Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1026

Search results for: cytotoxiciy assay

1026 Controlled Size Synthesis of ZnO and PEG-ZnO NPs and Their Biological Evaluation

Authors: Mahnoor Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Khizar Hayat, Saad Ahmad Khan, Laiba Ahmad, Shumaila Bashir, Abid Ali Khan

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize the smallest possible size of ZnO NPs using a modified wet chemical synthesis method and to prepare core shell using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as shell material. Advanced and sophisticated techniques were used to confirm the synthesis, size, and shape of these NPs. Rounded, clustered NPs of size 5.343 nm were formed. Both the plain and core shell NPs were tested against MDR bacteria (E. cloacae, E. amnigenus, Shigella, S. odorifacae, Citrobacter, and E. coli). Both of the NPs showed excellent antibacterial properties, whereas E. cloacae showed maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm, 27 mm, and 32 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml, and 1500 μg/ml, respectively for plain ZnO NPs and 18 mm, 28 mm and 35 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml and 1500 μg/ml for core shell NPs. These NPs were also biocompatible on human red blood cells showing little hemolysis of only 4% for 70 μg/ml for plain NPs and 1.5% for 70 μg/ml for core shell NPs. Core shell NPs were highly biocompatible because of the PEG. Their therapeutic effect as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment was also monitored. The cytotoxicity of ZnO and PEG-ZnO was evaluated using MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that these NPs could generate ROS inside tumor cells after irradiation which in turn initiates an apoptotic pathway leading to cell death hence proving to be an effective candidate for PDT.

Keywords: ZnO, hemolysis, cytotoxiciy assay, photodynamic therapy, antibacterial

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1025 Performance of the Aptima® HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay on the Panther System

Authors: Siobhan O’Shea, Sangeetha Vijaysri Nair, Hee Cheol Kim, Charles Thomas Nugent, Cheuk Yan William Tong, Sam Douthwaite, Andrew Worlock

Abstract:

The Aptima® HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay is a fully automated assay on the Panther system. It is based on Transcription-Mediated Amplification and real time detection technologies. This assay is intended for monitoring HIV-1 viral load in plasma specimens and for the detection of HIV-1 in plasma and serum specimens. Nine-hundred and seventy nine specimens selected at random from routine testing at St Thomas’ Hospital, London were anonymised and used to compare the performance of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay and Roche COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® HIV-1 Test, v2.0. Two-hundred and thirty four specimens gave quantitative HIV-1 viral load results in both assays. The quantitative results reported by the Aptima Assay were comparable those reported by the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0 with a linear regression slope of 1.04 and an intercept on -0.097. The Aptima assay detected HIV-1 in more samples than the Roche assay. This was not due to lack of specificity of the Aptima assay because this assay gave 99.83% specificity on testing plasma specimens from 600 HIV-1 negative individuals. To understand the reason for this higher detection rate a side-by-side comparison of low level panels made from the HIV-1 3rd international standard (NIBSC10/152) and clinical samples of various subtypes were tested in both assays. The Aptima assay was more sensitive than the Roche assay. The good sensitivity, specificity and agreement with other commercial assays make the HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay appropriate for both viral load monitoring and detection of HIV-1 infections.

Keywords: HIV viral load, Aptima, Roche, Panther system

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1024 Optimization of Assay Parameters of L-Glutaminase from Bacillus cereus MTCC1305 Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: P. Singh, R. M. Banik

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Artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to optimize assay parameters viz., time, temperature, pH of reaction mixture, enzyme volume and substrate concentration of L-glutaminase from Bacillus cereus MTCC 1305. ANN model showed high value of coefficient of determination (0.9999), low value of root mean square error (0.6697) and low value of absolute average deviation. A multilayer perceptron neural network trained with an error back-propagation algorithm was incorporated for developing a predictive model and its topology was obtained as 5-3-1 after applying Levenberg Marquardt (LM) training algorithm. The predicted activity of L-glutaminase was obtained as 633.7349 U/l by considering optimum assay parameters, viz., pH of reaction mixture (7.5), reaction time (20 minutes), incubation temperature (35˚C), substrate concentration (40mM), and enzyme volume (0.5ml). The predicted data was verified by running experiment at simulated optimum assay condition and activity was obtained as 634.00 U/l. The application of ANN model for optimization of assay conditions improved the activity of L-glutaminase by 1.499 fold.

Keywords: Bacillus cereus, L-glutaminase, assay parameters, artificial neural network

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1023 In Vitro Study of Antioxidant Capacity of Chrysanthemum Indicum Extract

Authors: Puchita Chokcharoenying

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Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants found in plants, and they are highly effective at scavenging oxidative free radicals. Antioxidants are substances found in medicinal plants to help prevent heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. This study focused on evaluating the flavonoids content of Chrysanthemum Indicum and determine their antioxidant capacity by using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay. The total flavonoid content of C. indicumextract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by an aluminiumchloride colorimetric method. The results showed that the IC50 of C. indicum extract were 83.57μg/mL ± 0.875 and52.57μg/mL ± 0.632for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. C. indicumextract exhibited antioxidant activities as a concentration dependent manner. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. In summary, C. indicum extract is rich in flavonoids, which have potent antioxidant properties. Thus, C. indicum extract is a good source of antioxidants and can be developed for medicinal purposes. Nevertheless, more research on the antioxidant activity of C. indicum extract and in vivo antioxidant studies are still needed.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant, chrysanthemum indicum, DPPH assay, total flavonoid content

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1022 Performance of Non-toxic, Corrosion Resistant, and Lubricious Metalworking Fluids under Machining

Authors: Ajay Pratap Singh Lodhi, Deepak Kumar

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Vegetable oil-based environmentally friendly metalworking fluids (MWFs) are formulated. The tribological performance, cytotoxicity, and corrosion resistance of the formulated fluids (FFs) are evaluated and benchmarked with commercial mineral oil-based MWFs (CF). Results show that FFs exhibited better machining characteristics (roughness, cutting forces, and surface morphology) during machining than CF. MTT assay and Live dead cell assay confirm the cytocompatibility nature of the FFs relative to the toxic CF. Electrochemical analysis shows that FFs and CF exhibited comparable corrosion current density.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitors, cytotoxicity, machining, MTT assay, Taguchi method, vegetable oil

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1021 Evaluation Of In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Camellia Sinensis Leaves Extract

Authors: Jirathan Pongchababnapa

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Polyphenols are the most common antioxidant found in plants and are efficient in capturing oxidative free radicals. Antioxidants are substances found in medicinal plants which may have a protective role to play in certain conditions such as heart disease, stroke and some cancers. By relying on these benefits, we have traced out the presence of antioxidant in Camellia sinensis leaves extract. This study aims to evaluate flavonoids content in C. sinensisextract and investigate antioxidant activities by using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay. The total flavonoid content of C. Sinensis extract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The results showed that the IC₅₀ of C. Sinensis leaves extract were 40.90 μg/mL ± 0.755 and32.96 μg/mL ± 0.679 for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. C. Sinensis extract at increasing concentration showed antioxidant activities as a concentration dependent manner. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. In conclusion, C. Sinensis extract consisted of a high amount of flavonoids content which possesses potent antioxidant activity. However, further investigation on the identification of pure compound of this plant and molecular antioxidant assays are still required.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant, camellia sinensis, DPPH assay, total flavonoid content

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1020 Invitro Study of Anti-Leishmanial Property of Nigella Sativa Methanalic Black Seed Extract

Authors: Tawqeer Ali Syed, Prakash Chandra

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This study aims to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of Nigella sativa black seed extract. This well-known plant extract was taken from the botanical garden of Kashmir. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of these plants were screened for their antileishmanial activity against Leishmania major using 3‑(4.5‑dimethylthiazol‑2yl)‑2.5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay or MTT assay. Results: The methanolic extract of Nigella sativa showed potential antileishmanial activity at an inhibition% value of 80.29% ± 0.65%. IC 50 was calculated after 48 hours to be 964.3 µg/ml. Conclusion: Considering these results, these medicinal plants from Kashmir could serve as potential drug sources for antileishmanial compounds.

Keywords: MTT assay, antileishmanial, cell viability, Nigella sativa

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1019 Optimizing Fermented Paper Production Using Spyrogira sp. Interpolating with Banana Pulp

Authors: Hadiatullah, T. S. D. Desak Ketut, A. A. Ayu, A. N. Isna, D. P. Ririn

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Spirogyra sp. is genus of microalgae which has a high carbohydrate content that used as a best medium for bacterial fermentation to produce cellulose. This study objective to determine the effect of pulp banana in the fermented paper production process using Spirogyra sp. and characterizing of the paper product. The method includes the production of bacterial cellulose, assay of the effect fermented paper interpolating with banana pulp using Spirogyra sp., and the assay of paper characteristics include gram-mage paper, water assay absorption, thickness, power assay of tensile resistance, assay of tear resistance, density, and organoleptic assay. Experiments were carried out with completely randomized design with a variation of the concentration of sewage treatment in the fermented paper production interpolating banana pulp using Spirogyra sp. Each parameter data to be analyzed by Anova variance that continued by real difference test with an error rate of 5% using the SPSS. Nata production results indicate that different carbon sources (glucose and sugar) did not show any significant differences from cellulose parameters assay. Significantly different results only indicated for the control treatment. Although not significantly different from the addition of a carbon source, sugar showed higher potency to produce high cellulose. Based on characteristic assay of the fermented paper showed that the paper gram-mage indicated that the control treatment without interpolation of a carbon source and a banana pulp have better result than banana pulp interpolation. Results of control gram-mage is 260 gsm that show optimized by cardboard. While on paper gram-mage produced with the banana pulp interpolation is about 120-200 gsm that show optimized by magazine paper and art paper. Based on the density, weight, water absorption assays, and organoleptic assay of paper showing the highest results in the treatment of pulp banana interpolation with sugar source as carbon is 14.28 g/m2, 0.02 g and 0.041 g/cm2.minutes. The conclusion found that paper with nata material interpolating with sugar and banana pulp has the potential formulation to produce super-quality paper.

Keywords: cellulose, fermentation, grammage, paper, Spirogyra sp.

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1018 In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Caesalpinia sappan Extract

Authors: Monthon Tangjitmungman

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Numerous diseases have been linked to oxidative stress, in which a disproportion of free radicals in the body leads to tissue or cell damage. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants found in plants, and they are highly effective at scavenging oxidative free radicals. Due to the presence of phenolic compounds in Caesalpinia sappan has been discovered to have antioxidant activity. It has several health benefits, the most important of which is preventing cardiovascular and cancer diseases. This study aimed to determine the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of C. sappan extract using a variety of antioxidant assays. The extract of C. sappan was made using a mixture of solvents (ethyl alcohol: water in ratio 8:2). The total phenolic content of C. sappan extract was determined and expressed as gallic acid equivalents using the Folin-Cioucalteu method (GAE). The antioxidant activity of C. sappan extract was assessed using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay. An association was found between antioxidant activity and total phenol content. The antioxidant activity of C. sappan extract was also determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. The IC50 values for C. sappan extract from DPPH and ABTS assays were 54.48 μg/mL ± 0.545 and 25.46 μg/mL ± 0.790, respectively, in the DPPH assay. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. In conclusion, C. sappan extract contains a high level of total phenolics and exhibits significant antioxidant activity. Nevertheless, more research should be done on the antioxidant activity, such as SOD and ROS scavenging assays and in vivo experiments, to determine whether the compound has antioxidant activity.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Caesalpinia sappan, DPPH assays, total phenolic content

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1017 Novel Nanomagnetic Beads Based- Latex Agglutination Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis Haematobium

Authors: Ibrahim Aly, Rabab Zalat, Bahaa EL Deen W. El Aswad, Ismail M. Moharm, Basam M. Masoud, Tarek Diab

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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay (NMB-LAT) as a simple test for diagnosis of S. haematobium as well as standardize the novel nanomagnetic beads based –ELISA (NMB-ELISA). According to urine examination this study included 85 S. haematobium infected patients, 30 other parasites infected patients and 25 negative control samples. The sensitivity of novel NMB-LAT was 82.4% versus 96.5% and 88.2% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. The specificity of NMB-LAT was 83.6% versus 96.3% and 87.3% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. In conclusion, the novel NMB-ELISA is a valuable applicable diagnostic technique for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium. The novel NMB-ELISA assay is a suitable applicable diagnostic method in field survey especially when followed by ELISA as a confirmatory test in query false negative results. Trials are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of NMB-ELISA assay.

Keywords: diagnosis, iatex agglutination, nanomagnetic beads, sandwich ELISA

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1016 Prevalence and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Dodonaea viscosa Extract and Antibacterial Agents against Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry

Authors: Shayma Munqith Al-Baker, Fadhl Ahmed Saeed Al-Gasha’a, Samira Hamid Hanash, Ahmed Ali Al-Hazmi

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A total of 200 samples (180 fecal materials and 20 organ samples) were collected from (5 different poultry farms, 10 local poultry shops, 5 houses poultry, 5 Eggs stores shops and 5 hand slaughters centers) in Ibb city, Yemen, 2014. According to morphological, cultural, as well as biochemical characterization and serological tests, 59 29.5% isolates were identified as Salmonella spp. and all Salmonella isolates were categorized by serotype, which comprised of, 37 62.71% Salmonella Typhimurium serovar, 21 35.59%. Salmonella Enteritidis serovar and 11.69% Salmonella Heidelberg serovar. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for bacterial isolates and the results showed there were clear differences in antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates varies as follows: Ofloxacin 79.66%, Ciprofloxacin 67.80%, Colistin 59.32% and Gentamycin 52.54%. All of isolates were resistant to Erythromycin, Penicillin and Lincomycin. Antibacterial activity was done for both aqueous and ethanol extracts of Dodonaea viscosa plant by using well and disc diffusion assay. The results indicated that well diffusion assay had best results than disc diffusion assay, the highest inhibition zone was 22 mm for well diffusion and 15 mm for disc diffusion assay, the results observed that ethanol extract had best antibacterial effect than aqueous extract which the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 71.19% comparing with aqueous extract 28.81% by using disc diffusion assay, while the percentage of bacterial isolates affected with ethanol extract was 88.13% comparing with aqueous extract 52.54% by using will diffusion assay.

Keywords: Salmonella spp, Dodonaea viscosa, antimicrobial and salmonellosis

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1015 Mutations in rpoB, katG and inhA Genes: The Association with Resistance to Rifampicin and Isoniazid in Egyptian Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates

Authors: Ayman K. El Essawy, Amal M. Hosny, Hala M. Abu Shady

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The rapid detection of TB and drug resistance, both optimizes treatment and improves outcomes. In the current study, respiratory specimens were collected from 155 patients. Conventional susceptibility testing and MIC determination were performed for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Genotype MTBDRplus assay, which is a molecular genetic assay based on the DNA-STRIP technology and specific gene sequencing with primers for rpoB, KatG, and mab-inhA genes were used to detect mutations associated with resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid. In comparison to other categories, most of rifampicin resistant (61.5%) and isoniazid resistant isolates (47.1%) were from patients relapsed in treatment. The genotypic profile (using Genotype MTBDRplus assay) of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates showed missing of katG wild type 1 (WT1) band and appearance of mutation band katG MUT2. For isoniazid mono-resistant isolates, 80% showed katG MUT1, 20% showed katG MUT1, and inhA MUT1, 20% showed only inhA MUT1. Accordingly, 100% of isoniazid resistant strains were detected by this assay. Out of 17 resistant strains, 16 had mutation bands for katG distinguished high resistance to isoniazid. The assay could clearly detect rifampicin resistance among 66.7% of MDR isolates that showed mutation band rpoB MUT3 while 33.3% of them were considered as unknown. One mono-resistant rifampicin isolate did not show rifampicin mutation bands by Genotype MTBDRplus assay, but it showed an unexpected mutation in Codon 531 of rpoB by DNA sequence analysis. Rifampicin resistance in this strain could be associated with a mutation in codon 531 of rpoB (based on molecular sequencing), and Genotype MTBDRplus assay could not detect the associated mutation. If the results of Genotype MTBDRplus assay and sequencing were combined, this strain shows hetero-resistance pattern. Gene sequencing of eight selected isolates, previously tested by Genotype MTBDRplus assay, could detect resistance mutations mainly in codon 315 (katG gene), position -15 in inhA promotes gene for isoniazid resistance and codon 531 (rpoB gene) for rifampicin resistance. Genotyping techniques allow distinguishing between recurrent cases of reinfection or reactivation and supports epidemiological studies.

Keywords: M. tuberculosis, rpoB, KatG, inhA, genotype MTBDRplus

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1014 Bacterial Profiling and Development of Molecular Diagnostic Assays for Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Bovine mastitis

Authors: Aqeela Ashraf, Muhammad Imran, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Tayyab, Yung Fu Chang

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For the identification of bovine mastitic pathogen, an economical, rapid and sensitive molecular diagnostic assay is developed by PCR multiplexing of gene and pathogenic species specific DNA sequences. The multiplex PCR assay is developed for detecting nine important bacterial pathogens causing mastitis Worldwide. The bacterial species selected for this study are Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysagalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus chromogenes Mycoplasma bovis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A single reaction assay was developed and validated by 27 reference strains and further tested on 276 bacterial strains obtained from culturing mastitic milk. The multiplex PCR assay developed here is further evaluated by applying directly on genomic DNA isolated from 200 mastitic milk samples. It is compared with bacterial culturing method and proved to be more sensitive, rapid, economical and can specifically identify 9 bacterial pathogens in a single reaction. It has detected the pathogens in few culture negative mastitic samples. Recognition of disease is the foundation of disease control and prevention. This assay can be very helpful for maintaining the udder health and milk monitoring.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacteria, mastitis, milk

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1013 High-Throughput, Purification-Free, Multiplexed Profiling of Circulating miRNA for Discovery, Validation, and Diagnostics

Authors: J. Hidalgo de Quintana, I. Stoner, M. Tackett, G. Doran, C. Rafferty, A. Windemuth, J. Tytell, D. Pregibon

Abstract:

We have developed the Multiplexed Circulating microRNA assay that allows the detection of up to 68 microRNA targets per sample. The assay combines particle­based multiplexing, using patented Firefly hydrogel particles, with single­ step RT-PCR signal. Thus, the Circulating microRNA assay leverages PCR sensitivity while eliminating the need for separate reverse transcription reactions and mitigating amplification biases introduced by target­-specific qPCR. Furthermore, the ability to multiplex targets in each well eliminates the need to split valuable samples into multiple reactions. Results from the Circulating microRNA assay are interpreted using Firefly Analysis Workbench, which allows visualization, normalization, and export of experimental data. To aid discovery and validation of biomarkers, we have generated fixed panels for Oncology, Cardiology, Neurology, Immunology, and Liver Toxicology. Here we present the data from several studies investigating circulating and tumor microRNA, showcasing the ability of the technology to sensitively and specifically detect microRNA biomarker signatures from fluid specimens.

Keywords: biomarkers, biofluids, miRNA, photolithography, flowcytometry

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1012 Automatic Algorithm for Processing and Analysis of Images from the Comet Assay

Authors: Yeimy L. Quintana, Juan G. Zuluaga, Sandra S. Arango

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The comet assay is a method based on electrophoresis that is used to measure DNA damage in cells and has shown important results in the identification of substances with a potential risk to the human population as innumerable physical, chemical and biological agents. With this technique is possible to obtain images like a comet, in which the tail of these refers to damaged fragments of the DNA. One of the main problems is that the image has unequal luminosity caused by the fluorescence microscope and requires different processing to condition it as well as to know how many optimal comets there are per sample and finally to perform the measurements and determine the percentage of DNA damage. In this paper, we propose the design and implementation of software using Image Processing Toolbox-MATLAB that allows the automation of image processing. The software chooses the optimum comets and measuring the necessary parameters to detect the damage.

Keywords: artificial vision, comet assay, DNA damage, image processing

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1011 A Rapid Colorimetric Assay for Direct Detection of Unamplified Hepatitis C Virus RNA Using Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: M. Shemis, O. Maher, G. Casterou, F. Gauffre

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease with a global 170 million chronic carriers at risk of developing liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. Egypt reports the highest prevalence of HCV worldwide. Currently, two classes of assays are used in the diagnosis and management of HCV infection. Despite the high sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic assays, they are time-consuming, labor-intensive, expensive, and require specialized equipment and highly qualified personal. It is therefore important for clinical and economic terms to develop a low-tech assay for the direct detection of HCV RNA with acceptable sensitivity and specificity, short turnaround time, and cost-effectiveness. Such an assay would be critical to control HCV in developing countries with limited resources and high infection rates, such as Egypt. The unique optical and physical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have allowed the use of these nanoparticles in developing simple and rapid colorimetric assays for clinical diagnosis offering higher sensitivity and specificity than current detection techniques. The current research aims to develop a detection assay for HCV RNA using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Methods: 200 anti-HCV positive samples and 50 anti-HCV negative plasma samples were collected from Egyptian patients. HCV viral load was quantified using m2000rt (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL). HCV genotypes were determined using multiplex nested RT- PCR. The assay is based on the aggregation of AuNPs in presence of the target RNA. Aggregation of AuNPs causes a color shift from red to blue. AuNPs were synthesized using citrate reduction method. Different sets of probes within the 5’ UTR conserved region of the HCV genome were designed, grafted on AuNPs and optimized for the efficient detection of HCV RNA. Results: The nano-gold assay could colorimetrically detect HCV RNA down to 125 IU/ml with sensitivity and specificity of 91.1% and 93.8% respectively. The turnaround time of the assay is < 30 min. Conclusions: The assay allows sensitive and rapid detection of HCV RNA and represents an inexpensive and simple point-of-care assay for resource-limited settings.

Keywords: HCV, gold nanoparticles, point of care, viral load

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1010 The Effects of Terrein: A Secondary Metabolite from Aspergillus terreus as Anticancer and Antimetastatic Agent on Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Paiwan Buachan, Maneekarn Namsa-Aid, Suchada Jongrungruangchok, Foengchat Jarintanan, Wanlaya Uthaisang-Tanechpongtamb

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Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both of the lungs. These abnormal cells can spread to other organs of the body through lymphatic system or bloodstream which is called metastatic stage that leading cause of cancer death. Terrein (C₈H₁₀O₃; MW= 154.06 kDa) is a secondary bioactive fungal metabolite, which was isolated from the Aspergillus terreus. In this study, we investigated the effects of terrein on the inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. The A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line was used as a model. Terrein significantly inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation measuring by a colorimetric MTT assay (IC₅₀ 0.32 mM) and significantly inhibited metastatic processes including migration, invasion, and adhesion that determined by wound healing assay, transwell assay, and adhesion assay, respectively. These findings indicate that terrein could be a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

Keywords: terrein, lung cancer, anticancer, antimetastatic

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1009 Antioxidant Activity Of Gracilaria Fisheri Extract

Authors: Paam Bidaya

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The red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri, widely distributed along Thailand's southern coastlines, has been discovered to be edible. Sulfated polysaccharides from G. fisheri were extracted in low-temperature (25 °C) water. Seaweed polysaccharides (SPs) have been shown to have various advantageous biological effects. This study aims to investigate total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of G. fisheri extract. The total phenolic content of G. fisheri extract was determined using Folin-Cioucalteu method and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The antioxidant activity of G. fisheri extract was performed via 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, DPPH and ABTS assays showed that G. fisheri extract showed antioxidant activities as a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 values of G. fisheri extract were 902.19 μg/mL ± 0.785 and 727.98 μg/mL ± 0.822 for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Vitamin C was used as a positive control in DPPH assay, while Trolox was used as a positive control in ABTS assay. To conclude, G. fisheri extract consists of a high amount of total phenolic content, which exhibit a significant antioxidant activity. However, further investigation regarding antioxidant activity should be performed in order to identify the mechanism of Gracilaria fisheri action.

Keywords: ABTS assay, DPPH assay, sulfated polysaccharides, total phenolic content

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1008 Novel Aminoglycosides to Target Resistant Pathogens

Authors: Nihar Ranjan, Derrick Watkins, Dev P. Arya

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Current methods in the study of antibiotic activity of ribosome targeted antibiotics are dependent on cell based bacterial inhibition assays or various forms of ribosomal binding assays. These assays are typically independent of each other and little direct correlation between the ribosomal binding and bacterial inhibition is established with the complementary assay. We have developed novel high-throughput capable assays for ribosome targeted drug discovery. One such assay examines the compounds ability to bind to a model ribosomal RNA A-site. We have also coupled this assay to other functional orthogonal assays. Such analysis can provide valuable understanding of the relationships between two complementary drug screening methods and could be used as standard analysis to correlate the affinity of a compound for its target and the effect the compound has on a cell.

Keywords: bacterial resistance, aminoglycosides, screening, drugs

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1007 Assessment of DNA Degradation Using Comet Assay: A Versatile Technique for Forensic Application

Authors: Ritesh K. Shukla

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Degradation of biological samples in terms of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and protein) are the major challenges in the forensic investigation which misleads the result interpretation. Currently, there are no precise methods available to circumvent this problem. Therefore, at the preliminary level, some methods are urgently needed to solve this issue. In this order, Comet assay is one of the most versatile, rapid and sensitive molecular biology technique to assess the DNA degradation. This technique helps to assess DNA degradation even at very low amount of sample. Moreover, the expedient part of this method does not require any additional process of DNA extraction and isolation during DNA degradation assessment. Samples directly embedded on agarose pre-coated microscopic slide and electrophoresis perform on the same slide after lysis step. After electrophoresis microscopic slide stained by DNA binding dye and observed under fluorescent microscope equipped with Komet software. With the help of this technique extent of DNA degradation can be assessed which can help to screen the sample before DNA fingerprinting, whether it is appropriate for DNA analysis or not. This technique not only helps to assess degradation of DNA but many other challenges in forensic investigation such as time since deposition estimation of biological fluids, repair of genetic material from degraded biological sample and early time since death estimation could also be resolved. With the help of this study, an attempt was made to explore the application of well-known molecular biology technique that is Comet assay in the field of forensic science. This assay will open avenue in the field of forensic research and development.

Keywords: comet assay, DNA degradation, forensic, molecular biology

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1006 Evaluation of the Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay Drugs Concentration for Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Authors: Anita, Sari Septiani Tangke, Rusdina Bte Ladju, Nasrum Massi

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New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to interrupt the transmission of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) assay is a rapid, accurate and simple liquid culture method to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). MODS were evaluated to determine a lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin for detection of MDR-TB. Direct drug-susceptibility testing was performed with the use of the MODS assay. Drug-sensitive control strains were tested daily. The drug concentrations that used for both isoniazid and rifampin were at the same concentration: 0.16, 0.08 and 0.04μg per milliliter. We tested 56 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates and the control strains M. tuberculosis H37RV. All concentration showed same result. Of 53 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, 14 were MDR-TB, 38 were susceptible with isoniazid and rifampin, 1 was resistant with isoniazid only. Drug-susceptibility testing was performed with the use of the proportion method using Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system as reference. The result of MODS assay using lower concentration was significance (P<0.001) compare with the reference methods. A lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin can be used to detect MDR-TB. Operational cost and application can be more efficient and easier in resource-limited environments. However, additional studies evaluating the MODS using lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin must be conducted with a larger number of clinical isolates.

Keywords: isoniazid, MODS assay, MDR-TB, rifampin

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1005 Comet Assay: A Promising Tool for the Risk Assessment and Clinical Management of Head and Neck Tumors

Authors: Sarim Ahmad

Abstract:

The Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (SCGE, known as comet assay) is a potential, uncomplicated, sensitive and state-of-the-art technique for quantitating DNA damage at individual cell level and repair from in vivo and in vitro samples of eukaryotic cells and some prokaryotic cells, being popular in its widespread use in various areas including human biomonitoring, genotoxicology, ecological monitoring and as a tool for research into DNA damage or repair in different cell types in response to a range of DNA damaging agents, cancer risk and therapy. The method involves the encapsulation of cells in a low-melting-point agarose suspension, lysis of the cells in neutral or alkaline (pH > 13) conditions, and electrophoresis of the suspended lysed cells, resulting in structures resembling comets as observed by fluorescence microscopy; the intensity of the comet tail relative to the head reflects the number of DNA breaks. The likely basis for this is that loops containing a break lose their supercoiling and become free to extend towards the anode. This is followed by visual analysis with staining of DNA and calculating fluorescence to determine the extent of DNA damage. This can be performed by manual scoring or automatically by imaging software. The assay can, therefore, predict an individual’s tumor sensitivity to radiation and various chemotherapeutic drugs and further assess the oxidative stress within tumors and to detect the extent of DNA damage in various cancerous and precancerous lesions of oral cavity.

Keywords: comet assay, single cell gel electrophoresis, DNA damage, early detection test

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1004 Duplex Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Beef and Pork

Authors: Mi-Ju Kim, Hae-Yeong Kim

Abstract:

Product mislabeling and adulteration have been increasing the concerns in processed meat products. Relatively inexpensive pork meat compared to meat such as beef was adulterated for economic benefit. These food fraud incidents related to pork were concerned due to economic, religious and health reasons. In this study, a rapid on-site detection method using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed for the simultaneous identification of beef and pork. Each specific LAMP primer for beef and pork was designed targeting on mitochondrial D-loop region. The LAMP assay reaction was performed at 65 ℃ for 40 min. The specificity of each primer for beef and pork was evaluated using DNAs extracted from 13 animal species including beef and pork. The sensitivity of duplex LAMP assay was examined by serial dilution of beef and pork DNAs, and reference binary mixtures. This assay was applied to processed meat products including beef and pork meat for monitoring. Each set of primers amplified only the targeted species with no cross-reactivity with animal species. The limit of detection of duplex real-time LAMP was 1 pg for each DNA of beef and pork and 1% pork in a beef-meat mixture. Commercial meat products that declared the presence of beef and/or pork meat on the label showed positive results for those species. This method was successfully applied to detect simultaneous beef and pork meats in processed meat products. The optimized duplex LAMP assay can identify simultaneously beef and pork meat within less than 40 min. A portable real-time fluorescence device used in this study is applicable for on-site detection of beef and pork in processed meat products. Thus, this developed assay was considered to be an efficient tool for monitoring meat products.

Keywords: beef, duplex real-time LAMP, meat identification, pork

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1003 A Promising Thrombolytic and Anticoagulant Serine Protease Purified from Lug Worms Inhabiting Tidal Flats

Authors: Hye Jin Kim, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Ischemic stroke means the caused brain damage due to neurological defects, occurring occlusion of cerebral vascular resulting in thrombus or embolism. t-PA (tissue Plasminogen Activator) is the only thrombolytic agent passed the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). However, t-PA directly dissolves the thrombus (direct activity) through fibrinolysis, showing side effects such as re-occlusion. In this study, we evaluated the thrombolytic activities of the serine protease extracted from lugworms inhabiting tidal flats. The new serine protease identified as 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE was not toxic to brain endothelial cells line (hCMEC/D3). Also, the plasmin synthesis inhibition activity (indirect activity) of the new serine protease was confirmed through fibrin zymography assay and fibrin plate assay. It was higher than direct activity as compared to u-PA (urokinase Plasminogen Activator). The activities were found to be maintained at a wide range of temperature (4-70 ℃) and pH 7-10 compared to previous thrombolytic agents from the azocasein assay. In addition, the new serine protease has shown anticoagulant activity from fibrinogenolytic activity assay. In conclusion, the serine protease in lug worms inhabiting the tidal flats could be considered a promising thrombolytic candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

Keywords: alkaline serine protease, bifunctional thrombolytic activity, fibrinolytic activity, ischemic stroke, lug worms

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
1002 Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection of microRNAs Using Bi-Directional Extension Sequences

Authors: Kyung Jin Kim, Jiwon Kwak, Jae-Hoon Lee, Soo Suk Lee

Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of endogenous, single-stranded, small, and non-protein coding RNA molecules typically 20-25 nucleotides long. They are thought to regulate the expression of other genes in a broad range by binding to 3’- untranslated regions (3’-UTRs) of specific mRNAs. The detection of miRNAs is very important for understanding of the function of these molecules and in the diagnosis of variety of human diseases. However, detection of miRNAs is very challenging because of their short length and high sequence similarities within miRNA families. So, a simple-to-use, low-cost, and highly sensitive method for the detection of miRNAs is desirable. In this study, we demonstrate a novel bi-directional extension (BDE) assay. In the first step, a specific linear RT primer is hybridized to 6-10 base pairs from the 3’-end of a target miRNA molecule and then reverse transcribed to generate a cDNA strand. After reverse transcription, the cDNA was hybridized to the 3’-end which is BDE sequence; it played role as the PCR template. The PCR template was amplified in an SYBR green-based quantitative real-time PCR. To prove the concept, we used human brain total RNA. It could be detected quantitatively in the range of seven orders of magnitude with excellent linearity and reproducibility. To evaluate the performance of BDE assay, we contrasted sensitivity and specificity of the BDE assay against a commercially available poly (A) tailing method using miRNAs for let-7e extracted from A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells. The BDE assay displayed good performance compared with a poly (A) tailing method in terms of specificity and sensitivity; the CT values differed by 2.5 and the melting curve showed a sharper than poly (A) tailing methods. We have demonstrated an innovative, cost-effective BDE assay that allows improved sensitivity and specificity in detection of miRNAs. Dynamic range of the SYBR green-based RT-qPCR for miR-145 could be represented quantitatively over a range of 7 orders of magnitude from 0.1 pg to 1.0 μg of human brain total RNA. Finally, the BDE assay for detection of miRNA species such as let-7e shows good performance compared with a poly (A) tailing method in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Thus BDE proves a simple, low cost, and highly sensitive assay for various miRNAs and should provide significant contributions in research on miRNA biology and application of disease diagnostics with miRNAs as targets.

Keywords: bi-directional extension (BDE), microRNA (miRNA), poly (A) tailing assay, reverse transcription, RT-qPCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
1001 In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Derris scandens Extract

Authors: Nattawit Thiapairat

Abstract:

Multiple diseases have been linked to excessive levels of free radicals, which cause tissue or cell damage as a result of oxidative stress. Many plants are sources of high antioxidant activity. Derris scandens has a high amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents which demonstrated good biological activities. This study focused on the antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from D. scandens. This study performs total flavonoids content and various antioxidant assays, which were 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The total flavonoid content of D. scandens extract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The antioxidant activity of D. scandens extract was also determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for D. scandens extract from DPPH and ABTS assays were 41.79 μg/mL ± 0.783 and 29.42 μg/mL ± 0.890, respectively, in the DPPH assay. To conclude, D. scandens extract consists of a high amount of total phenolic content, which exhibits a significant antioxidant activity. However, further investigation regarding antioxidant activity such as SOD, ROS, and RNS scavenging assays and in vivo experiments should be performed.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Derris scandens, DPPH assays, total flavonoid content

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1000 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Twenty Medicinal Plants

Authors: S. Krimat, T. Dob, L. Lamari, H. Metidji

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of hydromethanolic extract of selected Algerian medicinal flora. The antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was tested against five microorganisms Pseu-domonas aeruginosa Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The results showed that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50 = 4.60 μg/ml), while Populus trimula had the highest antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linolaic acid assay. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. The results indicate that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

Keywords: Algerian medicinal plants, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, disc diffusion method

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999 Multicenter Evaluation of the ACCESS Anti-HCV Assay on the DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer, for the Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Antibody

Authors: Dan W. Rhodes, Juliane Hey, Magali Karagueuzian, Florianne Martinez, Yael Sandowski, Vanessa Roulet, Mahmoud Badawi, Mohammed-Amine Chakir, Valérie Simon, Jérémie Gautier, Françoise Le Boulaire, Catherine Coignard, Claire Vincent, Sandrine Greaume, Isabelle Voisin

Abstract:

Background: Beckman Coulter, Inc. (BEC) has recently developed a fully automated second-generation anti-HCV test on a new immunoassay platform. The objective of this multicenter study conducted in Europe was to evaluate the performance of the ACCESS anti-HCV assay on the recently CE-marked DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer as an aid in the diagnosis of HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) infection and as a screening test for blood and plasma donors. Methods: The clinical specificity of the ACCESS anti-HCV assay was determined using HCV antibody-negative samples from blood donors and hospitalized patients. Sample antibody status was determined by a CE-marked anti-HCV assay (Abbott ARCHITECTTM anti-HCV assay or Abbott PRISM HCV assay) with an additional confirmation method (Immunoblot testing with INNO-LIATM HCV Score - Fujirebio), if necessary, according to pre-determined testing algorithms. The clinical sensitivity was determined using known HCV antibody-positive samples, identified positive by Immunoblot testing with INNO-LIATM HCV Score - Fujirebio. HCV RNA PCR or genotyping was available on all Immunoblot positive samples for further characterization. The false initial reactive rate was determined on fresh samples from blood donors and hospitalized patients. Thirty (30) commercially available seroconversion panels were tested to assess the sensitivity for early detection of HCV infection. The study was conducted from November 2019 to March 2022. Three (3) external sites and one (1) internal site participated. Results: Clinical specificity (95% CI) was 99.7% (99.6 – 99.8%) on 5852 blood donors and 99.0% (98.4 – 99.4%) on 1527 hospitalized patient samples. There were 15 discrepant samples (positive on ACCESS anti-HCV assay and negative on both ARCHITECT and Immunoblot) observed with hospitalized patient samples, and of note, additional HCV RNA PCR results showed five (5) samples had positive HCV RNA PCR results despite the absence of HCV antibody detection by ARCHITECT and Immunoblot, suggesting a better sensitivity of the ACCESS anti-HCV assay with these five samples compared to the ARCHITECT and Immunoblot anti-HCV assays. Clinical sensitivity (95% CI) on 510 well-characterized, known HCV antibody-positive samples was 100.0% (99.3 – 100.0%), including 353 samples with known HCV genotypes (1 to 6). The overall false initial reactive rate (95% CI) on 6630 patient samples was 0.02% (0.00 – 0.09%). Results obtained on 30 seroconversion panels demonstrated that the ACCESS anti-HCV assay had equivalent sensitivity performances, with an average bleed difference since the first reactive bleed below one (1), compared to the ARCHITECTTM anti-HCV assay. Conclusion: The newly developed ACCESS anti-HCV assay from BEC for use on the DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer demonstrated high clinical sensitivity and specificity, equivalent to currently marketed anti-HCV assays, as well as a low false initial reactive rate.

Keywords: DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer, HCV, HCV antibody, Hepatitis C virus, immunoassay

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998 A Simple Colorimetric Assay for Paraquat Detection Using Negatively Charged Silver Nanopaticles

Authors: Weena Siangphro, Orawon Chailapakul, Kriangsak Songsrirote

Abstract:

A simple, rapid, sensitive, and economical method based on colorimetry for the determination of paraquat, a widely used herbicide, was developed. Citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized as colorimetric probe. The mechanism of the assay is related to aggregation of negatively charged AgNPs induced by positively-charged paraquat resulting from coulombic attraction which causes the color change from deep greenish yellow to pale yellow upon the concentrations of paraquat. Silica gel was exploited as paraquat adsorbent for purification and pre-concentration prior to the direct determination with negatively charged AgNPs without elution step required. The validity of the proposed approach was evaluated by spiking standard paraquat in water and plant samples. Recoveries of paraquat in water samples were 93.6-95.4%, while those in plant samples were 86.6-89.5% by using the optimized extraction procedure. The absorbance of AgNPs at 400 nm was linearly related to the concentration of paraquat over the range of 0.05-50 mg/L with detection limits of 0.05 ppm for water samples, and 0.10 ppm for plant samples.

Keywords: colorimetric assay, paraquat, silica gel, silver nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
997 Increase in Specificity of MicroRNA Detection by RT-qPCR Assay Using a Specific Extension Sequence

Authors: Kyung Jin Kim, Jiwon Kwak, Jae-Hoon Lee, Soo Suk Lee

Abstract:

We describe an innovative method for highly specific detection of miRNAs using a specially modified method of poly(A) adaptor RT-qPCR. We use uniquely designed specific extension sequence, which plays important role in providing an opportunity to affect high specificity of miRNA detection. This method involves two steps of reactions as like previously reported and which are poly(A) tailing and reverse-transcription followed by real-time PCR. Firstly, miRNAs are extended by a poly(A) tailing reaction and then converted into cDNA. Here, we remarkably reduced the reaction time by the application of short length of poly(T) adaptor. Next, cDNA is hybridized to the 3’-end of a specific extension sequence which contains miRNA sequence and results in producing a novel PCR template. Thereafter, the SYBR Green-based RT-qPCR progresses with a universal poly(T) adaptor forward primer and a universal reverse primer. The target miRNA, miR-106b in human brain total RNA, could be detected quantitatively in the range of seven orders of magnitude, which demonstrate that the assay displays a dynamic range of at least 7 logs. In addition, the better specificity of this novel extension-based assay against well known poly(A) tailing method for miRNA detection was confirmed by melt curve analysis of real-time PCR product, clear gel electrophoresis and sequence chromatogram images of amplified DNAs.

Keywords: microRNA(miRNA), specific extension sequence, RT-qPCR, poly(A) tailing assay, reverse transcription

Procedia PDF Downloads 239