Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: measles

20 Comparision of Statistical Variables for Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Children in Measles Cases in Khyber Pukhtun Khwa

Authors: Inayatullah Khan, Afzal Khan, Hamzullah Khan, Afzal Khan

Abstract:

Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare different statistical variables for vaccinated and unvaccinated children in measles cases. Material and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Isolation ward, Department of Paediatrics, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 566 admitted cases of measles were enrolled. Data regarding age, sex, address, vaccination status, measles contact, hospital stay and outcome was collected and recorded on a proforma. History of measles vaccination was ascertained either by checking the vaccination cards or on parental recall. Result: In 566 cases of measles, 211(39%) were vaccinated and 345 (61%) were unvaccinated. Three hundred and ten (54.80%) patients were males and 256 (45.20%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1.The age range was from 1 year to 14 years with mean age with SD of 3.2 +2 years. Majority (371, 65.5%) of the patients were 1-3 years old. Mean hospital stay was 3.08 days with a range of 1-10 days and a standard deviation of ± 1.15. History of measles contact was present in 393 (69.4%) cases. Fourty eight patients were expired with a mortality rate of 8.5%. Conclusion: Majority of the children in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa are unvaccinated and unprotected against measles. Among vaccinated children, 39% of children attracted measles which indicate measles vaccine failure. This figure is clearly higher than that accepted for measles vaccine (2-10%).

Keywords: measles, vaccination, immunity, population

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19 Spread of Measles Disease in Indonesia with Susceptible Vaccinated Infected Recovered Model

Authors: Septiawan A. Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih, Sutanto Sastraredja

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Measles is a disease which can spread caused by a virus and has been a priority’s Ministry of Health in Indonesia to be solved. Each infected person can be recovered and get immunity so that the spread of the disease can be constructed with susceptible infected recovered (SIR). To prevent the spread of measles transmission, the Ministry of Health holds vaccinations program. The aims of the research are to derive susceptible vaccinated infected recovered (SVIR) model, to determine the patterns of disease spread with SVIR model, and also to apply the SVIR model on the spread of measles in Indonesia. Based on the article, it can be concluded that the spread model of measles with vaccinations, that is SVIR model. It is a first-order differential equation system. The patterns of disease spread is determined by solution of the model. Based on that model Indonesia will be a measles-free nation in 2186 with the average of vaccinations scope about 88% and the average score of vaccinations failure about 4.9%. If it is simulated as Ministry of Health new programs with the average of vaccinations scope about 95% and the average score of vaccinations failure about 3%, then Indonesia will be a measles-free nation in 2184. Even with the average of vaccinations scope about 100% and no failure of vaccinations, Indonesia will be a measles-free nation in 2183. Indonesia’s target as a measles-free nation in 2020 has not been reached.

Keywords: measles, vaccination, susceptible infected recovered (SIR), susceptible vaccinated infected recovered (SVIR)

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18 Serosurveillance of Measles Virus amongst Vaccinated Children of a Rural Population of Sindh

Authors: Zeb Hussain, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Shaheen Sharafat

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Background: Measles is a contagious viral infection common in childhood. Vaccination against measles is included in the expanded program of immunization (EPI). However, and alarmingly, a high mortality rate is observed due to measles infection in Pakistan. Moreover a recent outbreak of measles in various areas of Pakistan further highlights the problem. It is therefore important to investigate measles specific IgG (antibody) levels in our population. Objective: To quantify measles specific IgG antibodies amongst vaccinated children in district Qamber Shahdadkot, Sindh. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Microbiology section of the Dow-Diagnostic-Research-and-Reference-Laboratory (DDRRL), DUHS after Institutional Review Board approval (IRB-516/DUHS/-14) during August-December-2014. A total of 173 participants (residents of district Qamber Shahdadkot, Sindh) aged between 1-5 years were recruited in the study. Blood samples were collected as per standard phlebotomy guidelines. Blood was stored at 4 °C overnight. Samples were subsequently spun at a speed of 10000rpm to separate sera, which were divided into small aliquots to be frozen at -20 °C. Frozen sera were transported to the DDRRL on dry ice. Measles specific IgG (antibody) titers were quantified using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results: Blood was collected from a total of 173 individuals ranging between 1-5 years of age. Of these, a total of 88 participants were males and 85 were females. Of the 173 investigated samples, only 53 (30.6%) showed protective IgG titers against measles while 120 (69%) were sero-negative. Measles specific IgG antibodies titers were higher in female participants compared to the males. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that a substantial percentage of vaccinated children in district Qamber-Shahdadkot did not have protective antibody titres against measles. It is therefore extremely important to investigate measles specific IgG levels in various parts of Pakistan in order to implement appropriate protective measures.

Keywords: sero-surveillance, measles, vaccinated children, Pakistan

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17 Comparison of Susceptibility to Measles in Preterm Infants versus Term Infants

Authors: Joseph L. Mathew, Shourjendra N. Banerjee, R. K. Ratho, Sourabh Dutta, Vanita Suri

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Background: In India and many other developing countries, a single dose of measles vaccine is administered to infants at 9 months of age. This is based on the assumption that maternal transplacentally transferred antibodies will protect infants until that age. However, our previous data showed that most infants lose maternal anti-measles antibodies before 6 months of age, making them susceptible to measles before vaccination at 9 months. Objective: This prospective study was designed to compare susceptibility in pre-term vs term infants, at different time points. Material and Methods: Following Institutional Ethics Committee approval and a formal informed consent process, venous blood was drawn from a cohort of 45 consecutive term infants and 45 consecutive pre-term infants (both groups delivered by the vaginal route); at birth, 3 months, 6 months and 9 months (prior to measles vaccination). Serum was separated and anti-measles IgG antibody levels were measured by quantitative ELISA kits (with sensitivity and specificity > 95%). Susceptibility to measles was defined as antibody titre < 200mIU/ml. The mean antibody levels were compared between the two groups at the four time points. Results: The mean gestation of term babies was 38.5±1.2 weeks; and pre-term babies 34.7±2.8 weeks. The respective mean birth weights were 2655±215g and 1985±175g. Reliable maternal vaccination record was available in only 7 of the 90 mothers. Mean anti-measles IgG antibody (±SD) in terms babies was 3165±533 IU/ml at birth, 1074±272 IU/ml at 3 months, 314±153 IU/ml at 6 months, and 68±21 IU/ml at 9 months. The corresponding levels in pre-term babies were 2875±612 IU/ml, 948±377 IU/ml, 265±98 IU/ml, and 72±33 IU/ml at 9 months (p > 0.05 for all inter-group comparisons). The proportion of susceptible term infants at birth, 3months, 6months and 9months was 0%, 16%, 67% and 96%. The corresponding proportions in the pre-term infants were 0%, 29%, 82%, and 100% (p > 0.05 for all inter-group comparisons). Conclusion: Majority of infants are susceptible to measles before 9 months of age suggesting the need to anticipate measles vaccination, but there was no statistically significant difference between the proportion of susceptible term and pre-term infants, at any of the four-time points. A larger study is required to confirm these findings and compare sero-protection if vaccination is anticipated to be administered between 6 and 9 months.

Keywords: measles, preterm, susceptibility, term infant

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16 Interrelationship of Socio-Demographic Factors, Health Belief Dimensions and Compliance to Measles Vaccination among Filipino Mothers

Authors: Beryl Rene R. Lopez, Lesley Anne M. Lipat, Rhogene Barbette C. Lirio, Laurice Joy H. Llanes, Karl Philippe M. Llapitan, Einstein James R. Lopez, Socorro S. GuanHing

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Background: Measles remain as one of the most common childhood diseases despite the availability of the vaccine that is safe and cost-effective. Because of morbidity and mortality associated with the recent measles outbreak in the Philippines, there is an increasing concern from the health care professionals. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the compliance of Filipino mothers to measles vaccination and their health beliefs when grouped according to the given socio-demographic factors using a researcher-made questionnaire. Research Methodology: This research utilized the descriptive-correlational research design. With the use of purposive sampling technique, the study involved 200 Filipino mothers aged 18 years old and above excluding those who are healthcare professionals with children aged 2-3 years old with either urban or rural as their settlements. Pre-testing was done prior to the actual data gathering. A questionnaire composed of 26 items involving socio-demographic, compliance, and health beliefs was distributed to the sample population. Statistical analysis was done with the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) for the first research question and Structural Equation Model (SEM) for the second research question. Results: Four dimensions were generated with the use of EFA namely: Vulnerability-Oriented Beliefs (VOB), Knowledge-Oriented Beliefs (KOB), Accessibility-Oriented Beliefs (AOB), and Outcomes-Oriented Beliefs (OOB). These were then correlated with the mothers’ socio-demographic factors (age, educational attainment, the area of residence, the number of children, and family income) and their compliance to the measles vaccination schedule. Results showed significant and direct relationships between area of residence and compliance, family income and compliance, KOB and compliance, education and KOB, KOB and VOB, KOB and OOB, AOB and KOB, AOB and OOB, AOB and VOB, and lastly, OOB and VOB. Conclusion: The Knowledge – Oriented Belief dimension greatly influence compliance to measles vaccination. Other determinants of compliance like the area of residence, educational attainment, and family income significantly increase the Filipino mothers’ likelihood of compliance to measles vaccination, which have implications to health education.

Keywords: socio-demographic, health beliefs, compliance, measles vaccination

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15 A Bayesian Hierarchical Poisson Model with an Underlying Cluster Structure for the Analysis of Measles in Colombia

Authors: Ana Corberan-Vallet, Karen C. Florez, Ingrid C. Marino, Jose D. Bermudez

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In 2016, the Region of the Americas was declared free of measles, a viral disease that can cause severe health problems. However, since 2017, measles has reemerged in Venezuela and has subsequently reached neighboring countries. In 2018, twelve American countries reported confirmed cases of measles. Governmental and health authorities in Colombia, a country that shares the longest land boundary with Venezuela, are aware of the need for a strong response to restrict the expanse of the epidemic. In this work, we apply a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with an underlying cluster structure to describe disease incidence in Colombia. Concretely, the proposed methodology provides relative risk estimates at the department level and identifies clusters of disease, which facilitates the implementation of targeted public health interventions. Socio-demographic factors, such as the percentage of migrants, gross domestic product, and entry routes, are included in the model to better describe the incidence of disease. Since the model does not impose any spatial correlation at any level of the model hierarchy, it avoids the spatial confounding problem and provides a suitable framework to estimate the fixed-effect coefficients associated with spatially-structured covariates.

Keywords: Bayesian analysis, cluster identification, disease mapping, risk estimation

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14 Epidemiological Analysis of Measles Outbreak in North-Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Fatima Meirkhankyzy Shaizadina, Alua Oralovna Omarova, Praskovya Mikhailovna Britskaya, Nessipkul Oryntayevna Alysheva

Abstract:

In recent years in the Republic of Kazakhstan there have been registered outbreaks of measles among the population. The objective of work was the analysis of outbreak of measles in 2014 among the population of North-Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the analysis of the measles outbreak descriptive and analytical research, techniques were used and threshold levels of morbidity were calculated. The increase of incidence was noted from March to July. The peak was registered in May and made 9.0 per 100000 population. High rates were registered in April – 5.7 per 100000 population, and in June and July they made 5.7 and 3.1 respectively. Duration of the period of increase made 5 months. The analysis of monthly incidence of measles revealed spring and summer seasonality. Across the territory it was established that 69.2% of cases were registered in the city, 29.1% in rural areas and 1.7% of cases were brought in from other regions of Kazakhstan. The registered cases and threshold values of measles during the outbreak revealed that from 12 to 24 week, and also during the 40th week the cases exceeding the threshold levels are registered. Thus, for example, for the analyzed 1 week the number of the revealed patients made 4, which exceeds the calculated threshold value (3) by 33.3%. The data exceeding the threshold values confirm the emergence of a disease outbreak or the beginning of epidemic rise in morbidity. Epidemic rise in incidence of the population of North-Kazakhstan region was observed throughout 2014. The risk group includes 0-4 year-old children, who made 22.7%, 15-19 year-olds – 25.6%, 20-24 year-olds – 20.9%. The analysis of measles cases registration by gender revealed that women are registered 1.1 times more often than men. The ratio of women to men made 1:0.87. In social and professional groups often ill are unorganized children – 23.3% and students – 19.8%. Studying clinical manifestations of measles in the hospitalized patients, the typical beginning of a disease with expressed intoxication symptoms – weakness, sickliness was established. In individual cases expressed intoxication symptoms, hemorrhagic and dyspeptic syndromes, complications in the form of overlay of a secondary bacterial infection, which defined high severity of the illness, were registered both in adults and in children. The average duration of stay of patients in the hospital made 6.9 days. The average duration of time between date of getting the disease and date of delivery of health care made 3.6 days. Thus, the analysis of monthly incidence of measles revealed spring and summer seasonality, the peak of which was registered in May. Urban dwellers are ill more often (69.2%), while in rural areas people are ill more rarely (29.1%). Throughout 2014 an epidemic rise in incidence of the population of North-Kazakhstan region was observed. Risk group includes: children under 4 – 22.7%, 15-19 year-olds – 25.6%, 20-24 year-olds – 20.9%. The ratio of women and men made 1:0.87. The typical beginning of a disease in all hospitalized with the expressed intoxication symptoms – weakness, sickliness was established.

Keywords: epidemiological analysis, measles, morbidity, outbreak

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13 Monitoring of Serological Test of Blood Serum in Indicator Groups of the Population of Central Kazakhstan

Authors: Praskovya Britskaya, Fatima Shaizadina, Alua Omarova, Nessipkul Alysheva

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Planned preventive vaccination, which is carried out in the Republic of Kazakhstan, promoted permanent decrease in the incidence of measles and viral hepatitis B. In the structure of VHB patients prevail people of young, working age. Monitoring of infectious incidence, monitoring of coverage of immunization of the population, random serological control over the immunity enable well-timed identification of distribution of the activator, effectiveness of the taken measures and forecasting. The serological blood analysis was conducted in indicator groups of the population of Central Kazakhstan for the purpose of identification of antibody titre for vaccine preventable infections (measles, viral hepatitis B). Measles antibodies were defined by method of enzyme-linked assay (ELA) with test-systems "VektoKor" – Ig G ('Vektor-Best' JSC). Antibodies for HBs-antigen of hepatitis B virus in blood serum was identified by method of enzyme-linked assay (ELA) with VektoHBsAg test systems – antibodies ('Vektor-Best' JSC). The result of the analysis is positive, the concentration of IgG to measles virus in the studied sample is equal to 0.18 IU/ml or more. Protective level of concentration of anti-HBsAg makes 10 mIU/ml. The results of the study of postvaccinal measles immunity showed that the share of seropositive people made 87.7% of total number of surveyed. The level of postvaccinal immunity to measles in age groups differs. So, among people older than 56 the percentage of seropositive made 95.2%. Among people aged 15-25 were registered 87.0% seropositive, at the age of 36-45 – 86.6%. In age groups of 25-35 and 36-45 the share of seropositive people was approximately at the same level – 88.5% and 88.8% respectively. The share of people seronegative to a measles virus made 12.3%. The biggest share of seronegative people was found among people aged 36-45 – 13.4% and 15-25 – 13.0%. The analysis of results of the examined people for the existence of postvaccinal immunity to viral hepatitis B showed that from all surveyed only 33.5% have the protective level of concentration of anti-HBsAg of 10 mIU/ml and more. The biggest share of people protected from VHB virus is observed in the age group of 36-45 and makes 60%. In the indicator group – above 56 – seropositive people made 4.8%. The high percentage of seronegative people has been observed in all studied age groups from 40.0% to 95.2%. The group of people which is least protected from getting VHB is people above 56 (95.2%). The probability to get VHB is also high among young people aged 25-35, the percentage of seronegative people made 80%. Thus, the results of the conducted research testify to the need for carrying out serological monitoring of postvaccinal immunity for the purpose of operational assessment of the epidemiological situation, early identification of its changes and prediction of the approaching danger.

Keywords: antibodies, blood serum, immunity, immunoglobulin

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12 An Assessment of Adverse Events Following Immunization Reporting Pattern of Selected Vaccines in VigiAccess

Authors: Peter Yamoah, Frasia Oosthuizen

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Introduction: Reporting of Adverse Events Following Immunization continues to be a challenge. Pharmacovigilance centers throughout the world are mandated by the WHO to submit AEFI reports from various countries to a large pool of adverse drug reaction electronic database called Vigibase. Despite the relevant information of AEFI in Vigibase, it is unavailable to the general public. However, the WHO has an alternative website called VigiAccess which is an open access website serving as a repository of reported adverse drug reactions and AEFIs. The aim of the study was to ascertain the reporting pattern of a number of commonly used vaccines in VigiAccess. Methods: VigiAccess was thoroughly searched on the 5th of February 2018 for AEFI reports of measles vaccine, oral polio vaccine (OPV), yellow fever vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, tetanus vaccine and tuberculosis (BCG) vaccine. These were reports from all pharmacovigilance centers in the world from the time they joined the WHO drug monitoring program. Results: After a thorough search in VigiAccess, there were 9,062 measles vaccine AEFIs, 185,829 OPV AEFIs, 24,577 yellow fever vaccine AEFIs, 317,208 pneumococcal vaccine AEFIs, 73,513 rotavirus vaccine AEFIs, 145,447 meningococcal vaccine AEFIs, 22,781 tetanus vaccine AEFIs and 35,556 BCG vaccine AEFIs. Conclusion: The study revealed that out of the eight vaccines studied, pneumococcal vaccines are associated with the highest number of AEFIs whilst measles vaccines were associated with the least AEFIs.

Keywords: vaccines, adverse reactions, VigiAccess, adverse event reporting

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11 Impact Evaluation of Vaccination against Eight-Child-Killer Diseases on under-Five Children Mortality at Mbale District, Uganda

Authors: Lukman Abiodun Nafiu

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This study examines the impact evaluation of vaccination against eight-child-killer diseases on under-five children mortality at Mbale District. It was driven by three specific objectives which are to determine the proportion of under-five children mortality due to the eight-child-killer diseases to the total under-five children mortality; establish the cause-effect relationship between the eight-child-killer diseases and under-five children mortality; as well as establish the dependence of under-five children mortality in the location at Mbale District. A community based cross-sectional and longitudinal (panel) study design involving both quantitative and qualitative (focus group discussion and in-depth interview) approaches was employed over a period of 36 months. Multi-stage cluster design involving Health Sub-District (HSD), Forms of Ownership (FOO) and Health Facilities Centres (HFC) as the first, second and third stages respectively was used. Data was collected regarding the eight-child-killer diseases namely: measles, pneumonia, pertussis (whooping cough), diphtheria, poliomyelitis (polio), tetanus, haemophilus influenza, rotavirus gastroenteritis and mortality regarding immunized and non-immunized children aged 0-59 months. We monitored the children over a period of 24 months. The study used a sample of 384 children out of all the registered children for each year at Mbale Referral Hospital and other Primary Health Care Centres (HCIV, HCIII and HCII) at Mbale District between 2015 and 2019. These children were followed from birth to their current state (living or dead). The data collected in this study was analysed using cross tabulation and the chi-square test. The study concluded that majority of mothers at Mbale district took their children for immunization and thus reducing the occurrence of under-five children mortality. Overall, 2.3%, 4.6%, 3.1%, 5.4%, 1.5%, 3.8%, 0.0% and 0.0% of under-five children had polio, tetanus, diphtheria, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, haemophilus influenzae and rotavirus gastroenteritis respectively across all the sub counties at Mbale district during the period considered. Also, different locations (sub counties) do not have significant influence on the occurrence of these eight-child-killer diseases among the under-five children at Mbale district. Therefore, the study recommended that government and agencies should continue to work together to implement measures of vaccination programs and increasing access to basic health care with a continuous improvement on the social interventions to progress child survival.

Keywords: Diseases, Mortality, Children, Vaccination

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10 A Case Comparative Study of Infant Mortality Rate in North-West Nigeria

Authors: G. I. Onwuka, A. Danbaba, S. U. Gulumbe

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This study investigated of Infant Mortality Rate as observed at a general hospital in Kaduna-South, Kaduna State, North West Nigeria. The causes of infant Mortality were examined. The data used for this analysis were collected at the statistics unit of the Hospital. The analysis was carried out on the data using Multiple Linear regression Technique and this showed that there is linear relationship between the dependent variable (death) and the independent variables (malaria, measles, anaemia, and coronary heart disease). The resultant model also revealed that a unit increment in each of these diseases would result to a unit increment in death recorded, 98.7% of the total variation in mortality is explained by the given model. The highest number of mortality was recorded in July, 2005 and the lowest mortality recorded in October, 2009.Recommendations were however made based on the results of the study.

Keywords: infant mortality rate, multiple linear regression, diseases, serial correlation

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9 In vitro Antiviral Activity of Ocimum sanctum against Animal Viruses

Authors: Anjana Goel, Ashok Kumar Bhatia

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Ocimum sanctum, a well known medicinal plant is used for various alignments in Ayurvedic medicines. It was found to be effective in treating the humans suffering from different viral infections like chicken pox, small pox, measles and influenza. In addition, curative effect of the plant in malignant patients was also reported. In the present study, leaves of this plant were screened against animal viruses i.e. Bovine Herpes Virus-type-1 (BHV-1), Foot and Mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). BHV-1 and FMDV were screened in MDBK and BHK cell lines respectively using cytopathic inhibition test. While NDV was propagated in chick embryo fibroblast culture and tested by haemagglutination inhibition test. Maximum non toxic dose of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves was calculated by MTT assay in all the cell cultures and nontoxic doses were used for antiviral activity against viruses. 98.4% and 85.3% protection were recorded against NDV and BHV-1 respectively. However, Ocimum sanctum extract failed to show any inhibitory effect on the cytopathic effect caused by FMD virus. It can be concluded that Ocimum sanctum is a very effective remedy for curing viral infections in animals also.

Keywords: bovine herpes virus-type-1, foot and mouth disease virus, newcastle disease virus, Ocimum sanctum

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8 Ethnomedicinal Assets of Plants Collected from Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Enock E. Goler, Emmanuel H. Kwon-Ndung, Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Terna T. Paul, Markus Musa, Joshua I. Waya, James H. Okogbaa

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An ethno-medicinal survey of plants used in treating various diseases and ailments was carried out in the study area of Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to obtain information on their uses and potentials. The ethno-medicinal survey was administered through structured questionnaires among local inhabitants from areas with high plant density and diversity within the various Local Government Areas of the State. A total of 84 (Eighty four) plant species belonging to 45 (Forty five) families were found to be useful in treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, measles, fever, asthma, jaundice, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aches, diarrhea, cough, arthritis, yellow fever, typhoid, erectile dysfunction and excessive bleeding. Different parts of the plant such as the roots, leaves and stems are used in preparing herbal remedies which could be from dry or freshly collected plants. The main methods of preparation are decoction or infusion, while in some cases the plant parts used are consumed directly. Residents in the study areas find the herbal remedy cheaper and more accessible and claimed that there are no side effects compared to orthodox medicine. This study has confirmed the need towards the conscious conservation of plant genetic resources in order to ensure sustained access to these ethno-medicinal plant materials.

Keywords: ethno-medicinal, Nasarawa, plants, survey

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7 Ethnobotanical Findings on Botanicals Frequently Used for Children’s Health in South-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chioma Nwakamma, Garuba Omosun, Blessing Oyedemi

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This research surveys and documents information on medicinal plants and their botanical preparations used in the treatment of children’s ailments in South-eastern Nigeria. Children under the age of 5 in developing countries suffer from diseases with high morbidity and mortality rate yearly due to inaccessible and unaffordable health care. Structured questionnaires were administered to the herbal sellers, traditional medicine practitioners, nursing mothers and adult dwellers to collect data on the names of plants used to treat the conditions, methods of preparation, duration of treatment, adverse effects and the methods of administration of the plant materials. A total of 135 plants belonging to 55 plant families were identified for the management of children’s health in the area. Common pediatric ailments which were said to be treated with herbal remedies by the respondents included malaria, pneumonia, stomach ache, diarrhea, dysentery, measles, chickenpox/smallpox, convulsion, jaundice, pile, ringworm, scabies, eczema, stubborn cough, scurvy, catarrh, wounds, boils, insect bites, food poison, cholera, and umbilical cord complications. Percentages of respondents were; herbal sellers (48.2%), traditional medical practitioners (21.6%), nursing mothers (11.1%) and others (19.1%). The most occurring plant families were Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Apocynaceae with eight species of plants each, followed by Annonaceae and Asteriaceae with 7 and 6 species, respectively. The recipes were made from the combination of different parts of two or more plants species, and others were made from single plant parts. Methods of extraction were mostly decoction, raw squeezing-out of the juice and infusion, while oral administration was the main route of administration.

Keywords: botanicals, ethnomedical, children's health, South Eastern Nigeria, survey

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6 Achievements of Healthcare Services Vis-À-Vis the Millennium Development Goals Targets: Evidence from Pakistan

Authors: Saeeda Batool, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

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This study investigates the impact of public healthcare facilities and socio-economic circumstances on the status of child health in Pakistan. The complete analysis is carried out in correspondence with fourth and sixth millennium development goals. Further, the health variables chosen are also inherited from targeted indicators of the mentioned goals (MDGs). Trends in the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) for both health inequalities and coverage are analyzed using the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PLSM) data set for 2001-02 to 2012-13 at the national and provincial level. To reveal the relative importance of each circumstance in achieving the targeted values for child health, Shorrocks decomposition is applied on HOI. The annual point average growth rate of HOI is used to simulate the time period for the achievement of target set by MDGs and universal access also. The results indicate an improvement in HOI for a reduction in child mortality rates from 52.1% in 2001-02 to 67.3% in 2012-13, which confirms the availability of healthcare opportunities to a larger segment of society. Similarly, immunization against measles and other diseases such as Diphtheria, Polio, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), and Hepatitis has also registered an improvement from 51.6% to 69.9% during the period of study at the national level. On a positive note, no gender disparity has been found for child health indicators and that health outcome is mostly affected by the parental and geographical features and availability of health infrastructure. However, the study finds that this achievement has been uneven across provinces. Pakistan is not only lagging behind in achieving its health goals, disappointingly with the current rate of health care provision, but it will take many additional years to achieve its targets.

Keywords: socio-economic circumstances, unmet MDGs, public healthcare services, child and infant mortality

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5 Extraction, Isolation and Comparative Phtochemical Study of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis and Fenugreek

Authors: Nitin Rajan, Kashif Shakeel, Shashank Tiwari, Shachan Sagar

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Background: - Aegle Marmelos (Bael) leaf extract is taken twice daily to treat ophthalmia, ulcers, and intestinal worms, among other ailments. Poultice made from bael leaf is used in the treatment of eye conditions. The leaf juice has a variety of therapeutic applications, with the most notable being the treatment of diabetes. Fenugreek is used to cure red spots around the eyes, as well as to soften the throat and chest and to give relief from coughing. The use of this plant in the form of infusion, powder, pomade, and decoction has been extremely popular in Iranian traditional medicine. The plant may be used to wash one's vaginal linings. This plant is used as an emollient in the lack of appetite, treatment of pellagra, and gastrointestinal problems, as well as a general tonic. Calendula officinalis leaves are used to treat varicose veins on the outside of the body by infusing them. In Europe, the leaves are diaphoretic and resolvent in nature, while the blooms are employed as an emmenagogue and antispasmodic stimulant in Canada and the United States. The flowers were decocted and served as a posset drink when smallpox and measles were common in England, and the fresh juice was used to treat jaundice. Objective: - This study is done to compare the physicochemical parameter of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek. Materials and Methods: Extraction and Isolation of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, were done. Preliminary phytochemical study for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids of the extract was done individual by using the standard procedure. Result: - The phytochemical screening of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins gum. Conclusion: - In this study, we have found that crude aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek leaves contain some important bioactive compounds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.

Keywords: Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, physiochemical parameter

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4 Activities for Increasing Childhood Vaccination Coverage of the Refugee and Migrant Population, Greece, European Program PHILOS, 2017

Authors: C. Silvestros, K. Mellou, T. Georgakopoulou, A. Koustenis, E. Kokkinou, C. Botsi, A. Terzidis

Abstract:

'PHILOS – Emergency health response to refugee crisis' is a programme of the Greek Ministry of Health, implemented by the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention (HCDCP) funded by the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) of EU’s DG Migration and Home Affairs. One of the main objectives of the program is the immunization coverage of the target – population to assure the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. The program foresees vaccination needs assessment of children hosted at camps at the mainland and implementation of interventions to cover the vaccination gaps in co-operation with the Ministry of Health. The National Immunization Advisory Committee in Greece recommended that MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella), PCV (Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) and HEXA (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccines should be performed in priority. Recording was completed at 24 camps (May - June 2017); 3381 children (0-18 years) were recorded. The median number of children hosted at each camp was 95 (range: 5-553). For 68% of the children, the WHO vaccination booklet was available. 44%, 48.5% and 61% of the children were vaccinated with at least one dose of PCV, HEXA, and MMR, respectively. The proportion of vaccinated children for the three vaccines mentioned above is significantly lower for the remaining doses; PCV (second dose 8%, third dose 1.3%), HEXA (second dose 13%, third dose 2.7%, forth dose 0.1%) and MMR (second dose 23%). None of the 37 (10 from Afghanistan, 3 from Bangladesh, 23 from Pakistan, 1 from Syria) recorded unaccompanied children did not have a WHO vaccination booklet and were considered unvaccinated. There is no differentiation in vaccination coverage among different ethnicities. Massive catch up vaccination was performed at 4 camps, and 671 vaccinations were performed (245 PCV, 307 HEXA, and 119 MMR). Similar interventions are planned for all camps of the country. Recording reveled gaps in vaccination coverage of the population, mainly because of the mobility of the population, the influx of refugees- which is still ongoing- and new births. Mass vaccination campaigns are considered vital in order to increase vaccination coverage, and continuous efforts are needed in order all children living at the camps to have full access to the National Childhood Immunization Program.

Keywords: vaccine preventable, refugee–migrants camps, vaccination coverage, PCV, MMR, HEXA

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3 Assessment of Urban Immunization Practices among Urban Mother's in Sri Lanka

Authors: Kasun U. G. Palihakkara

Abstract:

Although vaccine coverage in Sri Lanka is close to 100%, with the widely spreading vaccine rejection trend reaching South Asian regions, it is essential to catch on whether Sri Lankans are being misinformed from the common misconceptions regarding vaccines. As the rates of target diseases decrease, parents become less accepting of even minor common adverse events. It is essential to preserve the integrity of immunization programs and protect public health by finding out the prevalence of anti-immunization trends. The primary objective of this study was to assess the immunization practices and prevalence of trends related to anti-immunization among urban community in Sri Lanka. A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study on 323 participants using convenient sampling with 213 self-administered questionnaires. Additionally, 110 online questionnaires were distributed. 31% of the study population does not maintain immunization records for their children. While majority seek information regarding immunization from reliable sources such as the family physician or specialist pediatricians, 30% also refer to unreliable sources such as online communities for their opinion. 31% of study population had not vaccinated for Japanese encephalitis. 73% of the study population had encountered with side effects of vaccination such as fever & 47% believed that such side effects are rare. 52% of the population had hostile attitude regarding the administration of several doses multiple vaccines within a child’s first year. Diseases like polio had been successfully eradicated from Sri Lanka with the help of vigorous vaccination programs. However, majority of the study population believe that there’s no need to keep vaccinating the children for those eradicated diseases and exposing the child for adverse effects of such vaccines. Majority of the population were aware of the existing misconceptions regarding immunization. The most popular misconceptions about vaccines popular among the study population were the MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella) vaccine being a possible cause leading to autism and bowel disease and children getting infected with the disease even after they get vaccinated, may be due to the inactivated vaccine. Disturbingly 22% of the study population believed that vaccines are useless in preventing diseases nowadays. These data obtained from the urban study population reveals that even though statistically Sri Lankan immunization coverage is 100%, there is a possibility of anti-vaccination trend arising in Sri Lanka due to the prevalence of various misconceptions and rumors related to it. Therefore these data recommend the need for thorough awareness among the mothers.

Keywords: anti-vaccination, immunization, infectious diseases, pediatric health

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2 Lessons Learned from Push-Plus Implementation in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Aisha Giwa, Mohammed-Faosy Adeniran, Olufunke Femi-Ojo

Abstract:

Four decades ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The EPI blueprint laid out the technical and managerial functions necessary to routinely vaccinate children with a limited number of vaccines, providing protection against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, measles, polio, and tuberculosis, and to prevent maternal and neonatal tetanus by vaccinating women of childbearing age with tetanus toxoid. Despite global efforts, the Routine Immunization (RI) coverage in two of the World Health Organization (WHO) regions; the African Region and the South-East Asia Region, still remains short of its targets. As a result, the WHO Regional Director for Africa declared 2012 as the year for intensifying RI in these regions and this also coincided with the declaration of polio as a programmatic emergency by the WHO Executive Board. In order to intensify routine immunization, the National Routine Immunization Strategic Plan (2013-2015) stated that its core priority is to ensure 100% adequacy and availability of vaccines for safe immunization. To achieve 100% availability, the “PUSH System” and then “Push-Plus” were adopted for vaccine distribution, which replaced the inefficient “PULL” method. The NPHCDA plays the key role in coordinating activities in area advocacy, capacity building, engagement of 3PL for the state as well as monitoring and evaluation of the vaccine delivery process. eHealth Africa (eHA) is a player as a 3PL service provider engaged by State Primary Health Care Boards (SPHCDB) to ensure vaccine availability through Vaccine Direct Delivery (VDD) project which is essential to successful routine immunization services. The VDD project ensures the availability and adequate supply of high-quality vaccines and immunization-related materials to last-mile facilities. eHA’s commitment to the VDD project saw the need for an assessment of the project vis-a-vis the overall project performance, evaluation of a process for necessary improvement suggestions as well as general impact across Kano State (Where eHA had transitioned to the state), Bauchi State (currently manage delivery to all LGAs except 3 LGAs currently being managed by the state), Sokoto State (eHA currently covers all LGAs) and Zamfara State (Currently, in-sourced and managed solely by the state).

Keywords: cold chain logistics, health supply chain system strengthening, logistics management information system, vaccine delivery traceability and accountability

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1 Missed Opportunities for Immunization of under Five Children in Calabar South County Cros River State, Nigeria, the Way Forward

Authors: Celestine Odigwe, Epoke Lincoln, Rhoda-Dara Ephraim

Abstract:

Background; Immunization against the childhood killer diseases is the cardinal strategy for the prevention of these diseases all over the world in under five children, these diseases include; Tuberculosis, Measles, Polio, Tetanus, Diphthria, Pertusis, Yellow Fever, Hepatitis B, Haemophilus Influenza type B. 6.9 million children die before their fifth birthday , 80% of the worlds death in children under 5 years occur in 25 countries most in Africa and Asia and 2 million children can be saved each year with routine immunization Therefore failure to achieve total immunization coverage puts several children at risk. Aim; The aim of the study was to ascertain the prevalence, Investigate the various reasons and causes why several under five children in a suburb of calabar municipal county fail to get the required immunizations as at and when due and possibly the consequences, so that efforts can be re-directed towards the solution of the problems so identified. Methods; the study was a community based cross sectional study. The respondents were the mothers/guardians of the sampled children who were all aged 0-59 months. To be eligible for recruitment into the study, the parent or guardian was required to give an informed consent, reside within the Calabar South County with his/her children aged 0-59 months. We calculated our sample size using the Leslie-Kish formula and we used a two-staged sampling method, first to ballot for the wards to be involved and then to select four of the most populated ones in the wards chosen. Data collection was by interviewer administered structured questionnaire (Appendix I), Data collected was entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. Percentages were calculated and represented using charts and tables Results; The number of children sampled was 159. We found that 150 were fully immunized and 9 were not, the prevalence of missed opportunity was 32% from the study. The reasons for missed opportunities were varied, ranging from false contraindications, logistical problems resulting in very poor access roads to health facilities and poor organization of health centers together with negative health worker attitudes. Some of the consequences of these missed opportunities were increased susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases, resurgence of the above diseases and increased morbidity and mortality of children aged less than 5 years. Conclusion; We found that ignorance on the part of both parents/guardians and health care staff together with infrastructural inadequacies in the county such as- roads, poor electric power supply for storage of vaccines were hugely responsible for most missed opportunities for immunization. The details of these and suggestions for improvement and the way forward are discussed.

Keywords: missed opportunity, immunization, under five, Calabar south

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