehensive training program based on medical professionals information needs should be organized frequently. Furthermore, it was also suggested that information literacy may be included as a subject in the health science curriculum so as to make the medical professionals information literate and independent lifelong learners.

Keywords: information, information literacy, medical professionals, medical colleges

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150 Effect of Islamic Finance on Jobs Generation in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: B. Ashraf, A. M. Malik

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The study was accomplished at the Department of Economics and Agriculture Economics, Pir Mahar Ali Shah ARID Agriculture University, Punjab, Pakistan during 2013-16 with a purpose to discover the effect of Islamic finance/banking on employment in Punjab, Pakistan. Islamic banking system is sub-component of conventional banking system in various countries of the world; however, in Pakistan, it has been established as a separate Islamic banking system. The Islamic banking operates under the doctrine of Shariah. It is claimed that the referred banking is free of interest (Riba) and addresses the philosophy and basic values of Islam in finance that reduces the factors of uncertainty, risk and others speculative activities. Two Islamic bank’s; Meezan Bank Limited (Pakistan) and Al-Baraka Bank Limited (Pakistan) from North Punjab (Bahawalnagar) and central Punjab (Lahore) west Punjab (Gujrat), Pakistan were randomly selected for the conduct of research. A total of 206 samples were collected from the define areas and banks through questionnaire. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Multiple linear regressions were applied to prove the hypothesis. The results revealed that the assets formation had significant positive; whereas, the technology, length of business (experience) and bossiness size had significant negative impact with employment generation in Islamic finance/banking in Punjab, Pakistan. This concludes that the employment opportunities may be created in the country by extending the finance to business/firms to start new business and increase the Public awareness by the Islamic banks through intensive publicity. However; Islamic financial institutions may be encouraged by Government as it enhances the employment in the country.

Keywords: assets formation, borrowers, employment generation, Islamic banks, Islamic finance

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
149 Resource Assessment of Animal Dung for Power Generation: A Case Study

Authors: Gagandeep Kaur, Yadwinder Singh Brar, D. P. Kothari

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The paper has an aggregate analysis of animal dung for converting it into renewable biomass fuel source that could be used to help the Indian state Punjab to meet rising power demand. In Punjab district Bathinda produces over 4567 tonnes of animal dung daily on a renewable basis. The biogas energy potential has been calculated using values for the daily per head animal dung production and total no. of large animals in Bathinda of Punjab. The 379540 no. of animals in district could produce nearly 116918 m3 /day of biogas as renewable energy. By converting this biogas into electric energy could produce 89.8 Gwh energy annually.

Keywords: livestock, animal dung, biogas, renewable energy

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148 Spatio- Temporal Gender Based Patterns of Lung Cancer in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, 2008-2012

Authors: Rubab Z. Kahlon, Ibtisam Butt, Isma Younis, Aamer G. Mufti

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Worldwide lung cancer 1.61 million cases were seen in both genders. Lung carcinoma is the major cause of both morbidity and mortality in the world. Purpose of the present study was to describe the spatio- temporal trends of lung cancer in both genders. A retrospective study was conducted. Total 1498 patients of lung carcinoma were examined. Only lung cancer patients from all over the Punjab were included in the present study. MS Excel 2010 was used for data tabulation and calculation while the Arc GIS version 9.3 was used for geographical representation of the data. 1498 cases of Lung cancer were found from 2008-2012. The number of male patients was 1236 and female was 262. Majority of the patients were from Lahore districts with 807 patients. Lung cancer was more prevalent in male as compared to female in our region. Increase in the prevalence of lung cancer was prominently seen in the most populated and industrial areas of the Punjab province. Time trend of five years showed fluctuation in the lung cancer incidence during the study period.

Keywords: districts, gender, lung cancer trends, Punjab province of Pakistan

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147 Farmers' Perspective on Soil Health in the Indian Punjab: A Quantitative Analysis of Major Soil Parameters

Authors: Sukhwinder Singh, Julian Park, Dinesh Kumar Benbi

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Although soil health, which is recognized as one of the key determinants of sustainable agricultural development, can be measured by a range of physical, chemical and biological parameters, the widely used parameters include pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), plant available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soil health is largely affected by the occurrence of natural events or human activities and can be improved by various land management practices. A database of 120 soil samples collected from farmers’ fields spread across three major agro-climatic zones of Punjab suggested that the average pH, EC, OC, P and K was 8.2 (SD = 0.75, Min = 5.5, Max = 9.1), 0.27 dS/m (SD = 0.17, Min = 0.072 dS/m, Max = 1.22 dS/m), 0.49% (SD = 0.20, Min = 0.06%, Max = 1.2%), 19 mg/kg soil (SD = 22.07, Min = 3 mg/kg soil, Max = 207 mg/kg soil) and 171 mg/kg soil (SD = 47.57, Min = 54 mg/kg soil, Max = 288 mg/kg soil), respectively. Region-wise, pH, EC and K were the highest in south-western district of Ferozpur whereas farmers in north-eastern district of Gurdaspur had the best soils in terms of OC and P. The soils in the central district of Barnala had lower OC, P and K than the respective overall averages while its soils were normal but skewed towards alkalinity. Besides agro-climatic conditions, the size of landholding and farmer education showed a significant association with Soil Fertility Index (SFI), a composite index calculated using the aforementioned parameters’ normalized weightage. All the four stakeholder groups cited the current cropping patterns, burning of rice crop residue, and imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers for change in soil health. However, the current state of soil health in Punjab is unclear, which needs further investigation based on temporal data collected from the same field to see the short and long-term impacts of various crop combinations and varied cropping intensity levels on soil health.

Keywords: soil health, punjab agriculture, sustainability, soil fertility index

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146 Exploring Causes of Irregular Migration: Evidence from Rural Punjab, India

Authors: Kulwinder Singh

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Punjab is one of the major labour exporting states of India. Every year more than 20,000 youths from Punjab attempt irregular migration. About 84 irregular migrants are from rural areas and 16 per cent from urban areas. Irregular migration could only be achieved if be organized through highly efficient international networks with the countries of origin, transit, and destination. A good number of Punjabis continue to immigrate into the UK for work through unauthorized means entering the country on visit visas and overstaying or getting ‘smuggled into’ the country with the help of transnational networks of agents. Although, the efforts are being made by the government to curb irregular migration through The Punjab Prevention of Human Smuggling Rules (2012, 2014) and Punjab Travel Regulation Act (2012), but yet it exists parallel to regular migration. Despite unprecedented miseries of irregular migrants and strict laws implemented by the state government to check this phenomenon, ‘why do Punjabis migrate abroad irregularly’ is the important question to answer. This study addresses this question through the comparison of irregular migration with regular one. In other words, this analysis reveals major causes, specifically economic ones, of irregular migration from rural Punjab. This study is unique by presenting economics of irregular migration, given previous studies emphasize the role of sociological and psychological factors. Addressing important question “why do Punjabis migrate abroad irregularly?”, the present study reveals that Punjabi, being far-sighted, endeavor irregular migration as it is, though, economically nonviable in short run, but offers lucrative economic gains as gets older. Despite its considerably higher cost viz-a-viz regular migration, it is the better employment option to irregular migrants with higher permanent income than local low paid jobs for which risking life has become the mindset of the rural Punjabis. Although, it carries considerably lower economic benefits as compared to regular migration, but provides the opportunity of migrating abroad to less educated, semi-skilled and language-test ineligible Punjabis who cannot migrate through regular channels. As its positive impacts on source and destination countries are evident, it might not be restricted, rather its effective management, through liberalising restrictive migration policies by destination nations, can protect the interests of all involved stakeholders.

Keywords: cost, migration, income, irregular, regular, remittances

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145 Relationship between Quality Education and Organizational Culture at College Level in Punjab

Authors: Anam Noshaba, Mahr Muhammad Saeed Akhtar

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The aim of this study was to find out the relationship between quality education and organizational culture. The population of this study was all the teachers of Public Degree Colleges located in Punjab. A sample of 400 teachers was selected by using a simple random sampling technique. Quality Education Assessment Questionnaire (QEAQ) and Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) were used for data collection. Out of all, 90% of teachers responded. Findings showed that quality education and organizational culture are positively correlated. Results indicated that there is no difference in quality education and organizational culture by demographic variables of teachers. Future research is needed to study the viewpoint of other stakeholders of education regarding quality education and organizational culture.

Keywords: quality education, minimum quality standards, organizational culture, college level

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144 Education Levels & University Student’s Income: Primary Data Analysis from the Universities of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Ashraf

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It is experimentally conceded reality that education not just promotes social and intellectual abilities yet, in addition, the incomes of people. The present study is directed to investigate the connection between education level and student income. Data of different education levels is acquired from 300 students through field review from four public sector Universities; two from upper Punjab (University of Gujarat and Government college university-Lahore) and two from lower Punjab (Islamia University-Bahawalpur and The University of Sahiwal). Two-phase estimation is based on the Mincerian human capital model. The first stage presents statistical/descriptive investigation, which shows positive linkage among higher education and income of the students. Econometric estimation is estimated in the second stage by applying Ordinary least Square Method (OLS). Econometric examination reaffirms the importance of higher education as the impact of higher education on students’ incomes accelerates as we move from lower-level education to higher-level education. Educational levels, experience, and working hours are sure and noteworthy with student’s income. Econometric estimation additionally investigated that M. Phil and Ph.D. students have a higher income than bachelor students. Concerning the students, the income profile study commended that the Government ought to give part-time jobs or internships to students as indicated to labor market demand.

Keywords: education, student’s income, experience, universities

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143 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in North-West Region of Punjab, India

Authors: Jeevan Jyoti Mohindroo, Umesh Kumar Garg

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The district of Tarntaran is located25 km south of Amritsar city in Punjab State of Northwestern India. It is 5059 Sq. Km in area. It is surrounded by Amritsar in the North, Kapurthala in the East, and Ferozepur in the South and Pakistan in the West. Patti Town is a municipal council of the Tarntaran district of the Indian state of Punjab, located 45 km from Amritsar its geographical coordinates are 310 16' 51" north to 740 51' 25" East Longitude. The town spreads over an area of 50sq. Km. Moisture content is very less in the air, falling within the semiarid region and frequently facing water scarcity as well as water quality problems. The major sources of employment are agriculture, horticulture and animal husbandry engaging almost 80% of the workforce. Water samples are collected from 400 locations in 20 villages on the Patti –Khem Karan highway with 20 samples from each village, and were subjected to analysis of chemical characteristics. The type of water that predominates in the study area is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, based on hydro-chemical analysis. Besides, suitability of water for irrigation is evaluated based on the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent and salinity hazard. Other Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductance, etc. were also determined using a water analysis kit. Analysis of water samples for heavy metal analysis was also carried out in the present study.

Keywords: groundwater, chemical classification, SAR, RSC, USSL diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
142 Effect of Different Spacings on Growth Yield and Fruit Quality of Peach in the Sub-Tropics of India

Authors: Harminder Singh, Rupinder Kaur

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Peach is primarily a temperate fruit, but its low chilling cultivars are grown quite successfully in the sub-tropical climate as well. The area under peach cultivation is picking up rapidly in the sub tropics of northern India due to higher return on a unit area basis, availability of suitable peach cultivar and their production technology. Information on the use of different training systems on peach in the sub tropics is inadequate. In this investigation, conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India, the trees of the Shan-i-Punjab peach were planted at four different spacings i.e. 6.0x3.0m, 6.0x2.5m, 4.5x3.0m and 4.5x2.5m and were trained to central leader system. The total radiation interception and penetration in the upper and lower canopy parts were higher in 6x3.0m and 6x2.5m planted trees as compared to other spacings. Average radiation interception was maximum in the upper part of the tree canopy, and it decreased significantly with the depth of the canopy in all the spacings. Tree planted at wider spacings produced more vegetative (tree height, tree girth, tree spread and canopy volume) and reproductive growth (flower bud density, number of fruits and fruit yield) per tree but productivity was maximum in the closely planted trees. Fruits harvested from the wider spaced trees were superior in fruit quality (size, weight, colour, TSS and acidity) and matured earlier than those harvested from closed spaced trees.

Keywords: quality, radiation, spacings, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
141 Varietal Screening of Advance Wheat Genotypes against Wheat Aphids

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar, Haseeb Jan, Muhammad Latif, Ali Aziz, Ali Akash, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Naveed Akhtar

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Wheat (Triticum aestivium) is main staple food crop of Pakistan. This crop is highly infested with aphids which cause the loss of yield. A study was carried out at Entomological Research Institute of Ayub Agriculture Research Institute Faisalabad during 2015-16. Eleven wheat genotypes (FSD- 08, v-11098, NIBGE gandum-3, shafaq 2006, v-13372, Punjab-2011, v-12304, 11C023, v-13005, v-13016, v-12120) were sown using the Randomized Complete Block Design in the research area of Entomological Research Institute Faisalabad during the year 2015-16. The aphid infestation per tiller on each genotype was observed from the first week of January till the third week of March maximum. The results reveal that shafaq 2006 and V-12120 were found more susceptible with 10.22 and 9.90 aphids per tiller and minimum infestation was observed on the Punjab-2011 and 11C023 i.e., 5.72 and 5.99 aphid per tiller respectively. When the peak season observations were analyzed, slight changes occur in the peak population of aphid among all wheat genotypes. The most susceptible genotypes were Shafaq 2006 and V-12304 with 18.63 and 18.23 aphids per tiller while the wheat genotypes 11C023 and Punjab 2011 received minimum aphid population which was 9.99 and 10.47 aphids per tiller and they considered more tolerant.

Keywords: Triticum aestivium, Schizaphis graminum, population, resistance

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140 Psychological and Emotional Functioning of Elderly in Pakistan a Comparison in Punjab and Gilgit-Baltistan

Authors: Najma Najam, Rukhsana Kausar, Rabia Hussain Kanwal, Saira Batool, Anum Javed

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In Pakistan, elderly population though increasing but it has been neglected by the researchers and policy makers which resulted in compromised quality of life of the ageing population. Two regions, Punjab and Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) were selected for comparison as Lahore and Multan (Punjab) are highly urbanized, large cities whereas Gilgit and Skardu are remote and mountain bounded valleys in GB. This study focuses on psychological and emotional functioning of elderly and a series of measures translated and adapted in Urdu language was used to assess quality of life, psychological and mental well-being, actual and perceived social support, attachment patterns, forgiveness, affects, geriatric depression, and emotional disturbance patterns (depression, anxiety, and stress) in elderly. A gender-equated sample of 201 elderly participants, 93 from GB (60 from Gilgit, 33 from Skardu) and 108 from Punjab (61 from Lahore, 47 from Multan) with over 60 years age was collected from the multiethnic community of Punjab and GB through purposive convenient sampling technique. Findings revealed that elderly from Multan have better psychological and emotional functioning, higher levels of social support, tendency to forgive, better mental wellbeing and quality of life and lower levels of stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and attachment avoidance and anxiety related to partner as compared to the elderly from Lahore. Furthermore, both elderly male of Gilgit & Skardu have adequate mental well-being including subjective well-being and psychological functioning which showed positive aspects of mental health but elderly female are more attached to their home and neighbourhood which shows their social and environmental mastery. Gilgiti elderly male reported more degree of positive affect such as enthusiasm, active, alertness, excitement and strong whereas among elderly from Skardu shows more negative affect i.e. aversive mood states, irritability, hostility, and general distress. The need of psychosocial therapy and family counseling for the elderly in urban areas has been identified, which can facilitate in reducing or preventing the depressive and stressful tendencies. The findings are expected to have implications for improving quality of life of the elderly, designing interventions, support system and rehabilitation services to help them. However, findings may attract attention of policy makers and researchers as currently this is the most neglected population in Pakistan.

Keywords: psychological, emotional, aging, elderly, quality of life

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139 Poultry Manure-Inhabiting Mite Fauna from Punjab Province, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

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Household poultry, including chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese, are affected by parasitic lice and mites. The dermanyssid mites (Acari: Dermanyssidae) are the most important parasites of poultry because they act as vectors of many pathogens of poultry and workers. Mesostigmatic mite fauna was poorly identified from Pakistan, only one species was reported before in 1971. Surveys were conducted in 2014 - 2015 to investigate the mite fauna from poultry cages in seven locations in Punjab Province, Turkey. A total of seventy-one samples were collected on cardboard and by direct litter collection. Mites were collected directly from the cardboard and 100 g samples of the litter were processed through a Berlese funnel. The collected mites were prepared for identification by using Hoyer’s medium. A total of twenty-two species belonging to the Dermanyssidae, Parasitidae, Cheyletidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae and Uropodidae were identified with two new species.

Keywords: poultry cages, Acari, mesostigmatic mites, Pakistan

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138 Implications of Agricultural Subsidies Since Green Revolution: A Case Study of Indian Punjab

Authors: Kriti Jain, Sucha Singh Gill

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Subsidies have been a major part of agricultural policies around the world, and more extensively since the green revolution in developing countries, for the sake of attaining higher agricultural productivity and achieving food security. But entrenched subsidies lead to distorted incentives and promote inefficiencies in the agricultural sector, threatening the viability of these very subsidies and sustainability of the agricultural production systems, posing a threat to the livelihood of farmers and laborers dependent on it. This paper analyzes the economic and ecological sustainability implications of prolonged input and output subsidies in agriculture by studying the case of Indian Punjab, an agriculturally developed state responsible for ensuring food security in the country when it was facing a major food crisis. The paper focuses specifically on the environmentally unsustainable cropping pattern changes as a result of Minimum Support Price (MSP) and assured procurement and on the resource use efficiency and cost implications of power subsidy for irrigation in Punjab. The study is based on an analysis of both secondary and primary data sources. Using secondary data, a time series analysis was done to capture the changes in Punjab’s cropping pattern, water table depth, fertilizer consumption, and electrification of agriculture. This has been done to examine the role of price and output support adopted to encourage the adoption of green revolution technology in changing the cropping structure of the state, resulting in increased input use intensities (especially groundwater and fertilizers), which harms the ecological balance and decreases factor productivity. Evaluation of electrification of Punjab agriculture helped evaluate the trend in electricity productivity of agriculture and how free power imposed further pressure on the extant agricultural ecosystem. Using data collected from a primary survey of 320 farmers in Punjab, the extent of wasteful application of groundwater irrigation, water productivity of output, electricity usage, and cost of irrigation driven electricity subsidy to the exchequer were estimated for the dominant cropping pattern amongst farmers. The main findings of the study revealed how because of a subsidy has driven agricultural framework, Punjab has lost area under agro climatically suitable and staple crops and moved towards a paddy-wheat cropping system, that is gnawing away the state’s natural resources like water table has been declining at a significant rate of 25 cms per year since 1975-76, and excessive and imbalanced fertilizer usage has led to declining soil fertility in the state. With electricity-driven tubewells as the major source of irrigation within a regime of free electricity and water-intensive crop cultivation, there is both wasteful application of irrigation water and electricity in the cultivation of paddy crops, burning an unproductive hole in the exchequer’s pocket. There is limited access to both agricultural extension services and water-conserving technology, along with policy imbalance, keeping farmers in an intensive and unsustainable production system. Punjab agriculture is witnessing diminishing returns to factor, which under the business-as-usual scenario, will soon enter the phase of negative returns to factor.

Keywords: cropping pattern, electrification, subsidy, sustainability

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137 Agricultural Extension Education for Female: A Tool for Sustainable Rural Development in Pakistan

Authors: Jahanzaib

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The rural economy can be uplifted through agricultural extension education for female as the majority is uneducated. The present study was carried out in five districts (Bahawalpur, Lodhran, Raheem Yar Khan, Bahawalnagr, and Vehari) of southern Punjab, Pakistan. The ten females were selected from each district, poor economic background for agricultural training. The training was provided free of cost, through Punjab skills development program. After six month training, the trainees were awarded with certificates and a tool kit. After completion of training data was recorded and analyzed, the results indicate that, female trainees were in a better economic position than the females of nearby districts without training. From this study, we can conclude that agricultural education for female can not only improve the economy of the individual family but also improve the agriculture of Pakistan on the sustainable basis as the majority of workers are female in rural areas of Pakistan.

Keywords: agricultural extension education, sustainable rural development, agriculture, rural development in Pakistan

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136 Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Based Detection of Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A in Raw Milk in Punjab, India

Authors: Pallavi Moudgil, J. S. Bedi, R. S. Aulakh, J. P. S. Gill

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Mycotoxins in milk are of major public health concern. The present study was envisaged with an aim to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw milk samples collected from individual animals from dairy farms located in Punjab (India). A total of 168 raw milk samples were collected and analysed using competitive ELISA kits. Out of these, 9 (5.4%) samples were found positive for aflatoxin M1 with the mean concentration of 0.006-0.13 ng/ml and 2 (1.2%) samples exceeded the established maximum residue limit of 0.05 ng/ml established by the European Union. For ochratoxin A, 2 (0.1%) samples were found positive with the mean concentration of 0.61-0.83 ng/ml with both the samples below the established maximum residue limit of 2 ng/ml. The results showed that the milk of dairy cattle is safe with respect to ochratoxin A contamination but occurrence of aflatoxin M1 above maximum residue limit suggested that feed contaminated with mycotoxins might have been offered to dairy cattle that can pose serious health risks to consumers.

Keywords: Aflatoxin M1, health risks, maximum residue limit, milk, Ochratoxin A

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135 The Role of Social Parameters in the Choice of Address Forms Used in Kinship Domain in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Ana Ramsha, Samrah Hidayat

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This study examines the role of social parameters in the choice of address forms used in kinship domain in Punjab, Pakistan. The study targeted 140 respondents in order to test the impact of social factors along with the regional differences in the choices of address forms in kinship domain. Statistical analyses are done by applying t-test for gender in relation to choices of address forms and ANOVA for age, income, education and social class. The study finds out that there is a strong connection of different social parameters not only with language use and practice but also in choices and use of address forms, especially in kinship relationships. Moreover, it is highlighted that gender does not influence in the choices of address forms, even the participants belonging to young and middle categories show no significant difference with regard to the choices of address form despite the fact that all the factors and parameters exert influence on the choices of address forms. Hence address forms as being one of the major traits of language and society is affected by all the social factors around and regional differences are also most important as they give identity and ethnicity to the society.

Keywords: address forms, kinship, social parameters, linguistics

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134 Count Data Regression Modeling: An Application to Spontaneous Abortion in India

Authors: Prashant Verma, Prafulla K. Swain, K. K. Singh, Mukti Khetan

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Objective: In India, around 20,000 women die every year due to abortion-related complications. In the modelling of count variables, there is sometimes a preponderance of zero counts. This article concerns the estimation of various count regression models to predict the average number of spontaneous abortion among women in the Punjab state of India. It also assesses the factors associated with the number of spontaneous abortions. Materials and methods: The study included 27,173 married women of Punjab obtained from the DLHS-4 survey (2012-13). Poisson regression (PR), Negative binomial (NB) regression, zero hurdle negative binomial (ZHNB), and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models were employed to predict the average number of spontaneous abortions and to identify the determinants affecting the number of spontaneous abortions. Results: Statistical comparisons among four estimation methods revealed that the ZINB model provides the best prediction for the number of spontaneous abortions. Antenatal care (ANC) place, place of residence, total children born to a woman, woman's education and economic status were found to be the most significant factors affecting the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. Conclusions: The study offers a practical demonstration of techniques designed to handle count variables. Statistical comparisons among four estimation models revealed that the ZINB model provided the best prediction for the number of spontaneous abortions and is recommended to be used to predict the number of spontaneous abortions. The study suggests that women receive institutional Antenatal care to attain limited parity. It also advocates promoting higher education among women in Punjab, India.

Keywords: count data, spontaneous abortion, Poisson model, negative binomial model, zero hurdle negative binomial, zero-inflated negative binomial, regression

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133 A Study of Indoor Radon, Thoron, Their Progeny Concentration Levels and Inhalation Dose in Dwellings of Different Districts of Punjab State, India

Authors: Komal Saini, B. K. Sahoo, B.S. Bajwa

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In the present study, indoor radon and thoron concentrations have been estimated using newly developed twin cup based pin hole dosimeter with single entry face in some areas of Punjab state, India. The equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) of radon and thoron has also been estimated directly by using progeny sensors, fabricated by BARC, India. Observed radon and thoron concentrations varied from 38.7±5.79 to 98.7±13.11 Bq/m3 and 25.38±6.56 to 126.56±14.23 Bq/m3 with an average value of 61.59±8.11 & 70.89±9.52 Bq/m3 respectively. Average equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon and thoron was 27.98±4.66 & 2.24±0.61 Bq/m3. Calculated equilibrium factor for radon and thoron was 0.467 and 0.034 in the present study. Annual inhalation dose calculated from the present observed concentrations, varied from 1.80 to 3.60 mSv/year with an average value of 2.52 mSv/year, which is well within reference level. It has been observed from the present study that thoron is a significant contributor to the inhalation dose which is about 25% of the total inhalation dose.

Keywords: radon, thoron, pin hole cup dosimeter, DTPS/DRPS, annual inhalation dose

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132 An Anthropological Insight into Farming Practices and Cultural Life of Farmers in Sarawan Village, District Faridkot, Punjab

Authors: Amandeep Kaur

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Farming is one of the most influential traditions which started around 10000 BC and has revolutionized human civilization. It is believed that farming originated at a separate location. Thus it has a great impact on local culture, which in turn gave rise to diversified farming practices. Farming activities are influenced by the culture of a particular region or community as local people have their own knowledge and belief system about soil and crops. With the inception of the Green Revolution, 'a high tech machinery model' in Punjab, various traditional farming methods and techniques changed. The present research concentrates on the local knowledge of farmers and local farming systems from an anthropological perspective. In view of the prevailing agrarian crisis in Punjab, this research is focused on farmer’s experiences and their perception regarding farming practices. Thus an attempt has to be made to focus on the local knowledge, perception, and experience of farmers for eco-friendly and sustainable agricultural development. Farmers voices are used to understand the relationship between farming practices and socio-cultural life of farmers in Faridkot district, Punjab. The research aims to comprehend the nature of changes taking place in the socio-cultural life of people with the development of capitalism and agricultural modernization. The study is based on qualitative methods of ethnography in Sarawan village of Faridkot District. Inferences drawn from in-depth case studies collected from 60 agricultural households lead to the concept of the process of diffusion, innovation, and adoption of farming technology, a variety of crops and the dissemination of agricultural skills regarding various cultural farming practices. The data is based on random sampling; the respondents were both males and females above the age of 18 years to attain a holistic understanding across the generations. A Quasi-participant observation related to lifestyle, the standard of living, and various farming practices performed by them were done. Narratives derived from the fieldwork depicts that farmers usually oppose the restrictions imposed by the government on certain farming practices, especially ban on stubble burning. This paper presents the narratives of farmers regarding the dissemination of awareness about the use of new varieties of seeds, technology, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The study reveals that farming systems have developed in ways reflecting the activities and choices of farmers influenced by environmental, socio-cultural, economic, and political situations. Modern farming practices have forced small farmers into debt as farmers feel pride in buying new machinery. It has also led to the loss of work culture and excessive use of drugs among youngsters. Even laborers did not want to work on the land with cultivating farmers primarily for social and political reasons. Due to lack of proper marketing of crops, there is a continuum of the wheat-rice cycle instead of crop diversification in Punjab. Change in the farming system also affects the social structure of society. Agricultural modernization has commercialized the socio-cultural relations in Punjab and is slowly urbanizing the rural landscape revolutionizing the traditional social relations to capitalistic relations.

Keywords: agricultural modernization, capitalism, farming practices, narratives

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131 Baseline Data for Insecticide Resistance Monitoring in Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Cole Crops

Authors: Prabhjot Kaur, B.K. Kang, Balwinder Singh

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The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an agricultural important pest species. S. litura has a wide host range of approximately recorded 150 plant species worldwide. In Punjab, this pest attains sporadic status primarily on cauliflower, Brassica oleracea (L.). This pest destroys vegetable crop and particularly prefers the cruciferae family. However, it is also observed feeding on other crops such as arbi, Colocasia esculenta (L.), mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.), sunflower, Helianthus annuus (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), castor, Ricinus communis (L.), etc. Larvae of this pest completely devour the leaves of infested plant resulting in huge crop losses which ranges from 50 to 70 per cent. Indiscriminate and continuous use of insecticides has contributed in development of insecticide resistance in insects and caused the environmental degradation as well. Moreover, a base line data regarding the toxicity of the newer insecticides would help in understanding the level of resistance developed in this pest and any possible cross-resistance there in, which could be assessed in advance. Therefore, present studies on development of resistance in S. litura against four new chemistry insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) were carried out in the Toxicology laboratory, Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India during the year 2011-12. Various stages of S. litura (eggs, larvae) were collected from four different locations (Malerkotla, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar and Samrala) of Punjab. Resistance is developed in third instars of lepidopterous pests. Therefore, larval bioassays were conducted to estimate the response of field populations of thirty third-instar larvae of S. litura under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 65±5 per cent relative humidity. Leaf dip bioassay technique with diluted insecticide formulations recommended by Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) was performed in the laboratory with seven to ten treatments depending on the insecticide class, respectively. LC50 values were estimated by probit analysis after correction to record control mortality data which was used to calculate the resistance ratios (RR). The LC50 values worked out for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb, spinosad are 0.081, 0.088, 0.380, 4.00 parts per million (ppm) against pest populations collected from Malerkotla; 0.051, 0.060, 0.250, 3.00 (ppm) of Amritsar; 0.002, 0.001, 0.0076, 0.10 ppm for Samrala and 0.000014, 0.00001, 0.00056, 0.003 ppm against pest population of Hoshiarpur, respectively. The LC50 values for populations collected from these four locations were in the order Malerkotla>Amritsar>Samrala>Hoshiarpur for the insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) tested. Based on LC50 values obtained, emamectin benzoate (0.000014 ppm) was found to be the most toxic among all the tested populations, followed by chlorantraniliprole (0.00001 ppm), indoxacarb (0.00056 ppm) and spinosad (0.003 ppm), respectively. The pairwise correlation coefficients of LC50 values indicated that there was lack of cross resistance for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, indoxacarb in populations of S. litura from Punjab. These insecticides may prove to be promising substitutes for the effective control of insecticide resistant populations of S. litura in Punjab state, India.

Keywords: Spodoptera litura, insecticides, toxicity, resistance

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130 Molecular Screening of Piroplasm from Ticks Collected from Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujarat Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Mahvish Maqbool, Muhmmad Sohail Sajid

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Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae); bloodsucking parasites of domestic animals, have significant importance in the transmission of diseases and causing huge economic losses. This study aimed to screen endophilic ticks for the Piroplasms using polymerase chain reaction in three districts Sialkot, Gujranwala and Gujarat of Punjab, Pakistan. Ticks were dissected under a stereomicroscope, and internal organs (midguts& salivary glands) were procured to generate pools of optimum weights. DNA extraction was done through standard protocol followed by primer specific PCR for Piroplasma spp. A total of 22.95% tick pools were found positive for piroplasma spp. In districts, Sialkot and Gujranwala Piroplasma prevalence are higher in riverine animals while in Gujarat Prevalence is higher in non-riverine animals. Female animals were found more prone to piroplasma as compared to males. This study will provide useful data on the distribution of Piroplasma in the vector population of the study area and devise future recommendations for better management of ruminants to avoid subclinical and clinical infections and vector transmitted diseases.

Keywords: babesia, hyalomma, piroplasmposis, tick infectivity

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129 Studies on the Prevalence and Determination of Associated Risk Factors of Babesia in Goats of District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Tauseef-ur-Rehman, Rao Zahid Abbas, Wasim Babar, Arbab Sikandar

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Babesiosis is an infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host (variety of vertebrates) including small ruminants and is responsible for decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. A cross-sectional study was designed in order to evaluate the prevalence of Babesia and its relation with various associated factors in district Toba Tek Singh, Central Punjab, Pakistan in 2009-2010. A total 10.84% (50/461) out of 461 examined cases for Babesia were found positive for Babesia infection. Month-wise peak prevalence was observed in July (17.95%), while no positive case was recorded in Dec-2009 and Jan-2010. The prevalence of infection in different goat breeds was found as non-significant (P < 0.05) for Babesia infection. The prevalence of Babesia was found significantly (P < 0.05) dependent to the goat age and sex. The feeding system, housing system, floor type and herd size revealed strong correlation with Babesia prevalence, while watering system and body conditions were found to be non-significant (P < 0.05), and hence it is suggested that with the improvement of management precautions Babesiosis can be avoided.

Keywords: Babesia, goat, prevalence, Pakistan, risk factors

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128 Impact of Television Advertisement on Children Behaviour : A Qualitative Research in India

Authors: Sarbjit Singh, Amit Kumar Lal

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In India there is no governing body to control advertisement apart from ASCI due to which most of the companies are targeting children in their advertisements that have a negative impact on their behaviour. The main purpose of this research paper is to find out the impact of the television advertisement on the behaviour of the children as observed and reported by parents. The exploratory research design is adopted by using in-depth interviews with 20 parents in various cities of Punjab on the basis semi-structured interviews a self-administered structured Questionnaire was developed for data collection. Exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation is used to analyse the data from 100 parents from the conjoint cities of Punjab. (Jalandhar, Amritsar and Ludhiana) The finding suggests that children demand those products which are more advertised. Parents believe that television advertisements are affecting the study of their children. Moreover, the children are becoming more violent, stubborn and rebellious. They try to start copying from the advertisements and indulge in bad habits. Children demand, nag and pester their parents to purchase the advertised product. This research paper would help advertisers to understand children behaviour towards advertisements and more over what should be done to control the negative impact of advertisement on children. Advertisers can also understand the parental perception towards advertisement.

Keywords: advertisement, consumer behaviour, children perception, teen marketing

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127 A Non-Parametric Analysis of District Disaster Management Authorities in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Zahid Hussain

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Provincial Disaster Management Authority (PDMA) Punjab was established under NDM Act 2010 and now working under Senior Member Board of Revenue, deals with the whole spectrum of disasters including preparedness, mitigation, early warning, response, relief, rescue, recovery and rehabilitation. The District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMA) are acting as implementing arms of PDMA in the districts to respond any disaster. DDMAs' role is very important in disaster mitigation, response and recovery as they are the first responder and closest tier to the community. Keeping in view the significant role of DDMAs, technical and human resource capacity are need to be checked. For calculating the technical efficiencies of District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) in Punjab, three inputs like number of labour, the number of transportation and number of equipment, two outputs like relief assistance and the number of rescue and 25 districts as decision making unit have been selected. For this purpose, 8 years secondary data from 2005 to 2012 has been used. Data Envelopment Analysis technique has been applied. DEA estimates the relative efficiency of peer entities or entities performing the similar tasks. The findings show that all decision making unit (DMU) (districts) are inefficient on techonological and scale efficiency scale while technically efficient on pure and total factor productivity efficiency scale. All DMU are found technically inefficient only in the year 2006. Labour and equipment were not efficiently used in the year 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2012. Furthermore, only three years 2006, 2010 and 2011 show that districts could not efficiently use transportation in a disaster situation. This study suggests that all districts should curtail labour, transportation and equipment to be efficient. Similarly, overall all districts are not required to achieve number of rescue and relief assistant, these should be reduced.

Keywords: DEA, DMU, PDMA, DDMA

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126 Religion, Health and Ageing: A Geroanthropological Study on Spiritual Dimensions of Well-Being among the Elderly Residing in Old Age Homes in Jallandher Punjab, India

Authors: A. Rohit Kumar, B. R. K. Pathak

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Background: Geroanthropology or the anthropology of ageing is a term which can be understood in terms of the anthropology of old age, old age within anthropology, and the anthropology of age. India is known as the land of spirituality and philosophy and is the birthplace of four major religions of the world namely Hinduasim, Buddhisim, Jainisim, and Sikhism. The most dominant religion in India today is Hinduism. About 80% of Indians are Hindus. Hinduism is a religion with a large number of Gods and Goddesses. Religion in India plays an important role at all life stages i.e. at birth, adulthood and particularly during old age. India is the second largest country in the world with 72 million elder persons above 60 years of age in 2001 as compared to china 127 million. The very concept of old age homes in India is new. The elderly people staying away from their homes, from their children or left to them is not considered to be a very happy situation. This paper deals with anthropology of ageing, religion and spirituality among the elderly residing in old age homes and tries to explain that how religion plays a vital role in the health of the elderly during old age. Methods: The data for the present paper was collected through both Qualitative and Quantitative methods. Old age homes located in Jallandher (Punjab) were selected for the present study. Age sixty was considered as a cut off age. Narratives, case studies were collected from 100 respondents residing in old age homes. The dominant religion in Punjab was found to be Sikhism and Hinduism while Jainism and Buddhism were found to be in minority. It was found that as one grows older the religiosity increases. Religiosity and sprituality was found to be directly proportional to ageing. Therefore religiosity and health were found to be connected. Results and Conclusion: Religion was found out to be a coping mechanism during ill health. The elderly living in old age homes were purposely selected for the study as the elderly in old age homes gets medical attention provided only by the old age home authorities. Moreover, the inmates in old age homes were of low socio-economic status couldn’t afford medical attention on their own. It was found that elderly who firmly believed in religion were found to be more satisfied with their health as compare to elderly who does not believe in religion at all. Belief in particular religion, God and godess had an impact on the health of the elderly.

Keywords: ageing, geroanthropology, religion, spirituality

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125 Relationship between ICTs Application with Production and Protection Technology: Lesson from Rural Punjab-Pakistan

Authors: Tahir Munir Butt, Gao Qijie, Babar Shahbaz, Muhammad Zakaria Yousaf Hassan, Zhnag Chuanhong

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The main objective of this paper is to identify the relationship between Information Communication Technology (ICTs) applications with Agricultural development in the process of communication at rural Punjab-Pakistan. The authors analyzed the relationship of ICTs applications with the most prominent factor for the Agricultural Information Services (AIS) in the Agricultural Extension Approaches (AEA). The data collection procedure was started from Jan. 2015 and completed in July 2015. It is the one of the part in PhD studies at China Agriculture, University Hadian-Beijng China. It was observed that on major constraint in the AIS disseminated was the limited number of farmers especially and unknown the farmers about new ICTs technology for Agriculture at rural areas. Majority of ICTs application e.g. Toll free number; Robo Calls; Text message was highly significances in the AIS approach. The recommendation is communication and capacity building one of the indispensable elements for sustainable and agricultural development and Agricultural extension should be provided training to farmer about new ICTs technologies to access and use of it for Sustainable Agriculture Development (SAD) and update the scenario of flow of information also with try to established ICTs hub at the village level.

Keywords: ICTs, AEA, AIS, SAD, rural farmers

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