Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 97

Search results for: biosensors

97 Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods Based Biosensor via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Jafar Khan Kasi, Samiullah, Ajab Khan Kasi


Biosensors are playing vital role in industrial, clinical, and chemical analysis applications. Among other techniques, ZnO based biosensor is an easy approach due to its exceptional chemical and electrical properties. ZnO nanorods have positively charged isoelectric point which helps immobilize the negative charge glucose oxides (GOx). Here, we report ZnO nanorods based biosensors for the immobilization of GOx. The ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide substrate (ITO). The fabrication of biosensors was carried through batch processing using conventional photolithography. The buffer solutions of GOx were prepared in phosphate with a pH value of around 7.3. The biosensors effectively immobilized the GOx and result was analyzed by calculation of voltage and current on nanostructures.

Keywords: hydrothermal growth, sol-gel, zinc dioxide, biosensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
96 Meta-Review of Scholarly Publications on Biosensors: A Bibliometric Study

Authors: Nasrine Olson


With over 70,000 scholarly publications on the topic of biosensors, an overview of the field has become a challenge. To facilitate, there are currently over 700 expert-reviews of publications on biosensors and related topics. This study focuses on these review papers in order to provide a Meta-Review of the area. This paper provides a statistical analysis and overview of biosensor-related review papers. Comprehensive searches are conducted in the Web of Science, and PubMed databases and the resulting empirical material are analyzed using bibliometric methods and tools. The study finds that the biosensor-related review papers can be categorized in five related subgroups, broadly denoted by (i) properties of materials and particles, (ii) analysis and indicators, (iii) diagnostics, (iv) pollutant and analytical devices, and (v) treatment/ application. For an easy and clear access to the findings visualization of clusters and networks of connections are presented. The study includes a temporal dimension and identifies the trends over the years with an emphasis on the most recent developments. This paper provides useful insights for those who wish to form a better understanding of the research trends in the area of biosensors.

Keywords: bibliometrics, biosensors, meta-review, statistical analysis, trends visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
95 Biosensors as Analytical Tools in Legume Processing

Authors: S. V. Ncube, A. I. O. Jideani, E. T. Gwata


The plight of food insecurity in developing countries has led to renewed interest in underutilized legumes. Their nutritional versatility, desirable functionality, pharmaceutical value and inherent bioactive compounds have drawn the attention of researchers. This has provoked the development of value added products with the aim of commercially exploiting their full potential. However processing of these legumes leads to changes in nutritional composition as affected by processing variables like pH, temperature and pressure. There is therefore a need for process control and quality assurance during production of the value added products. However, conventional methods for microbiological and biochemical identification are labour intensive and time-consuming. Biosensors offer rapid and affordable methods to assure the quality of the products. They may be used to quantify nutrients and anti-nutrients in the products while manipulating and monitoring variables such as pH, temperature, pressure and oxygen that affect the quality of the final product. This review gives an overview of the types of biosensors used in the food industry, their advantages and disadvantages and their possible application in processing of legumes.

Keywords: legume processing, biosensors, quality control, nutritional versatility

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94 Application of Biosensors in Forensic Analysis

Authors: Shirin jalili, Hadi Shirzad, Samaneh Nabavi, Somayeh Khanjani


Biosensors in forensic analysis are ideal biological tools that can be used for rapid and sensitive initial screening and testing to detect of suspicious components like biological and chemical agent in crime scenes. The wide use of different biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, microorganisms, antibodies and enzymes makes it possible. These biosensors have great advantages such as rapidity, little sample manipulation and high sensitivity, also Because of their stability, specificity and low cost they have become a very important tool to Forensic analysis and detection of crime. In crime scenes different substances such as rape samples, Semen, saliva fingerprints and blood samples, act as a detecting elements for biosensors. On the other hand, successful fluid recovery via biosensor has the propensity to yield a highly valuable source of genetic material, which is important in finding the suspect. Although current biological fluid testing techniques are impaired for identification of body fluids. But these methods have disadvantages. For example if they are to be used simultaneously, Often give false positive result. These limitations can negatively result the output of a case through missed or misinterpreted evidence. The use of biosensor enable criminal researchers the highly sensitive and non-destructive detection of biological fluid through interaction with several fluid-endogenous and other biological and chemical contamination at the crime scene. For this reason, using of the biosensors for detecting the biological fluid found at the crime scenes which play an important role in identifying the suspect and solving the criminal.

Keywords: biosensors, forensic analysis, biological fluid, crime detection

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93 Modified Poly (Pyrrole) Film-Based Biosensors for Phenol Detection

Authors: S. Korkut, M. S. Kilic, E. Erhan


In order to detect and quantify the phenolic contents of a wastewater with biosensors, two working electrodes based on modified Poly (Pyrrole) films were fabricated. Enzyme horseradish peroxidase was used as biomolecule of the prepared electrodes. Various phenolics were tested at the biosensor. Phenol detection was realized by electrochemical reduction of quinones produced by enzymatic activity. Analytical parameters were calculated and the results were compared with each other.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, phenol biosensor, polypyrrole, poly (glutaraldehyde)

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92 Biosensors for Parathion Based on Au-Pd Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

Authors: Tian-Fang Kang, Chao-Nan Ge, Rui Li


An electrochemical biosensor for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides was developed based on electrochemical co-deposition of Au and Pd nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used for characterization of the surface structure. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) demonstrates that the films are uniform and the nanoclusters are homogeneously distributed on the GCE surface. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized on the Au and Pd nanoparticle modified electrode (Au-Pd/GCE) by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The electrochemical behavior of thiocholine at the biosensor (AChE/Au-Pd/GCE) was studied. The biosensors exhibited substantial electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of thiocholine. The peak current of linear scan voltammetry (LSV) of thiocholine at the biosensor is proportional to the concentration of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) over the range of 2.5 × 10-6 to 2.5 × 10-4 M in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). The percent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was proportional to the logarithm of parathion concentration in the range of 4.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-6 M. The detection limit of parathion was 2.6 × 10-9 M. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity and good reproducibility.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, Au-Pd nanoparticles, electrochemical biosensors, parathion

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91 Rapid and Sensitive Detection: Biosensors as an Innovative Analytical Tools

Authors: Sylwia Baluta, Joanna Cabaj, Karol Malecha


The evolution of biosensors was driven by the need for faster and more versatile analytical methods for application in important areas including clinical, diagnostics, food analysis or environmental monitoring, with minimum sample pretreatment. Rapid and sensitive neurotransmitters detection is extremely important in modern medicine. These compounds mainly occur in the brain and central nervous system of mammals. Any changes in the neurotransmitters concentration may lead to many diseases, such as Parkinson’s or schizophrenia. Classical techniques of chemical analysis, despite many advantages, do not permit to obtain immediate results or automatization of measurements.

Keywords: adrenaline, biosensor, dopamine, laccase, tyrosinase

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90 SPR Immunosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Muhammad Ali Syed, Arshad Saleem Bhatti, Chen-zhong Li, Habib Ali Bokhari


Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have emerged as a promising technique for bioanalysis as well as microbial detection and identification. Real time, sensitive, cost effective, and label free detection of biomolecules from complex samples is required for early and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. Like many other types of optical techniques, SPR biosensors may also be successfully utilized for microbial detection for accurate, point of care, and rapid results. In the present study, we have utilized a commercially available automated SPR biosensor of BI company to study the microbial detection form water samples spiked with different concentration of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells. The gold thin film sensor surface was functionalized to react with proteins such as protein G, which was used for directed immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. The results of our work reveal that this immunosensor can be used to detect very small number of bacterial cells with higher sensitivity and specificity. In our case 10^3 cells/ml of water have been successfully detected. Therefore, it may be concluded that this technique has a strong potential to be used in microbial detection and identification.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Staphylococcus aureus, biosensors, microbial detection

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89 Biological Applications of CNT Inherited Polyaniline Nano-Composites

Authors: Yashfeen Khan, Anees Ahmad


In the last few decades, nano-composites have been the topic of interest. Presently, the modern era enlightens the synthesis of hybrid nano-composites over their individual counterparts because of higher application potentials and synergism. Recently, CNT hybrids have demonstrated their pronounced capability as effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions (the root trouble) and organic contaminants due to their high specific surface area, enhanced reactivity, and sequestration characteristics. The present abstract discusses removal efficiencies of organic, inorganic pollutants through CNT/PANI/ composites. It also represents the widespread applications of CNT like monitoring biological systems, biosensors, as heat resources for treating cancer, fire retardant applications of polymer/CNT composites etc. And considering the same, this article aims to brief the scenario of CNT-PANI nano-composites.

Keywords: biosensors, CNT, hybrids, polyaniline, synergism

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88 Information Visualization Methods Applied to Nanostructured Biosensors

Authors: Osvaldo N. Oliveira Jr.


The control of molecular architecture inherent in some experimental methods to produce nanostructured films has had great impact on devices of various types, including sensors and biosensors. The self-assembly monolayers (SAMs) and the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) techniques, for example, are now routinely used to produce tailored architectures for biosensing where biomolecules are immobilized with long-lasting preserved activity. Enzymes, antigens, antibodies, peptides and many other molecules serve as the molecular recognition elements for detecting an equally wide variety of analytes. The principles of detection are also varied, including electrochemical methods, fluorescence spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy. In this presentation an overview will be provided of biosensors made with nanostructured films to detect antibodies associated with tropical diseases and HIV, in addition to detection of analytes of medical interest such as cholesterol and triglycerides. Because large amounts of data are generated in the biosensing experiments, use has been made of computational and statistical methods to optimize performance. Multidimensional projection techniques such as Sammon´s mapping have been shown more efficient than traditional multivariate statistical analysis in identifying small concentrations of anti-HIV antibodies and for distinguishing between blood serum samples of animals infected with two tropical diseases, namely Chagas´ disease and Leishmaniasis. Optimization of biosensing may include a combination of another information visualization method, the Parallel Coordinate technique, with artificial intelligence methods in order to identify the most suitable frequencies for reaching higher sensitivity using impedance spectroscopy. Also discussed will be the possible convergence of technologies, through which machine learning and other computational methods may be used to treat data from biosensors within an expert system for clinical diagnosis.

Keywords: clinical diagnosis, information visualization, nanostructured films, layer-by-layer technique

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87 Development of a New Polymeric Material with Controlled Surface Micro-Morphology Aimed for Biosensors Applications

Authors: Elham Farahmand, Fatimah Ibrahim, Samira Hosseini, Ivan Djordjevic, Leo. H. Koole


Compositions of different molar ratios of polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA) were synthesized via free- radical polymerization. Polymer coated surfaces have been produced on silicon wafers. Coated samples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results have shown that the roughness of the surfaces have increased by increasing the molar ratio of monomer methacrylic acid (MAA). This study reveals that the gradual increase in surface roughness is due to the fact that carboxylic functional groups have been generated by MAA segments. Such surfaces can be desirable platforms for fabrication of the biosensors for detection of the viruses and diseases.

Keywords: polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA), polymeric material, atomic force microscopy, roughness, carboxylic functional groups

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86 Streptavidin-Biotin Attachment on Modified Silicon Nanowires

Authors: Shalini Singh, Sanjay K. Srivastava, Govind, Mukhtar. A. Khan, P. K. Singh


Nanotechnology is revolutionizing the development of biosensors. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication technologies are increasingly being used to design novel biosensors. Sensitivity and other attributes of biosensors can be improved by using nanomaterials with unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties in their construction. Silicon is a promising biomaterial that is non-toxic and biodegradable and can be exploited in chemical and biological sensing. Present study demonstrated the streptavidin–biotin interaction on silicon surfaces with different topographies such as flat and nanostructured silicon (nanowires) surfaces. Silicon nanowires with wide range of surface to volume ratio were prepared by electrochemical etching of silicon wafer. The large specific surface of silicon nanowires can be chemically modified to link different molecular probes (DNA strands, enzymes, proteins and so on), which recognize the target analytes, in order to enhance the selectivity and specificity of the sensor device. The interaction of streptavidin with biotin was carried out on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) functionalized silicon surfaces. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been performed to characterize the surface characteristics to ensure the protein attachment. Silicon nanowires showed the enhance protein attachment, as compared to flat silicon surface due to its large surface area and good molecular penetration to its surface. The methodology developed herein could be generalized to a wide range of protein-ligand interactions, since it is relatively easy to conjugate biotin with diverse biomolecules such as antibodies, enzymes, peptides, and nucleotides.

Keywords: FTIR, silicon nanowires, streptavidin-biotin, XPS

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85 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Doped Poly (8-Anilino-1-Napthalene Sulphonic Acid/Nat Nanobiosensors for TB Drugs

Authors: Rachel Fanelwa Ajayi, Anovuyo Jonnas, Emmanuel I. Iwuoha


Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) which has a predilection for lung tissue due to its rich oxygen supply. The mycobacterial cell has a unique innate characteristic which allows it to resist human immune systems and drug treatments; hence, it is one of the most difficult of all bacterial infections to treat, let alone to cure. At the same time, multi-drug resistance TB (MDR-TB) caused by poorly managed TB treatment, is a growing problem and requires the administration of expensive and less effective second line drugs which take much longer treatment duration than fist line drugs. Therefore, to acknowledge the issues of patients falling ill as a result of inappropriate dosing of treatment and inadequate treatment administration, a device with a fast response time coupled with enhanced performance and increased sensitivity is essential. This study involved the synthesis of electroactive platforms for application in the development of nano-biosensors suitable for the appropriate dosing of clinically diagnosed patients by promptly quantifying the levels of the TB drug; Isonaizid. These nano-biosensors systems were developed on gold surfaces using the enzyme N-acetyletransferase 2 coupled to the cysteamine modified poly(8-anilino-1-napthalene sulphonic acid)/zinc oxide nanocomposites. The morphology of ZnO nanoparticles, PANSA/ZnO nano-composite and nano-biosensors platforms were characterized using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM). On the other hand, the elemental composition of the developed nanocomposites and nano-biosensors were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX). The electrochemical studies showed an increase in electron conductivity for the PANSA/ZnO nanocomposite which was an indication that it was suitable as a platform towards biosensor development.

Keywords: N-acetyletransferase 2, isonaizid, tuberculosis, zinc oxide

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84 Bienzymatic Nanocomposites Biosensors Complexed with Gold Nanoparticles, Polyaniline, Recombinant MN Peroxidase from Corn, and Glucose Oxidase to Measure Glucose

Authors: Anahita Izadyar


Using a recombinant enzyme derived from corn and a simple modification, we are fabricating a facile, fast, and cost-beneficial novel biosensor to measure glucose. We are applying Plant Produced Mn Peroxidase (PPMP), glucose oxidase (GOx), polyaniline (PANI) as conductive polymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on Au electrode using electrochemical response to detect glucose. We applied the entrapment method of enzyme composition, which is generally used to immobilize conductive polymer and facilitate electron transfer from the enzyme oxidation-reduction center to the sample solution. In this work, the oxidation of glucose on the modified gold electrode was quantified with Linear Sweep Voltammetry(LSV). We expect that the modified biosensor has the potential for monitoring various biofluids.

Keywords: plant-produced manganese peroxidase, enzyme-based biosensors, glucose, modified gold nanoparticles electrode, polyaniline

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83 Urea Amperometric Biosensor Based on Entrapment Immobilization of Urease onto a Nanostructured Polypyrrol and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Hamide Amani, Afshin FarahBakhsh, Iman Farahbakhsh


In this paper, an amprometric biosensor based on surface modified polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed for the quantitative estimation of urea in aqueous solutions. The incorporation of urease (Urs) into a bipolymeric substrate consisting of PPy was performed by entrapment to the polymeric matrix, PPy acts as amperometric transducer in these biosensors. To increase the membrane conductivity, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were added to the PPy solution. The entrapped MWCNT in PPy film and the bipolymer layers were prepared for construction of Pt/PPy/MWCNT/Urs. Two different configurations of working electrodes were evaluated to investigate the potential use of the modified membranes in biosensors. The evaluation of two different configurations of working electrodes suggested that the second configuration, which was composed of an electrode-mediator-(pyrrole and multi-walled carbon nanotube) structure and enzyme, is the best candidate for biosensor applications.

Keywords: urea biosensor, polypyrrole, multi-walled carbon nanotube, urease

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82 Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications

Authors: Giulio Rosati, Luciano Sappia, Rossana Madrid, Noemi Rozlòsnik


The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, biosensors, four-point probe, nano-films, PEDOT

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81 Using Wearable Technology to Monitor Workers’ Stress for Construction Safety: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Namhun Lee, Seong Jin Kim


The construction industry represents one of the largest industries in the United States, yet it continues to face several occupational health and safety challenges. Many workers on construction sites are suffering from extended exposure to stressful situations such as poor and hazardous work environments and task complexity. Stress can be commonly defined as a feeling of emotional or physical tension, which can easily impact construction safety and result in a higher rate of job-related injuries in the construction industry. Physiological signals transmitted from wearable biosensors can be used to detect excessive stress. Therefore, workers’ stress should be detected and mitigated to prevent any type of serious incident or accident proactively. By doing this, construction productivity, as well as job satisfaction, would also be improved in the construction industry. To establish a foundation in this field of research, a conceptual framework for using wearable technology for construction safety has been developed for continuous and automatic monitoring of worker’s stress. The conceptual framework will serve as a foothold in future studies on the application of wearable technology for construction safety.

Keywords: construction safety, occupational stress, stress monitoring, wearable biosensors

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80 Polymer-Nanographite Nanocomposites for Biosensor Applications

Authors: Payal Mazumdar, Sunita Rattan, Monalisa Mukherjee


Polymer nanocomposites are a special class of materials having unique properties and wide application in diverse areas such as EMI shielding, sensors, photovoltaic cells, membrane separation properties, drug delivery etc. Recently the nanocomposites are being investigated for their use in biomedical fields as biosensors. Though nanocomposites with carbon nanoparticles have received worldwide attention in the past few years, comparatively less work has been done on nanographite although it has in-plane electrical, thermal and mechanical properties comparable to that of carbon nanotubes. The main challenge in the fabrication of these nanocomposites lies in the establishment of homogeneous dispersion of nanographite in polymer matrix. In the present work, attempts have been made to synthesize the nanocomposites of polystyrene and nanographite using click chemistry. The polymer and the nanographite are functionalized prior to the formation of nanocomposites. The polymer, polystyrene, was functionalized with alkyne moeity and nanographite with azide moiety. The fabricating of the nanocomposites was accomplished through click chemistry using Cu (I)-catalyzed Huisgen dipolar cycloaddition. The functionalization of filler and polymer was confirmed by NMR and FTIR. The nanocomposites formed by the click chemistry exhibit better electrical properties and the sensors are evaluated for their application as biosensors.

Keywords: nanocomposites, click chemistry, nanographite, biosensor

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79 Bio-Nano Mask: Antivirus and Antimicrobial Mouth Mask Coating with Nano-TiO2 and Anthocyanin Utilization as an Effective Solution of High ARI Patients in Riau

Authors: Annisa Ulfah Pristya, Andi Setiawan


Indonesia placed in sixth rank total Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) patient in the world and Riau as one of the province with the highest number of people with respiratory infection in Indonesia reached 37 thousand people. Usually society using a mask as prevention action. Unfortunately the commercial mouth mask only can work maximum for 4 hours and the pores are too large to filter out microorganisms and viruses carried by infectious droplets nucleated 1-5 μm. On the other hand, Indonesia is rich with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and purple sweet potato anthocyanin pigment. Therefore, offered Bio-nano-mask which is a antimicrobial and antiviral mouth mask with Nano-TiO2 coating and purple sweet potato anthocyanins utilization as an effective solution to high ARI patients in Riau, which has the advantage of the mask surface can’t be attached by infectious droplets, self-cleaning and have anthocyanins biosensors that give visual response can be understood easily by the general public in the form of a mask color change from blue/purple to pink when acid levels increase. Acid level is an indicator of microorganisms accumulation in the mouth and surrounding areas. Bio-nano mask making process begins with the preparation (design, Nano-TiO2 liquid preparation, anthocyanins biosensors manufacture) and then superimposing the Nano-TiO2 on the outer surface of spunbond color using a sprayer, then superimposing anthocyanins biosensors film on the Meltdown surface, making bio nano-mask and it pack. Bio-nano mask has the advantage is effectively preventing pathogenic microorganisms and infectious droplets and has accumulated indicator microorganisms that color changes which easily observed by the common people though.

Keywords: anthocyanins, ARI, nano-TiO2 liquid, self cleaning

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78 Engineering of Reagentless Fluorescence Biosensors Based on Single-Chain Antibody Fragments

Authors: Christian Fercher, Jiaul Islam, Simon R. Corrie


Fluorescence-based immunodiagnostics are an emerging field in biosensor development and exhibit several advantages over traditional detection methods. While various affinity biosensors have been developed to generate a fluorescence signal upon sensing varying concentrations of analytes, reagentless, reversible, and continuous monitoring of complex biological samples remains challenging. Here, we aimed to genetically engineer biosensors based on single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) that are site-specifically labeled with environmentally sensitive fluorescent unnatural amino acids (UAA). A rational design approach resulted in quantifiable analyte-dependent changes in peak fluorescence emission wavelength and enabled antigen detection in vitro. Incorporation of a polarity indicator within the topological neighborhood of the antigen-binding interface generated a titratable wavelength blueshift with nanomolar detection limits. In order to ensure continuous analyte monitoring, scFv candidates with fast binding and dissociation kinetics were selected from a genetic library employing a high-throughput phage display and affinity screening approach. Initial rankings were further refined towards rapid dissociation kinetics using bio-layer interferometry (BLI) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The most promising candidates were expressed, purified to homogeneity, and tested for their potential to detect biomarkers in a continuous microfluidic-based assay. Variations of dissociation kinetics within an order of magnitude were achieved without compromising the specificity of the antibody fragments. This approach is generally applicable to numerous antibody/antigen combinations and currently awaits integration in a wide range of assay platforms for one-step protein quantification.

Keywords: antibody engineering, biosensor, phage display, unnatural amino acids

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77 Plasmonic Biosensor for Early Detection of Environmental DNA (eDNA) Combined with Enzyme Amplification

Authors: Monisha Elumalai, Joana Guerreiro, Joana Carvalho, Marta Prado


DNA biosensors popularity has been increasing over the past few years. Traditional analytical techniques tend to require complex steps and expensive equipment however DNA biosensors have the advantage of getting simple, fast and economic. Additionally, the combination of DNA biosensors with nanomaterials offers the opportunity to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and the overall performance of the devices. DNA biosensors are based on oligonucleotides as sensing elements. These oligonucleotides are highly specific to complementary DNA sequences resulting in the hybridization of the strands. DNA biosensors are not only an advantage in the clinical field but also applicable in numerous research areas such as food analysis or environmental control. Zebra Mussels (ZM), Dreissena polymorpha are invasive species responsible for enormous negative impacts on the environment and ecosystems. Generally, the detection of ZM is made when the observation of adult or macroscopic larvae's is made however at this stage is too late to avoid the harmful effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop an analytical tool for the early detection of ZM. Here, we present a portable plasmonic biosensor for the detection of environmental DNA (eDNA) released to the environment from this invasive species. The plasmonic DNA biosensor combines gold nanoparticles, as transducer elements, due to their great optical properties and high sensitivity. The detection strategy is based on the immobilization of a short base pair DNA sequence on the nanoparticles surface followed by specific hybridization in the presence of a complementary target DNA. The hybridization events are tracked by the optical response provided by the nanospheres and their surrounding environment. The identification of the DNA sequences (synthetic target and probes) to detect Zebra mussel were designed by using Geneious software in order to maximize the specificity. Moreover, to increase the optical response enzyme amplification of DNA might be used. The gold nanospheres were synthesized and characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained nanospheres present the maximum localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak position are found to be around 519 nm and a diameter of 17nm. The DNA probes modified with a sulfur group at one end of the sequence were then loaded on the gold nanospheres at different ionic strengths and DNA probe concentrations. The optimal DNA probe loading will be selected based on the stability of the optical signal followed by the hybridization study. Hybridization process leads to either nanoparticle dispersion or aggregation based on the presence or absence of the target DNA. Finally, this detection system will be integrated into an optical sensing platform. Considering that the developed device will be used in the field, it should fulfill the inexpensive and portability requirements. The sensing devices based on specific DNA detection holds great potential and can be exploited for sensing applications in-loco.

Keywords: ZM DNA, DNA probes, nicking enzyme, gold nanoparticles

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76 Developing Manufacturing Process for the Graphene Sensors

Authors: Abdullah Faqihi, John Hedley


Biosensors play a significant role in the healthcare sectors, scientific and technological progress. Developing electrodes that are easy to manufacture and deliver better electrochemical performance is advantageous for diagnostics and biosensing. They can be implemented extensively in various analytical tasks such as drug discovery, food safety, medical diagnostics, process controls, security and defence, in addition to environmental monitoring. Development of biosensors aims to create high-performance electrochemical electrodes for diagnostics and biosensing. A biosensor is a device that inspects the biological and chemical reactions generated by the biological sample. A biosensor carries out biological detection via a linked transducer and transmits the biological response into an electrical signal; stability, selectivity, and sensitivity are the dynamic and static characteristics that affect and dictate the quality and performance of biosensors. In this research, a developed experimental study for laser scribing technique for graphene oxide inside a vacuum chamber for processing of graphene oxide is presented. The processing of graphene oxide (GO) was achieved using the laser scribing technique. The effect of the laser scribing on the reduction of GO was investigated under two conditions: atmosphere and vacuum. GO solvent was coated onto a LightScribe DVD. The laser scribing technique was applied to reduce GO layers to generate rGO. The micro-details for the morphological structures of rGO and GO were visualised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy so that they could be examined. The first electrode was a traditional graphene-based electrode model, made under normal atmospheric conditions, whereas the second model was a developed graphene electrode fabricated under a vacuum state using a vacuum chamber. The purpose was to control the vacuum conditions, such as the air pressure and the temperature during the fabrication process. The parameters to be assessed include the layer thickness and the continuous environment. Results presented show high accuracy and repeatability achieving low cost productivity.

Keywords: laser scribing, lightscribe DVD, graphene oxide, scanning electron microscopy

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75 Biosensor Design through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Wenjun Zhang, Yunqing Du, Steven W. Cranford, Ming L. Wang


The beginning of 21st century has witnessed new advancements in the design and use of new materials for biosensing applications, from nano to macro, protein to tissue. Traditional analytical methods lack a complete toolset to describe the complexities introduced by living systems, pathological relations, discrete hierarchical materials, cross-phase interactions, and structure-property dependencies. Materiomics – via systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation – can provide structure-process-property relations by using a materials science approach linking mechanisms across scales and enables oriented biosensor design. With this approach, DNA biosensors can be utilized to detect disease biomarkers present in individuals’ breath such as acetone for diabetes. Our wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) has successfully detected trace amount of various chemicals in vapor differentiated by pattern recognition. Here, we present how MD simulation can revolutionize the way of design and screening of DNA aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral health monitoring. It demonstrates great potential to be utilized to build a library of DNDA sequences for reliable detection of several biomarkers of one specific disease, and as well provides a new methodology of creating, designing, and applying of biosensors.

Keywords: biosensor, DNA, biomarker, molecular dynamics simulation

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74 A Stepwise Approach for Piezoresistive Microcantilever Biosensor Optimization

Authors: Amal E. Ahmed, Levent Trabzon


Due to the low concentration of the analytes in biological samples, the use of Biological Microelectromechanical System (Bio-MEMS) biosensors for biomolecules detection results in a minuscule output signal that is not good enough for practical applications. In response to this, a need has arisen for an optimized biosensor capable of giving high output signal in response the detection of few analytes in the sample; the ultimate goal is being able to convert the attachment of a single biomolecule into a measurable quantity. For this purpose, MEMS microcantilevers based biosensors emerged as a promising sensing solution because it is simple, cheap, very sensitive and more importantly does not need analytes optical labeling (Label-free). Among the different microcantilever transducing techniques, piezoresistive based microcantilever biosensors became more prominent because it works well in liquid environments and has an integrated readout system. However, the design of piezoresistive microcantilevers is not a straightforward problem due to coupling between the design parameters, constraints, process conditions, and performance. It was found that the parameters that can be optimized to enhance the sensitivity of Piezoresistive microcantilever-based sensors are: cantilever dimensions, cantilever material, cantilever shape, piezoresistor material, piezoresistor doping level, piezoresistor dimensions, piezoresistor position, Stress Concentration Region's (SCR) shape and position. After a systematic analyzation of the effect of each design and process parameters on the sensitivity, a step-wise optimization approach was developed in which almost all these parameters were variated one at each step while fixing the others to get the maximum possible sensitivity at the end. At each step, the goal was to optimize the parameter in a way that it maximizes and concentrates the stress in the piezoresistor region for the same applied force thus get the higher sensitivity. Using this approach, an optimized sensor that has 73.5x times higher electrical sensitivity (ΔR⁄R) than the starting sensor was obtained. In addition to that, this piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor it is more sensitive than the other similar sensors previously reported in the open literature. The mechanical sensitivity of the final senior is -1.5×10-8 Ω/Ω ⁄pN; which means that for each 1pN (10-10 g) biomolecules attach to this biosensor; the piezoresistor resistivity will decrease by 1.5×10-8 Ω. Throughout this work COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0, a commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool, has been used to simulate the sensor performance.

Keywords: biosensor, microcantilever, piezoresistive, stress concentration region (SCR)

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73 Thermolysin Entrapment in a Gold Nanoparticles/Polymer Composite: Construction of an Efficient Biosensor for Ochratoxin a Detection

Authors: Fatma Dridi, Mouna Marrakchi, Mohammed Gargouri, Alvaro Garcia Cruz, Sergei V. Dzyadevych, Francis Vocanson, Joëlle Saulnier, Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault, Florence Lagarde


An original method has been successfully developed for the immobilization of thermolysin onto gold interdigitated electrodes for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in olive oil samples. A mix of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyethylenimine (PEI) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was used. Cross-linking sensors chip was made by using a saturated glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor atmosphere in order to render the two polymers water stable. Performance of AuNPs/ (PVA/PEI) modified electrode was compared to a traditional immobilized enzymatic method using bovine serum albumin (BSA). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were employed to provide a useful insight into the structure and morphology of the immobilized thermolysin composite membranes. The enzyme immobilization method influence the topography and the texture of the deposited layer. Biosensors optimization and analytical characteristics properties were studied. Under optimal conditions AuNPs/ (PVA/PEI) modified electrode showed a higher increment in sensitivity. A 700 enhancement factor could be achieved with a detection limit of 1 nM. The newly designed OTA biosensors showed a long-term stability and good reproducibility. The relevance of the method was evaluated using commercial doped olive oil samples. No pretreatment of the sample was needed for testing and no matrix effect was observed. Recovery values were close to 100% demonstrating the suitability of the proposed method for OTA screening in olive oil.

Keywords: thermolysin, A. ochratoxin , polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylenimine, gold nanoparticles, olive oil

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72 The Application of Whole-Cell Luminescent Biosensors for Assessing Bactericidal Properties of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Yuliya Y. Gavrichenko


Background and Aims: The increasing bacterial resistance to almost all the available antibiotics has encouraged scientists to search for alternative sources of antibacterial agents. Nowadays, it is known that many plant secondary metabolites have diverse biological activity. These compounds can be potentially active against human bacterial and viral infections. Extended research has been carried out to explore the use of the luminescent bacterial test as a rapid, accurate and inexpensive method to assess the antibacterial properties and to predict the biological activity spectra for plant origin substances. Method: Botanical material of fifteen species was collected from their natural and cultural habitats on the Crimean peninsula. The aqueous extracts of following plants were tested: Robinia pseudoacacia L., Sideritis comosa, Cotinus coggygria Scop., Thymus serpyllum L., Juglans regia L., Securigera varia L., Achillea millefolium L., Phlomis taurica, Corylus avellana L., Sambucus nigra L., Helichrysum arenarium L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Elytrigia repens L., Echium vulgare L., Conium maculatum L. The test was carried out using luminous strains of marine bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, which was isolated from the Sea of Azov as well as four Escherichia coli MG1655 recombinant strains harbouring Vibrio fischeri luxCDABE genes. Results: The bactericidal capacity of plant extracts showed significant differences in the study. Cotinus coggygria, Phlomis taurica, Juglans regia L. proved to be the most toxic to P. leiognathi. (EC50 = 0.33 g dried plant/l). Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Sideritis comosa and Helichrysum arenarium L. had moderate inhibitory effects (EC50 = 3.3 g dried plant/l). The rest of the aqueous extracts have decreased the luminescence of no more than 50% at the lowest concentration (16.5 g dried plant/l). Antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against constitutively luminescent E. coli MG1655 (pXen7-lux) strain was observed at approximately the same level as for P. leiognathi. Cotinus coggygria and Conium maculatum L. extracts have increased light emission in the mutant E. coli MG1655 (pFabA-lux) strain which is associated with cell membranes damage. Sideritis comosa, Phlomis taurica, Juglans regia induced SOS response in E. coli (pColD-lux) strain. Glycyrrhiza glabra L. induced protein damage response in E. coli MG1655 (pIbpA-lux) strain. Conclusion: The received results have shown that the plants’ extracts had nonspecific antimicrobial effects against both E. coli (pXen7-lux) and P. leiognathi biosensors. Mutagenic, cytotoxic and protein damage effects have been observed. In general, the bioluminescent inhibition test result correlated with the traditional use of screened plants. It leads to the following conclusion that whole-cell luminescent biosensors could be the indicator of overall plants antibacterial capacity. The results of the investigation have shown a possibility of bioluminescent method in medicine and pharmacy as an approach to research the antibacterial properties of medicinal plants.

Keywords: antibacterial property, bioluminescence, medicinal plants, whole-cell biosensors

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71 Investigation on Reducing the Bandgap in Nanocomposite Polymers by Doping

Authors: Sharvare Palwai, Padmaja Guggilla


Smart materials, also called as responsive materials, undergo reversible physical or chemical changes in their properties as a consequence of small environmental variations. They can respond to a single or multiple stimuli such as stress, temperature, moist, electric or magnetic fields, light, or chemical compounds. Hence smart materials are the basis of many applications, including biosensors and transducers, particularly electroactive polymers. As the polymers exhibit good flexibility, high transparency, easy processing, and low cost, they would be promising for the sensor material. Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), being a ferroelectric polymer, exhibits piezoelectric and pyro electric properties. Pyroelectric materials convert heat directly into electricity, while piezoelectric materials convert mechanical energy into electricity. These characteristics of PVDF make it useful in biosensor devices and batteries. However, the influence of nanoparticle fillers such as Lithium Tantalate (LiTaO₃/LT), Potassium Niobate (KNbO₃/PN), and Zinc Titanate (ZnTiO₃/ZT) in polymer films will be studied comprehensively. Developing advanced and cost-effective biosensors is pivotal to foresee the fullest potential of polymer based wireless sensor networks, which will further enable new types of self-powered applications. Finally, nanocomposites films with best set of properties; the sensory elements will be designed and tested for their performance as electric generators under laboratory conditions. By characterizing the materials for their optical properties and investigate the effects of doping on the bandgap energies, the science in the next-generation biosensor technologies can be advanced.

Keywords: polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF, lithium tantalate, potassium niobate, zinc titanate

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70 Reagentless Detection of Urea Based on ZnO-CuO Composite Thin Film

Authors: Neha Batra Bali, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta


A reagentless biosensor for detection of urea based on ZnO-CuO composite thin film is presented in following work. Biosensors have immense potential for varied applications ranging from environmental to clinical testing, health care, and cell analysis. Immense growth in the field of biosensors is due to the huge requirement in today’s world to develop techniques which are both cost effective and accurate for prevention of disease manifestation. The human body comprises of numerous biomolecules which in their optimum levels are essential for functioning. However mismanaged levels of these biomolecules result in major health issues. Urea is one of the key biomolecules of interest. Its estimation is of paramount significance not only for healthcare sector but also from environmental perspectives. If level of urea in human blood/serum is abnormal, i.e., above or below physiological range (15-40mg/dl)), it may lead to diseases like renal failure, hepatic failure, nephritic syndrome, cachexia, urinary tract obstruction, dehydration, shock, burns and gastrointestinal, etc. Various metal nanoparticles, conducting polymer, metal oxide thin films, etc. have been exploited to act as matrix to immobilize urease to fabricate urea biosensor. Amongst them, Zinc Oxide (ZnO), a semiconductor metal oxide with a wide band gap is of immense interest as an efficient matrix in biosensors by virtue of its natural abundance, biocompatibility, good electron communication feature and high isoelectric point (9.5). In spite of being such an attractive candidate, ZnO does not possess a redox couple of its own which necessitates the use of electroactive mediators for electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode, thereby causing hindrance in realization of integrated and implantable biosensor. In the present work, an effort has been made to fabricate a matrix based on ZnO-CuO composite prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique in order to incorporate redox properties in ZnO matrix and to utilize the same for reagentless biosensing applications. The prepared bioelectrode Urs/(ZnO-CuO)/ITO/glass exhibits high sensitivity (70µAmM⁻¹cm⁻²) for detection of urea (5-200 mg/dl) with high stability (shelf life ˃ 10 weeks) and good selectivity (interference ˂ 4%). The enhanced sensing response obtained for composite matrix is attributed to the efficient electron exchange between ZnO-CuO matrix and immobilized enzymes, and subsequently fast transfer of generated electrons to the electrode via matrix. The response is encouraging for fabricating reagentless urea biosensor based on ZnO-CuO matrix.

Keywords: biosensor, reagentless, urea, ZnO-CuO composite

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69 Comparative Electrochemical Studies of Enzyme-Based and Enzyme-less Graphene Oxide-Based Nanocomposite as Glucose Biosensor

Authors: Chetna Tyagi. G. B. V. S. Lakshmi, Ambuj Tripathi, D. K. Avasthi


Graphene oxide provides a good host matrix for preparing nanocomposites due to the different functional groups attached to its edges and planes. Being biocompatible, it is used in therapeutic applications. As enzyme-based biosensor requires complicated enzyme purification procedure, high fabrication cost and special storage conditions, we need enzyme-less biosensors for use even in a harsh environment like high temperature, varying pH, etc. In this work, we have prepared both enzyme-based and enzyme-less graphene oxide-based biosensors for glucose detection using glucose-oxidase as enzyme and gold nanoparticles, respectively. These samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to confirm the successful synthesis of the working electrodes. Electrochemical measurements were performed for both the working electrodes using a 3-electrode electrochemical cell. Cyclic voltammetry curves showed the homogeneous transfer of electron on the electrodes in the scan range between -0.2V to 0.6V. The sensing measurements were performed using differential pulse voltammetry for the glucose concentration varying from 0.01 mM to 20 mM, and sensing was improved towards glucose in the presence of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles in graphene oxide nanocomposite played an important role in sensing glucose in the absence of enzyme, glucose oxidase, as evident from these measurements. The selectivity was tested by measuring the current response of the working electrode towards glucose in the presence of the other common interfering agents like cholesterol, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and urea. The enzyme-less working electrode also showed storage stability for up to 15 weeks, making it a suitable glucose biosensor.

Keywords: electrochemical, enzyme-less, glucose, gold nanoparticles, graphene oxide, nanocomposite

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68 Low-Complex, High-Fidelity Two-Grades Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) Based Thermal Bonding Technique for Sealing a Thermoplastic Microfluidic Biosensor

Authors: Jorge Prada, Christina Cordes, Carsten Harms, Walter Lang


The development of microfluidic-based biosensors over the last years has shown an increasing employ of thermoplastic polymers as constitutive material. Their low-cost production, high replication fidelity, biocompatibility and optical-mechanical properties are sought after for the implementation of disposable albeit functional lab-on-chip solutions. Among the range of thermoplastic materials on use, the Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) stands out due to its optical transparency, which makes it a frequent choice as manufacturing material for fluorescence-based biosensors. Moreover, several processing techniques to complete a closed COC microfluidic biosensor have been discussed in the literature. The reported techniques differ however in their implementation, and therefore potentially add more or less complexity when using it in a mass production process. This work introduces and reports results on the application of a purely thermal bonding process between COC substrates, which were produced by the hot-embossing process, and COC foils containing screen-printed circuits. The proposed procedure takes advantage of the transition temperature difference between two COC grades foils to accomplish the sealing of the microfluidic channels. Patterned heat injection to the COC foil through the COC substrate is applied, resulting in consistent channel geometry uniformity. Measurements on bond strength and bursting pressure are shown, suggesting that this purely thermal bonding process potentially renders a technique which can be easily adapted into the thermoplastic microfluidic chip production workflow, while enables a low-cost as well as high-quality COC biosensor manufacturing process.

Keywords: biosensor, cyclo-olefin copolymer, hot embossing, thermal bonding, thermoplastics

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