Search results for: Iranian crude oil
1025 Prediction Fluid Properties of Iranian Oil Field with Using of Radial Based Neural Network
Authors: Abdolreza Memari
Abstract:In this article in order to estimate the viscosity of crude oil,a numerical method has been used. We use this method to measure the crude oil's viscosity for 3 states: Saturated oil's viscosity, viscosity above the bubble point and viscosity under the saturation pressure. Then the crude oil's viscosity is estimated by using KHAN model and roller ball method. After that using these data that include efficient conditions in measuring viscosity, the estimated viscosity by the presented method, a radial based neural method, is taught. This network is a kind of two layered artificial neural network that its stimulation function of hidden layer is Gaussian function and teaching algorithms are used to teach them. After teaching radial based neural network, results of experimental method and artificial intelligence are compared all together. Teaching this network, we are able to estimate crude oil's viscosity without using KHAN model and experimental conditions and under any other condition with acceptable accuracy. Results show that radial neural network has high capability of estimating crude oil saving in time and cost is another advantage of this investigation.
Keywords: viscosity, Iranian crude oil, radial based, neural network, roller ball method, KHAN modelProcedia PDF Downloads 408
1024 Study of a Crude Oil Desalting Plant of the National Iranian South Oil Company in Gachsaran by Using Artificial Neural Networks
Authors: H. Kiani, S. Moradi, B. Soltani Soulgani, S. Mousavian
Abstract:Desalting/dehydration plants (DDP) are often installed in crude oil production units in order to remove water-soluble salts from an oil stream. In order to optimize this process, desalting unit should be modeled. In this research, artificial neural network is used to model efficiency of desalting unit as a function of input parameter. The result of this research shows that the mentioned model has good agreement with experimental data.
Keywords: desalting unit, crude oil, neural networks, simulation, recovery, separationProcedia PDF Downloads 340
1023 The Influence of Crude Oil on Growth of Freshwater Algae
Authors: Al-Saboonchi Azhar
Abstract:The effects of Iraqi crude oil on growth of three freshwater algae (Chlorella vulgaris Beij., Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lag.) Chodat. and Oscillatoria princeps Vauch.) were investigated, basing on it's biomass expressed as Chl.a. Growth rate and doubling time of the cell were calculated. Results showed that growth rate and species survival varied with concentrations of crude oil and species type. Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acuminatus were more sensitive in culture containing crude oil as compared with Oscillatoria princeps cultures. The growth of green algae were significantly inhibited in culture containing (5 mg/l) crude oil, while the growth of Oscillatoria princeps reduced in culture containing (10 mg/l) crude oil.
Keywords: algae, crude oil, green algae, CyanobacteriaProcedia PDF Downloads 491
1022 The Indo-European and Old Iranian Fire and Its Relations with the Lur Fire
Authors: Behzad Moeini Sam, Sara Mohammadi Avandi
Abstract:The rituals of fire among the Iranians go back to the general Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian eras when they lived in regions known as the Pontic-Caspian (Indo-Europeans) and Kazakhstan (the Andronovo culture belonging to the Indo-Iranian tribes), and we can get to know about their vulgar heritage despite their separation from each other during several millennia. The early Aryan settlers of Iran had brought their cults to their new home and were bequeathed to them by their Indo-Iranian ancestors. Tradition speaks of several great sacred Iranian fires consecrated by the pre-Zoroastrian kings. Ātar or fire corresponds to the Vedic Agni Atar's functions are elaborately delineated in the Later Avesta. This paper aims to show the fire cults among the Iranian Lur tribes that originate in the past. Therefore, it will be searched for rituals in equally Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Periods and Old Iranian Texts and their frequency among the Lur tribes. In addition to the library books, we tried to interview the chiefs of Lur tribes. Finally, we concluded that the fire among the Lur Tribes is a sequence of beliefs of the Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Periods reflected in Old and Middle Iranian texts.
Keywords: Indo-European, ancient Iran, fire, Lur, ZoroastrianProcedia PDF Downloads 23
1021 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator
Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali
Abstract:The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.
Keywords: crude oil, distillation, simulation, Unisim Design, simulatorsProcedia PDF Downloads 177
1020 Effect of Crude oil Contamination on the Morphological Traits and Protein Content of Avicennia Marina
Authors: Babak Moradi, Hassan Zare-Maivan
Abstract:A greenhouse investigation has been conducted to study the effect of crude oil on morphology and protein content of Avicennia marina plant. Avicennia marina seeds were sown in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 w/w). Controls and replicates were also set up. Morphological traits were recorded 4 months after plantation. Avicennia marina seedlings could tolerate up to 10% (w/w). Results demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Plant height, total leaf number and length reduced significantly with increase of crude oil contamination. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on protein content of the roots of the experimental plant. Protein content of roots grown in different concentrations of crude oil were more than those of the control plant. Further, results also showed that protein content was increased with increased concentration of crude oil.
Keywords: Avicennia marina, morphology, oil contamination, protein contentProcedia PDF Downloads 308
1019 Crude Oil Electrostatic Mathematical Modelling on an Existing Industrial Plant
Authors: Fatemeh Yazdanmehr, Iulian Nistor
Abstract:The scope of the current study is the prediction of water separation in a two-stage industrial crude oil desalting plant. This research study was focused on developing a desalting operation in an existing production unit of one Iranian heavy oil field with 75 MBPD capacity. Because of some operational issues, such as oil dehydration at high temperatures, the optimization of the desalter operational parameters was essential. The mathematical desalting is modeled based on the population balance method. The existing operational data is used for tuning and validation of the accuracy of the modeling. The inlet oil temperature to desalter used was decreased from 110°C to 80°C, and the desalted electrical field was increased from 0.75 kv to 2.5 kv. The proposed condition for the desalter also meets the water oil specification. Based on these conditions of desalter, the oil recovery is increased by 574 BBL/D, and the gas flaring decrease by 2.8 MMSCF/D. Depending on the oil price, the additional production of oil can increase the annual income by about $15 MM and reduces greenhouse gas production caused by gas flaring.
Keywords: desalter, demulsification, modelling, water-oil separation, crude oil emulsionProcedia PDF Downloads 9
1018 Production of Pour Point Depressant for Paraffinic Crude Oils
Authors: Mosaad Attia Elkasaby
Abstract:The crude oil contains paraffines, aromatics, and asphaltenes in addition to some organic impurities, with increasing demands to reduce the cost of crude oil production, the uses of a pour point depressant is mandatory to maintain good flow rate. The wax materials cause many problems during production, storage, and transport, especially at low temperature, as these waxes tend, at low temperatures, to precipitate on the wall lines, thus leads to the high viscosity of crude oil and impede the flow rate, which represents an additional burden for crude oil pumping system from the place of production to the refinery. There are many ways to solve this problem, including, but not limited to, heat the crude and the use of organic solvents. But one of the most important disadvantages of these methods is the high economic cost. The aim of this innovation is to manufacture some polymeric materials (polymers based on aniline) that are processed locally that can be used as a pour point depressant of crude oil. For the first time, polymer based on aniline is modified and used with a number of organic solvents and tested with solvent (Styrene). It was found that the polymer based on aniline, when modified, had full solubility in styrene, unlike other organic solvent that was used in the past, such as chloroform and toluene. We also used a new solvent (PONA) that is obtained from the process of hydrotreating and separation of straight run naphtha to dissolve polymer based on aniline as a pour point depressant of crude oil. This innovative include studies conducted on highly paraffinic crude oil (C.O.1 and C.O.2). On using concentration (2500 ppm) of polymer based on aniline, the pour point of crude oil has decreased from +33 to - 9°C in case of crude oil (C.O.1) and from + 42 to – 6°C in case crude oil (C.O.2) at the same concentration.
Keywords: PPD, aniline, paraffinic crude oils, polymersProcedia PDF Downloads 24
1017 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation
Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh
Abstract:Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.
Keywords: surfactant, natural, crude oil, rheology, CFD, viscosityProcedia PDF Downloads 342
1016 Process Optimization for Albanian Crude Oil Characterization
Authors: Xhaklina Cani, Ilirjan Malollari, Ismet Beqiraj, Lorina Lici
Abstract:Oil characterization is an essential step in the design, simulation, and optimization of refining facilities. To achieve optimal crude selection and processing decisions, a refiner must have exact information refer to crude oil quality. This includes crude oil TBP-curve as the main data for correct operation of refinery crude oil atmospheric distillation plants. Crude oil is typically characterized based on a distillation assay. This procedure is reasonably well-defined and is based on the representation of the mixture of actual components that boil within a boiling point interval by hypothetical components that boil at the average boiling temperature of the interval. The crude oil assay typically includes TBP distillation according to ASTM D-2892, which can characterize this part of oil that boils up to 400 C atmospheric equivalent boiling point. To model the yield curves obtained by physical distillation is necessary to compare the differences between the modelling and the experimental data. Most commercial use a different number of components and pseudo-components to represent crude oil. Laboratory tests include distillations, vapor pressures, flash points, pour points, cetane numbers, octane numbers, densities, and viscosities. The aim of the study is the drawing of true boiling curves for different crude oil resources in Albania and to compare the differences between the modeling and the experimental data for optimal characterization of crude oil.
Keywords: TBP distillation curves, crude oil, optimization, simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 240
1015 Chemical Demulsification for Treating Crude Oil Emulsion
Authors: Miran Sabah Ibrahim, Nahit Aktas
Abstract:The utilization of emulsifiers is highly important in the process of breaking emulsions. This examination employed five commercial demulsifiers in various temperatures for evaluating the separation efficiency. Furthermore, two different crude oils (Khurmala and Demir Dagh crude oil) were utilized for preparing emulsion. The outcomes revealed that the application commercial demulsifiers for Khurmala crude oil at 55°C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) the separation efficiency were (78, 80.6, 78, 86 and 90 %) respectively. However, at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) separation efficiency were (87, 85, 91.3, 94 and 97 %) respectively. Nonetheless, utilizing Demir Dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) resulted in the separation efficiency of (63.3, 66.6, 65, 73 and 76.6 %) respectively, and at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) were (77, 76.6, 80, 82 and 85 %) respectively. The combinations of FD-6144 and RI35Q at 55°C and ratio of (1:1) and (1:3) for Khurmala crude oil led to (96 and 90.6 %) efficiency respectively. However, the efficiency decreased to (98.6 and 93.3 %) respectively at 65 °C. The same combinations applied on Demir Dagh Crude oil and the results were (78 and 63.3 %) at 55 °C and (86.6 and 71 %) at 65 °C. Three different brine concentrations (NaCl) (0.5, 2 and 3.5 %) were prepared and utilized. It was found that the optimum NaCl concentration was at 3.5 % NaCl concentration for both khurmala and Demir dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 65 °C.
Keywords: demulsifier, emulsion, breaking emulsion, emulsifying agent (surfactant)Procedia PDF Downloads 266
1014 Divorce for Iranian-Canadian Women: A Life and Death Matter
Authors: Shila Khayambashi
Abstract:Iran’s long history of patriarchy, coupled with the devaluation of women’s rights after Iran’s Islamic revolution of 1979, has subjected Iranian women to different forms of domestic abuse. Upon their migration, however, many Iranian women end their abusive relationship by filing for divorce. In many instances, leaving the abusive environment exposes these Iranian women to more dangerous circumstances. Iranian diasporic community has witnessed several domestically-charged fatalities in the past few years after the abused wives either ended their violent marriages or attempted to establish some control in their marital relationships. While the casualties have been reported in Iranian new media and press, the Canadian media failed to pay much attention to any of these cases. In this paper, I examine the post-migratory factors that encourage the abused Iranian women to leave their abusers after years of endurance. Additionally, I indicate the roles of organizational and governmental support for minority women who decide to terminate their violent relationships. I will also explore how the Canadian media outlets circumvent and ignore the cases of these minority victims.
Keywords: women's right, Divorce, Patriarchy, Domestic AbuseProcedia PDF Downloads 65
1013 A Resistant-Based Comparative Study between Iranian Concrete Design Code and Some Worldwide Ones
Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Najmeh Bemani
Abstract:The design in most counties should be inevitably carried out by their native code such as Iran. Since the Iranian concrete code does not exist in structural design software, most engineers in this country analyze the structures using commercial software but design the structural members manually. This point motivated us to make a communication between Iranian code and some other well-known ones to create facility for the engineers. Finally, this paper proposes the so-called interpretation charts which help specify the position of Iranian code in comparison of some worldwide ones.
Keywords: beam, concrete code, strength, interpretation chartsProcedia PDF Downloads 314
1012 Water Injection in One of the Southern Iranian Oil Field, a Case Study
Authors: Hooman Fallah
Abstract:Seawater injection and produced water re-injection are presently the most commonly used approach to enhanced recovery. The dominant factors for total oil recovery are the reservoir temperature, reservoir pressure, crude oil and water composition. In this study, the production under water injection in Soroosh, one of the southern Iranian heavy oil field has been simulated (the fluid properties are focused). In order to reveal the dominant factors in this production process, the sensitivity analysis has been done for the following effective factors, fluid viscosity, initial water saturation, gravity force and injection well strategy. It is crystal clear that the study of the dominant factors in production processes will help the engineers to design the best production mechanisms in our numerous hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Keywords: water injection, initial water saturation, oil viscosity, gravity force, injection well strategyProcedia PDF Downloads 327
1011 The Iranian Law and Refugee Survivors of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence
Authors: Aminreza Koohestani
Abstract:This paper intends to explore the existing safeguards available within the Iranian law in protecting refugees affected by Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV). The Iranian law afforded protection for women and girls against SGBV is scattered across various bodies of law. Moreover, the degree of protection provided by the law varies greatly from one type of SGBV to another. The paper discusses the scope of applicability of Iranian laws to refugees affected by SGBV as well as substantive and procedural laws afforded protection for survivors of SGBV.
Keywords: Iran, law, violence, womenProcedia PDF Downloads 164
1010 Oil Logistics for Refining to Northern Europe
Authors: Vladimir Klepikov
Abstract:To develop the programs to supply crude oil to North European refineries, it is necessary to take into account the refineries’ location, crude refining capacity, and the transport infrastructure capacity. Among the countries of the region, we include those having a marine boundary along the Northern Sea and the Baltic Sea (from France in the west to Finland in the east). The paper envisages the geographic allocation of the refineries and contains the evaluation of the refineries’ capacities for the region under review. The sustainable operations of refineries in the region are determined by the transportation system capacity to supply crude oil to them. The assessment of capacity of crude oil transportation to the refineries is conducted. The research is performed for the period of 2005/2015, using the quantitative analysis method. The countries are classified by the refineries’ aggregate capacities and the crude oil output on their territory. The crude oil output capacities in the region in the period under review are determined. The capacities of the region’s transportation system to supply crude oil produced in the region to the refineries are revealed. The analysis suggested that imported raw materials are the main source of oil for the refineries in the region. The main sources of crude oil supplies to North European refineries are reviewed. The change in the refineries’ capacities in the group of countries and each particular country, as well as the utilization of the refineries' capacities in the region in the period under review, was studied. The input suggests that the bulk of crude oil is supplied by marine and pipeline transport. The paper contains the assessment of the crude oil transportation by pipeline transport in the overall crude oil cargo flow. The refineries’ production rate for the groups of countries under the review and for each particular country was the subject of study. Our study yielded the trend towards the increase in the crude oil refining at the refineries of the region and reduction in the crude oil output. If this trend persists in the near future, the cargo flow of imported crude oil and the utilization of the North European logistics infrastructure may increase. According to the study, the existing transport infrastructure in the region is able to handle the increasing imported crude oil flow.
Keywords: European region, infrastructure, oil terminal capacity, pipeline capacity, tanker draftProcedia PDF Downloads 113
1009 Improving the Quality of Casava Peel-Leaf Mixture through Fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas Poultry Ration
Authors: Mirnawati, G. Ciptaan, Ferawati
Abstract:This study aims to improve the quality of the cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) through fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporusas poultry ration. This research is an experimental study using a completely randomized design (CRD) with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were cassava peel-leaf mixture (CPLM) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus. The treatments were a combination of cassava peel and leaves with the ratio of; A (9:1), B (8:2), C (7:3), and D (6:4). The observed variables were protease enzyme activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and metabolic energy. The results of the diversity analysis showed that there was a very significant (p < 0.01) effect on protease activity, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, digestibility of crude fiber, and energy metabolism of fermented CPLM. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that CPLM (6:4) fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus gave the best results seen from protease activity 7,25 U/ml, 21.23% crude protein, 19.80% crude fiber, 59.65% nitrogen retention, 62.99% crude fiber digestibility and metabolic energy 2671 Kcal/kg.
Keywords: quality, Casava peel-leaf mixture, fermentation, Rhizopus oligosporusProcedia PDF Downloads 113
1008 Ecosystem Restoration: Remediation of Crude Oil-Polluted Soil by Leuceana leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit
Authors: Ayodele Adelusi Oyedeji
Abstract:The study was carried out under a controlled environment with the aim of examining remediation of crude oil polluted soil. The germination rate, heights and girths, number of leaves and nodulation was determined following standard procedures. Some physicochemical (organic matter, pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium) characteristics of soil used were determined using standard protocols. Results showed that at varying concentration of crude oil i.e 0 ml, 25 ml, 50 ml, 75 ml and 100 ml, Leuceana leucocephala had germination rate of 92%, 90%, 84%, 62% and 56% respectively, mean height of 73.70cm, 58.30cm, 49.50cm, 46.45cm and 41.80cm respectively after 16 weeks after planting (WAP), mean girth of 0.54mm, 0.34mm, 0.33mm, 0.21mm and 0.19mm respectively at 16 WAP, number of nodules 18, 10, 10, 6 and 2 respectively and number of leaves 24.00, 16.00, 13.00, 10.00 and 6.00 respectively. The organic matter, pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased with the increase in the concentration of crude oil. Furthermore, as the concentration of crude oil increased the germination rate, height, girth, and number of leaves and nodules decreased, suggesting the effect of crude oil on Leuceana leucocephala. The plant withstands the varying concentration of the crude oil means that it could be used for the remediation of crude oil contaminated soil in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
Keywords: ecosystem conservation, Leuceana leucocephala, phytoremediation, soil pollutionProcedia PDF Downloads 46
1007 Blending Effects on Crude Oil Stability: An Experimental Study
Authors: Muheddin Hamza, Entisar Etter
Abstract:This study is a part of investigating the possibility of blending two crude oils obtained from Libyan oil fields, namely crude oil (A) and crude oil (B) with different ratios, prior to blending the crude oils have to be compatible in order to avoid phase out and precipitation of asphaltene from the bulk of crude. The physical properties of both crudes such as density, viscosity, pour point and sulphur content were measured according to (ASTM) method. To examine the stability of both crudes and their blends, the oil compatibility model using microscopic, colloidal instability index (CII) using SARA analysis and asphaltene stabilization test using Turbiscan tests were conducted in the Libyan Petroleum Institute laboratories. Compatibility tests were carried out with both crude oils, the insolubility number (IN), and the solubility blending number (SBN), for both crude oils and their blends were calculated. The criteria for compatibility of any blend is that the volume average solubility blending number (SBN) is greater than the insolubility number (IN) of any component in the blend, the results indicated that both crudes were compatible. To support the results of compatibility tests the SARA analysis was done for the fractional determination of (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) content. From this result, the colloidal Instability index (CII) and resin to asphaltenes ratio (R/A) were calculated for crudes and their blends. The results show that crude oil (B) which has higher (R/A) and lower (CII) is more stable than crude oil (A) and as the ratio of crude (B) increases in the blend the (CII) and (R/A) were improved, and the blends becomes more stable. Asphaltene stabilization test was also conducted for the crudes and their blends using Turbiscan MA200 according to the standard test method ASTM D7061-04, the Turbiscan shows that the crude (B) is more stable than crude (A) which shows a fair tendency. The (CII) and (R/A) were compared with the solubility number (SBN) for each crude and the blends along with Turbiscan results. The solubility blending number (SBN) of the crudes and their blends show that the crudes are compatible, also by comparing (R/A) and (SBN) values of the blends, it can be seen that they are complements of each other. All the experimental results show that the blends of both crudes are more stability.
Keywords: asphaltene, crude oil, compatibility, oil blends, resin, SARAProcedia PDF Downloads 390
1006 Antioxidant Enzymes and Crude Mitochondria ATPases in the Radicle of Germinating Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Different Concentrations of Crude Oil
Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu
Abstract:The study examined the effect of Bonny Light whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle of germinating bean (Vigna unguiculata). The percentage germination, level of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme, and mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase activities were measured in the radicle of bean after 7, 14, and 21 days post germination. Viable bean seeds were planted in soils contaminated with 10ml, 25ml, and 50ml of whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) to obtain 2, 5, and 10% v/w crude oil contamination. There was dose dependent reduction of the number of bean seeds that germinated in the contaminated soils compared with control (p<0.001). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as, adenosine triphosphatase enzymes, were also significantly (p<0.001) altered in the radicle of the plants grown in contaminated soil compared with the control. Generally, the level of lipid peroxidation was highest after 21 days post germination when compared with control. Stress to germinating bean caused by Bonny Light crude oil or its water soluble fraction resulted in adaptive changes in crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle.
Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, bonny light crude oil, radicle, mitochondria ATPasesProcedia PDF Downloads 235
1005 The Development of Iranian Theatrical Performance through the Integration of Narrative Elements from Western Drama
Authors: Azadeh Abbasikangevari
Abstract:Background and Objectives: Theatre and performance are two separate themes. What is presented in Iran as a performance is the species and ritual and traditional forms of the play. The Iranian performance has its roots in myth and ritual. Drama is essentially a Western phenomenon that has gradually entered Iran and influenced Iranian performance. A theatre is based on antagonism (axis) and protagonism (anti-axis), while performance has a monotonous and steady motion. The elements of Iranian performance include field, performance on the stage, and magnification in performance, all of which are based on narration. This type of narration has been present in Iranian modern drama. The objective of this study was to analyze the drama structure according to narration elements by a comparison between the Western theater and the Iranian performance and determining the structural differences in the type of narrative. Materials and Methods: In this study, the elements of the drama were analyzed using the library method among the available library resources. The review of the literature included research articles and textbooks which focused on Iranian plays, as well as books and articles which encompassed narrative and drama element. Data were analyzed in the comparative-descriptive method. Results: Examining and studying different kinds of Iranian performances, showed that the narrative has always been a characteristic feature of Iranian plays. Iranians have narrated the stories and myths and have had a particular skill of oral literature. Over time, they slowly introduced narrative culture into their art, where this element is the most important structural element in Iran's dramatic art. Considering the fact that narration in Iranian traditional play, such as Ta'ziyeh and Naghali, was oral and consequently, it was slowly forgotten and excluded from written theatrical texts. Since the drama has entered in its western form in Iran, the plays written by the authors were influenced by narrative elements existing in western plays. Conclusions: The narrative’s element has undoubtedly had an impact on modern Iranian drama and Iranian contemporary drama. Therefore, the element of narration is an integral part of the Iranian traditional play structure.
Keywords: drama methodology, Iranian performance, Iranian modern drama, narrationProcedia PDF Downloads 59
1004 Perception and Implementation of Machine Translation Applications by the Iranian English Translators
Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi
Abstract:The present study is an attempt to provide a relatively comprehensive preview of the Iranian English translators’ perception on Machine Translation. Furthermore, the study tries to shed light on the status of implementation of Machine Translation among the Iranian English Translators. To reach the aforementioned objectives, the Localization Industry Standards Association’s questioner for measuring perceptions with regard to the adoption of a technology innovation was adapted and used to investigate three parameter among the participants of the study, namely familiarity with Machine Translation, general perception on Machine Translation and implementation of Machine Translation systems in translation tasks. The participants of the study were 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Machine Translation, as well as a positive perception of and attitude toward Machine Translation by the Iranian English translators.
Keywords: translation technology, machine translation, perception, implementationProcedia PDF Downloads 457
1003 Components of Emotional Intelligence in Iranian Entrepreneurs
Authors: Farzaneh Noori
Abstract:Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. Thus, it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established entrepreneurs have been surveyed. According to Iran Gem 2014 report the percentage of established entrepreneur in Iran is 10.92%. So by using Cochran sample formula (1%) 96 Iranian established entrepreneurs have been selected and Emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire distributed to them. The SPSS19 result shows high emotional intelligence in Iranian established entrepreneurs.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire, entrepreneurs, IranProcedia PDF Downloads 383
1002 Amelioration of Stability and Rheological Properties of a Crude Oil-Based Drilling Mud
Authors: Hammadi Larbi, Bergane Cheikh
Abstract:Drilling for oil is done through many mechanisms. The goal is first to dig deep and then, after arriving at the oil source, to simply suck it up. And for this, it is important to know the role of oil-based drilling muds, which had many benefits for the drilling tool and for drilling generally, and also and essentially to know the rheological behavior of the emulsion system in particular water-in-oil inverse emulsions (Water/crude oil). This work contributes to the improvement of the stability and rheological properties of crude oil-based drilling mud by organophilic clay. Experimental data from steady-state flow measurements of crude oil-based drilling mud are classically analyzed by the Herschel-Bulkley model. The effects of organophilic clay type VG69 are studied. Microscopic observation showed that the addition of quantities of organophilic clay type VG69 less than or equal to 3 g leads to the stability of inverse Water/Oil emulsions; on the other hand, for quantities greater than 3g, the emulsions are destabilized.
Keywords: drilling, organophilic clay, crude oil, stabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 38
1001 Prediction of Metals Available to Maize Seedlings in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil
Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu
Abstract:The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.
Keywords: availability, crude oil contamination, EDTA, maize, metalsProcedia PDF Downloads 153
1000 The Potential Use of Crude Palm Oil Liquid Wastes to Improve Nutrient Levels in Vegetable Plants
Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin
Abstract:Application of crude palm oil waste combined to suitable concentration of benzyl-adenine give the significant effect to mean relative growth rate of vegetable plants and the same pattern in net assimilation rate crude palm oil waste has also significantly increased during 28 days old plants. Combination of treatment of suitable concentration of crude palm oil and benzyl adenine increased the growth and production of vegetable plants. The relative growth rate of vegetable plants was rapid 3 weeks after planting and gradually decreased at the end of the harvest time period. Combination of 400 mg.l-1 CPO with 1.0 mgl-1 till 10mgl-1 BA increased the Mean Relative Growth Rate (MRGR), Net assimilation rate (NAR), Leaf area and dry weight of Brassica juncea, Brassica oleraceae and Lactuca sativa.
Keywords: benzyladenine, crude-palm-oil, nutrient, vegetable, wasteProcedia PDF Downloads 116
999 An Investigation on the Perception and Adoption of Terminology Management Applications by the Iranian English Language Translators
Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi
Abstract:In recent years, there have been increasing requests in the field of translation studies to develop software facilitating the analysis of corpora. One of the specialized tools in that regard are Terminology Management Tools. Briefly explaining, Terminology Management Tools are applications developed to help create and store terminological data in the form which allows for a controlled use of the data. While it has a long history and an established ground in translation market in most parts of the globe, the Iranian translators and translation market still seem to be unaware or unfamiliar with Terminology Management Tools. In order to provide a preview on the perception and adoption of Terminology Management Tools by the Iranian translators, the present survey was carried out among 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 different universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Terminology Management Tools by the Iranian translators.
Keywords: translation, translation technology, terminology management tools, terminology management surveyProcedia PDF Downloads 311
998 Anthropology of Women and War (1979-1988) in Iran: The Role of Islamic Republic Media
Authors: Mina Dousti
Abstract:Like many women worldwide, and especially those living in the Middle East, Iranian women are struggling to have equal rights as men. The Islamic Republic regime, established in 1979, made this path even more difficult for Iranian women. Media and the Islamic Republic's powerful propaganda are the main factors and advertisers in omitting women's social rights and civic activities. Also, the hijab (veil), which became obligatory immediately after the revolution based on the Qur'an and religious Hadiths, was another way of suppressing women. Since the Islamic Republic Revolution and the following Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988), the Iranian female community has been experiencing different social and legal challenges. Aside from the Islamic regime's role in ignoring women, their families have also contributed to this limitation via unreasonable zeals and religious prejudices. Subsequently, all these factors led to pushing Iranian women to the corner and public dormancy. During the eight-year war, many Iranian women directly participated in the war front line. Although they became martyred, the regime intentionally ignored their public presence employing Islamic justifications and Sharia as an excuse. The government did these actions to justify censorship and unfairness toward women.
Keywords: Iranian women, Islamic Republic Regime, hijab, revolution, Iran-Iraq war, MartyrProcedia PDF Downloads 76
997 Transformation and Integration: Iranian Women Migrants and the Use of Social Media in Australia
Authors: Azadeh Davachi
Abstract:Although there is a growing interest in Iranian female migration and gender roles, little attention has been paid to how Iranian migrant women in Australia access and sustain social networks, both locally and spatially dispersed over time. Social network theories have much to offer an analysis of migrant’s social ties and interpersonal relationships. Thus, it is important to note that social media are not only new communication channels in a migration network but also that they actively transform the nature of these networks and thereby facilitate migration for migrants. Drawing on that, this article will focus on Iranian women migrants and the use of social media in migration in Australia. Based on the case of main social networks such as Facebook and Instagram; this paper will investigate that how women migrants use these networks to facilitate the process of migration and integration. In addition, with the use of social networks, they could promote their home business and as a result become more engaged economically in Australian society. This paper will focus on three main Iranian pages in Instagram and Facebook, they will contend that compared to men, women are more active in these social networks. Consequently, as this article will discuss with the use of these social media Iranian migrant women can become more engaged and overcome post migration hardships, thus, gender plays a key role in using social media in migrant communities. Based on these findings from these social media pages, this paper will conclude that social media are transforming migration networks and thereby lowering the threshold for migration. It also will be demonstrated that these networks boost Iranian women’s confidence and lead them to become more visible in Iranian migrant communities comparing to men.
Keywords: integration, gender, migration, women migrantsProcedia PDF Downloads 94
996 Fault Tree Analysis and Bayesian Network for Fire and Explosion of Crude Oil Tanks: Case Study
Authors: B. Zerouali, M. Kara, B. Hamaidi, H. Mahdjoub, S. Rouabhia
Abstract:In this paper, a safety analysis for crude oil tanks to prevent undesirable events that may cause catastrophic accidents. The estimation of the probability of damage to industrial systems is carried out through a series of steps, and in accordance with a specific methodology. In this context, this work involves developing an assessment tool and risk analysis at the level of crude oil tanks system, based primarily on identification of various potential causes of crude oil tanks fire and explosion by the use of Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), then improved risk modelling by Bayesian Networks (BNs). Bayesian approach in the evaluation of failure and quantification of risks is a dynamic analysis approach. For this reason, have been selected as an analytical tool in this study. Research concludes that the Bayesian networks have a distinct and effective method in the safety analysis because of the flexibility of its structure; it is suitable for a wide variety of accident scenarios.
Keywords: bayesian networks, crude oil tank, fault tree, prediction, safetyProcedia PDF Downloads 602