Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1194

Search results for: Myanmar migrant workers

1194 The Potential Factors Relating to the Decision of Return Migration of Myanmar Migrant Workers: A Case Study in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province

Authors: Musthaya Patchanee

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The aim of this research is to study potential factors relating to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province by conducting a random sampling of 400 people aged between 15-59 who migrated from Myanmar. The information collected through interviews was analyzed to find a percentage and mean using the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis. The results have shown that 33.25% of Myanmar migrant workers want to return to their home country within the next 1-5 years, 46.25%, in 6-10 years and the rest, in over 10 years. The factors relating to such decision can be concluded that the scale of the decision of return migration has a positive relationship with a statistical significance at 0.05 with a conformity with friends and relatives (r=0.886), a relationship with family and community (r=0.782), possession of land in hometown (r=0.756) and educational level (r=0.699). However, the factor of property possession in Prachuap Khiri Khan is the only factor with a high negative relationship (r=0.-537). From the Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis, the results have shown that the conformity with friends and relatives and educational level factors are influential to the decision of return migration of Myanmar migrant workers in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, which can predict the decision at 86.60% and the multiple regression equation from the analysis is Y= 6.744+1.198 conformity + 0.647 education.

Keywords: decision of return migration, factors of return migration, Myanmar migrant workers, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province

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1193 Economic and Social Well-Being for Migrant Workers: Asian Experiences

Authors: Mohsin Reza, Thirunaukarasu Subramaniam, M. Rezaul Islam

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In Asia, economic and social well-being issues are rarely addressed. The major characteristics of the migrant workers in Asian countries are seriously exploited, marginalized, and infrequently looked from human rights perspective. This paper explored the opportunities and shortages of economic and social well-being for the migrant workers in Asia. A Qualitative Interpretative Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was conducted to analyze the contextual socio-economic factors that characterized migrant workers’ economic and social well-being. It is perceived that in most of the recruiting countries, there are lacks of government commitments to the international protocols, conventions and laws that they ratified towards safeguarding migrant workers’ economic and social well-being. Results showed that the migrant workers had lack of job security, poor salary, long working hours, low access to the public services, poor health, poor living and working conditions, lack of legal rights, physical and mental threats. The finding would be important guideline to the governments, policy makers, legal rights practitioners, and human rights organizations.

Keywords: Asia, economic well-being, social well-being, migrant workers, human rights

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1192 Responding to the Mental Health Service Needs of Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers in China: Current Situation and Future Directions

Authors: Yujun Liu, Maosheng Ran

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Background: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers’ mental health problems raise attentions from different social sectors. However, situation of present mental health services provided to this population has not been discovered. This study attempts to describe the current mental health service situation, identify the gaps and give the future directions based on the quantitative data. Methods: Questionnaire surveys were conducted among 2017 rural-to-urban migrant workers in 13 cities and 100 social work service organizations in 5 cities in 2014. Data was collected by face-to-face structured interview by trained interviewers. Findings: Migrant workers’ mental health status was not good. Compared to the severity of mental distress, mental health service for this population was lacking and insufficient, which accounted for only 14.4% of all services in our sample. And the group work and case work were the most frequently-used methods. By estimating a series of regression models, we revealed that life experiences and working conditions were significantly associated with migrant workers’ mental health status. Therefore, the macro social work practices aimed at this whole group were advocated to promote their mental wellbeing. That is, practitioners should not only focus on the improvement of migrant workers’ emotion management capacity, but also pay attention to raise awareness and improve their living and working condition; not only concentrate on the solving of individuals’ dilemma, but also promote gradual reformation of present labor regime and hukou system in China.

Keywords: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers, macro social work practice, mental health service needs, mental health status

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1191 The Link between Migration Status and Occupational Health and Safety of Filipino Migrant Workers in South Korea

Authors: Lito M. Amit, Venecio U. Ultra, Young Woong Song

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The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence and types of work-related health and safety problems among Filipino migrant workers and the link between their migration status and occupational health and safety (OHS) problems. We conducted a survey among 116 Filipino migrant workers who were both legal and undocumented. To assess the various forms of occupational health problems, we utilized the Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS), Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ) and a validated health and safety questionnaire. A focus group discussion (FGD) was also conducted to record relevant information that was limited by the questionnaires. Descriptive data were presented in frequency with percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the degree of association between variables (p < 0.05). Among the eight subscales of KOSS, inadequate social support (2.48), organizational injustice (2.57), and lack of reward (2.52) were experienced by workers. There was a 44.83% prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders with arm/elbow having the highest rate, followed by shoulder and low back regions. Inadequate social support and discomfort in organizational climate and overall MSDs prevalence showed significant relationships with migration status (p < 0.05). There was a positive association between migration status and seven items under language and communication. A positive association was seen between migration status and some of the OHS problems of Filipino migrant workers in Korea. Undocumented workers in this study were seen to be more vulnerable to those stressors compared to those employed legally.

Keywords: Filipino workers, migration status, occupational health and safety, undocumented workers

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1190 Comprehensive Framework for Pandemic-Resilient Cities to Avert Future Migrant Crisis: A Case of Mumbai

Authors: Vasudha Thapa, Kiran Chappa

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There is a pressing need to prepare cities in the developing countries of the global south such as India against the chaos created by COVID 19 pandemic and future disaster risks. This pandemic posed the nation with an unprecedented challenge of dealing with a wave of stranded migrant workers. These workers comprise the most vulnerable section of the society in case of any pandemic or disaster risks. The COVID 19 pandemic exposed the vulnerability of migrant workers in the urban form and the need for capacity-building strategies against future pandemics. This paper highlights the challenges of these migrant workers in the case of Mumbai city in lockdown, post lockdown, and the current uncertain scenarios. The paper deals with a thorough investigation of the existing and the recent policies and strategies taken by the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), state, and central government to assist these migrants in the city during this mayhem of uncertainties. The paper looks further deep into the challenges and opportunities presented in the current scenario through the assessment of existing data and response to policy measures taken by the government organizations. The ULBs are at the forefront in the response to any disaster risk, hence the paper assesses the capacity gaps of the Urban local bodies in mitigating the risks posed by any pandemic-like situation. The study further recommends capacity-building strategies at various levels of governance and uniform policy measures to assist the migrant population of the city.

Keywords: urban resilience, covid 19, migrant population, India, capacity building, governance

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1189 An AHP Study on The Migrant and Refugee Employees Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Turkey

Authors: Cengiz Akyildiz, Ismail Ekmekci

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In the past 15 years, many people have sought refuge and emigrated to developed countries due to the civil war in Syria, terrorism and turmoil in Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan, hunger problems in Africa and the purpose of work. Many of these people came to Turkey. By the end of the 2019, in Turkey, regular and irregular migrants, asylum seekers and foreigners under international protection are about 6 million people. The majority of these people are Syrians. Approximately 2 800 000 immigrants and refugees are in the workforce. Migrant workers in our country constitute the largest proportion among all countries in the world according to the local labor force. 2.5 million of these employees, with a high rate of about 90%, work informally and do not have legal records and valid employment contracts as a workforce; They cannot benefit from Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) services. Migrant workers generally receive less wages than local workers, working longer hours and worse conditions; they are often subjected to human rights violations, harassment, human trafficking and violence. Migrant workers face problems such as OHS practices, environmental and occupational exposures, language / cultural barriers, access to health services, and lack of documentation. Therefore, the OHS problems of these employees are becoming an increasingly problematic area. However, there is not enough research, analysis and academic studies in this field. The order of importance should be known for the radical solution of the problems, because of the problems with high severity are also at high risk. In this study, for the first time, a Search Conference was held with the participation of 45 stakeholders to reveal the OHS problems of regular and irregular migrant workers in our country. The problems arising from this workshop were compared with the problems in the literature and the problems in this field were determined and weighted for our country. Later, to determine the significance levels of these problems, AHP study, which is a Multi Criteria Decision Making Method in which 15 experts participated, was conducted and the significance levels of these problems were determined. When the data obtained are evaluated, it has been seen that the OSH risks of migrant workers arise from 58% laws and government policies, 29% from employers, 13% from personal faults of employees. An academic study has been carried out for the first time in this field regarding the OHS problems of migrant workers, and an academic study has been created to guide which of the problems should be prioritized.

Keywords: environmental conditions, migrant workers, OHS issues, workplace conditions

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1188 Migrant Labour in Kerala: A Study on Inter-State Migrant Workers

Authors: Arun Perumbilavil Anand

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In the recent years, Kerala is witnessing a large inflow of migrants from different parts of the country. Though initially, the migrants were largely from the districts of Tamil Nadu and mostly of seasonal nature, but at a later period, the state started getting migrants from the far-off states like UP, Assam, Bengal, etc. Higher wages for unskilled labour, large opportunities for employment, the reluctance on the part of Kerala workers to do menial and hard physical work, and the shortage of local labour, paradoxically despite the high unemployment rate in the state, led to the massive influx of migrant labourers. This study takes a multi-dimensional overview of migrant labour in Kerala by encompassing factors such as channels of migration, nature of employment contracts entered into and the corresponding wages and benefits obtained by them. The study also analysed the circumstances that led to the large influx of migrants from different states of India. It further makes an attempt to examine the varying dimensions of living and working environment, and also the health conditions of migrants. The study is based on the empirical findings obtained as a result of the primary interviews conducted with migrants in the districts of Palakkad, Malappuram, and Ernakulam. The study concludes by noting that Kerala will inevitably have to depend on migrant labour and is likely to experience heavy in-migration of labour in future, provided that if the existing socioeconomic and demographic situations persist. Since, this is inevitable, the best way before the state is to prepare well in advance to receive and accommodate such migrant labour to lead a comfortable life in a hassle free environment, so that it would definitely play a vital role in further strengthening and sustaining the growth trajectory of not only Kerala’s economy but also the states of origin.

Keywords: Kerala, labour, migration, migrant workers

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1187 Assessing the Gap between the Policies and Existing Living Conditions of Migrant Construction Workers: A Case Study of Vijayawada

Authors: Ayushi Mishra

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Migrant construction workers or construction labors are one of the majority of the working population in our urban and rural areas. Even after being the majority, their involvement in the upbringing of the economy is hardly ever documented or recognized. Non-permanent or migrant workers face loads of exploitations and susceptibilities than other informal sector workers in India which in turn has affected the productivity of the labors. The relation of their employment and migration and the links of these dynamics to their housing and other basic needs in the city are mostly unstated. Even the urban planning and housing policies do not make thoughtful provision for them, they forcing them to live in extremely wretched conditions. And even if the policies are made, it frequently happens that they are not implemented. As the issue is very much prevalent in today’s time in India with so many large-scale and labor extensive projects going on, this study focuses on the assessment of the gap between the existing government policies and the current scenario of the construction workers in ongoing projects of Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh. A few of the policies for construction workers conditions a lot of things, out of which only a few are functional which makes this study to assess the reason behind the unorganized living condition and poor physical, the social and mental health of construction workers of Vijayawada. In present, the dignity of construction labors is compromised every day on construction sites, in terms of work and basic rights which leads to many other problems in future. So to work for the betterment of this community, knowledge on the differences is very much required and hence this study is a little effort to replenish the difference and compare the policies with the existing conditions of construction labors in Vijayawada.

Keywords: construction, labours, policy, productivity

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1186 Socio Economy of Migrant Women Domestic Workers in India: A Study in Context of Mumbai City

Authors: Sunita Kumari, Abhishek Thakur

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Focusing on female migrant domestic workers from Jharkhand, this study looks at their life before and after migration in Mumbai city. Girls coming from the marginalised communities migrate through different means and organizations like placement agencies, religious institutions such as church, with the help of group of friends or relatives and so forth. Most of them due to low educational attainment get into the unorganized sector jobs such as domestic work. In this backdrop, the paper tries to understand the socio-economic condition of tribal migrant women engaged as the domestic workers in the M ward of Mumbai city. The paper tries to investigate the early life of migrant women domestic workers, explores the reasons behind their migration and also examines the changes in their status after their engagement as domestic workers. The paper argues that though the economic and political reasons are quite explicit but the role of social institutions is also significant in the process of migration of women domestic workers. The study was qualitative in nature where fifteen in depth interviews were conducted and to develop a profound understanding one Focus Group Discussion was carried out at M ward of Mumbai Municipal Corporation (Chembur East). To substantiate the findings, the secondary data was taken from the available resources. The findings of the study shows that situation in the family, lack of education, non availability of better economic opportunities and other factors forced them to migrate. The factors such as income in form of cash rather than in kind, attraction towards the Mumbai city and so on was also the reason behind migration. Finally, this study gives the ample opportunity to look at the lives of the women who are the part of the unorganised sector of our country. It further unbolts exploration in terms of social security legislation at the national level.

Keywords: paid domestic work, women, migration, Mumbai city

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1185 A Study Concerning Foreign Worker Migration in Thailand

Authors: Napatsorn Suput-Anyaporn

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This paper aimed to investigate multilateral relationships across the factors which included labor shortage, trade union, turnover rate of employee, labor law and regulation, and effectiveness of foreign worker administration in the scope of foreign workers in the industrial manufacturing sector of Thailand. The research employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches, in which foreign workers from Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia in the industrial manufacturing sector in selected areas of Thailand were sampled for the quantitative data collection, and persons in the chief executive management and the supervisor levels, and persons in the academic area in relation with foreign workers were selected as the sample for the qualitative data collection method. Thus, a questionnaire, in-depth interview and focus group were utilized as tools in this research paper. The discussion placed an emphasis on the fact that Thailand should design more effective law and regulations for the foreign workers administration and management in response to preparing for the coming ASEAN Economic Community with the declaration of the free- flow labor movement policy.

Keywords: industrial manufacturing sector, labor law and regulation, labor shortage, migrant worker, trade union, turnover rate of employee

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1184 Passport Confiscation as a Violation of Human Rights: Analysing the Kafala System

Authors: Samantha Vargas-Alfonso

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The phenomenon of migration has been long-recorded since ancient history but never has mobility in huge numbers been so rapid and constant than that of the present. A significant portion of these migrants move for the promise of better economic subsistence by finding employment in foreign lands; while there are local and international instruments to protect these migrant workers, they still face human rights violations amongst other hurdles in integrating themselves into their host country. This research aims to look at the occurrence of Passport Confiscation for Filipino migrant workers (blue-collar workers) who are situated in Saudi Arabia. In addition to this, the study will look at the Kafala System which GCC countries practice regulating their foreign employees. The research attempts to prove that international conventions lack power in constraining the occurrence of passport confiscation and that while the kafala system exists, there is very little opportunity to address this issue.

Keywords: kafala, labor, migration, passport

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1183 Immigration as a Promoting Factor of Innovation in Developing Countries: Evidence from Thai Manufacturers

Authors: Piriya Pholphirul, Pungpond Rukumnuaykit

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Contrary to studies of other migrant-receiving countries, most of which are developed countries, this paper examines impacts of immigrant workers on innovative capacities in Thailand, which is not only a representative of a receiving country that is a developing country but also a country where the majority of its immigrant workers are unskilled. Analysis of firm-level survey data in Thailand finds that employing unskilled and cheap labor from neighboring countries, namely, Myanmar, the Lao PDR, and Cambodia, is like adopting a kind of “labor-saving technology” which actually impedes firms’ R&D investment. Contrary to developed countries in which immigrants are found to boost innovation and promote sustainable growth, in Thailand, even though employing unskilled immigrant workers helps firms maintain their cost competitiveness in the short run, its negative impacts on R&D investment tend to hamper improvements in productivity and thus diminish global competitiveness in the long run. Employing skilled or educated migrants, on the other hand, complements technological progress and encourages firms to innovate more quickly. In addition, the paper finds that providing government incentives and promoting access to financing have become effective tools in facilitating Thai firms’ investment in innovation.

Keywords: immigration, innovation, developing country, Thailand

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1182 Factors Affecting the Wages of Native Workers in Thailand's Construction Industry

Authors: C. Noknoi, W. Boripunt, K. Boomid, S. Suwitphanwong

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This research studies the factors influencing the wages of native workers in Thailand's construction industry. The sample used comprised some 156 native construction workers from Songkhla Province, Thailand. The utilized research instrument was a questionnaire, with the data being analyzed according to frequency, percentage, and regression analysis. The results revealed that in general, native Thai construction workers are generally married males aged between 26 and 37 years old. They typically have four to six years of education, are employed as laborers with an average salary of 4,000–9,200 baht per month, and have fewer than five years of work experience. Most Thai workers work five days a week. Each establishment typically has 10–30 employees, with fewer than 10 of these being migrant workers in general. Most Thai workers are at a 20% to 40% risk from work, and they have never changed employer. The average wage of Thai workers was found to be 10,843.03 baht per month with a standard deviation of 4,898.31 baht per month. Hypothesis testing revealed that position, work experience, and the number of times they had switched employer were the factors most affecting the wages of native Thai construction workers. These three factors alone explain the salaries of Thai construction workers at 51.9%.  

Keywords: construction industry, native workers, Thailand, wages

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1181 Literature Review of Female Migrant Entrepreneurship Research

Authors: Dike Ike

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Migrants foster innovation and economic development in host nations through their entrepreneurial activities. Female migrant entrepreneurship is gaining more attention from the research community, with several studies being conducted in the field. This paper presents a standalone (scoping) systematic literature review of academic literature related to female migrant entrepreneurship and focuses on their entrepreneurial experiences, strategies, outcomes, resources, and context. For this purpose, 13 articles published in research journals are studied based on their (a) objective, (b) research methods. Based on the review, several gaps in the literature were identified, and suggestions were made to fill the gaps in future research to expand the scientific knowledge on female migrant entrepreneurship.

Keywords: female migrant entrepreneurship, systematic literature review, female migrant entrepreneurship outcomes, female migrant entrepreneurship experiences, female migrant entrepreneurship strategies

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1180 Cultural Self-Efficacy of Child Protection Social Workers in Norway: Barriers and Opportunities in Working with Migrant Families

Authors: Justyna Mroczkowska

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Social worker's ability to provide culturally sensitive assistance in child protection is taken for granted; given limited training opportunities and lack of clear guidance, practitioners report working with migrant families more demanding in comparison to working with native families. In this study, the author developed and factor analyzed the Norwegian Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale to describe the level of cultural capability among Norwegian child protection professionals. The study aimed to determine the main influencing factors to cultural efficacy and examine the relationship between self-efficacy and perceived difficulty in working with migrant families. The scale was administered to child protection workers in Norway (N=251), and the reliability of the scale measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .904. The confirmatory factor analysis of social work cultural self-efficacy found support for four separate but correlated subscales: Assessment, Communication, Support Request, and Teamwork. Regression analyses found the experience in working with migrant families, training and support from external agencies, and colleague support to be significant predictors of cultural self-efficacy. Self-efficacy in assessment skills and self-efficacy in communication skills were moderately related to the perceived difficulty to work with migrant families. The findings conclude with previous research and highlight the need for both professional development programs and institutional resources to be provided to support the practitioner's preparation for multicultural practice in child protection.

Keywords: child protection, cultural self-efficacy, cultural competency, migration, resources

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1179 Need for a Tailor Made HIV Prevention Services to the Migrants Community: Evidence from Implementing Migrant Service Delivery System (MSDS) among Migrant Workers, National AIDS Control Program, and India

Authors: Debasish Chowdhury, Sunil Mekale, Sarvanamurthy Sakthivel, Sukhvinder Kaur, Rambabu Khambampati, Ashok Agarwal

Abstract:

Introduction: The migrant intervention in India was initiated during the National AIDS Control Program (NACP) Phase-2 (2002-2007). HIV Sentinel surveillance Studies (HSS) conducted in 2012-13 indicated higher HIV prevalence among migrants (0.99%) compared to general populations (0.35%). Migrants continue to bear a heightened risk of HIV infection which results from the condition and structure of the migration process. USAID PHFI-PIPPSE project in collaboration with the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) developed a unique system called Migrant Service Delivery System (MSDS) to capture migrants profile with respect to their risk profile and to provide tailor made services to them. Description: MSDS is a web-based system, designed and implemented to increase service uptake among migrants through evidence based planning. 110 destination migrants Targeted Intervention (TI) from 11 states were selected for study with varied target populations in terms of occupations; to understand occupation related risk behaviors among the migrants. Occupation wise registration data of high risk vulnerable migrants were analyzed through MSDS for the period April 2014–June 2016. Analysis was made on specific indicators among these occupational groups to understand the risk behavior and their vulnerability to HIV and STIs. Findings: Out of total HIV positive migrant’s workers (N= 847) enrolled in MSDS HIV rate is found to be highest among Auto-Rickshaw (18.66%) followed by Daily wage laborers (14.46%), Loom workers (10.73%), Industrial workers (10.04%) and Construction worker 7.93%. With 45.14% positivity, industrial workers are found to be most vulnerable to Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) (N=10057) among all occupational categories followed by loom workers (16.28%), Skilled worker (Furniture, Jeweler)-7.14%, daily wage laborers (5.45%). Conclusion: MSDS is an effective tool to assess migrants’ risk and their vulnerability to HIV for designing evidence informed program. This system calls for a replication across all destination TIs by NACO for differential strategies for different occupation groups to ensure better yield through scientific planning of intervention among high risk and high vulnerable migrants.

Keywords: migrants, migrant service delivery system, risk, vulnerability

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1178 Current Situation of Maritime Transport and Logistics in Myanmar

Authors: S. N. S. Thein, H. L. Yang, Z. B. Liu

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There are many modes of transport. Among them, maritime transport is a major transportation mode of international trade. In the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma), water transportation served as one of the most important modes of transport for country's exports and imports. Getting the accurate information and data-gathering activity are the most important aspects for any study field. Therefore, in this research, a historical review of the development of ports in Myanmar and how they have changed had been carried out. All the relevant literature and documents have also been reviewed, studied, and organized. The sources of collected data are from reports, journals, internet, as well as from the publications of authorized organizations and international associations. To get better understanding about real situation of maritime transport and logistics in Myanmar; current condition of existing ports, expansion and on-going projects, and future port development plans are described successively. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to build up a comprehensive picture of maritime transport and logistics, in addition to border trade within ASEAN and Myanmar. It will help for academic researchers, decision makers, and stakeholders for national planning as well as for the local and foreign investors to recognize current situation of maritime transport and logistics in Myanmar.

Keywords: ASEAN, border trade, logistics, maritime transport, ports of Myanmar

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1177 Migrant Women’s Rights “with Chinese Characteristics: The State of Migrant Women in the People’s Republic of China

Authors: Leigha C. Crout

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This paper will investigate the categorical disregard of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in establishing and maintaining a baseline standard of civil guarantees for economic migrant women and their dependents. In light of the relative forward strides in terms of policy facilitating the ascension of female workers in China, this oft-invisible subgroup of women remains neglected from the modern-day “iron rice bowl” of the self-identified communist state. This study is being undertaken to rectify the absence of data on this subject and provide a baseline for future studies on the matter, as the human rights of migrants has become an established facet of transnational dialogue and debate. The basic methodology of this research will consist of the evaluation of China’s compliance with its own national guidelines, and the eight international human rights law treaties it has ratified. Data will be extracted and cross-checked from a number of relevant sources to monitor the extent of compliance, including but by no means limited to the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) Universal Periodic Review (UPR) reports and responses, submissions and responses of international human rights treaty bodies, local and international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and their annual reports, and articles and commentaries authored by specialists on the modern state and implementation of Chinese law. Together, these data will illuminate the vast network of compliance that has forced many migrant women to work within situations of extreme economic precarity. The structure will proceed as follows: first, an outline of the current status of migrant workers and the enforcement of stipulated protections will be provided; next, the analysis of the oft-debated regulations directing and the outline of mandatory services guaranteed to external and internal migrants; and finally, a conclusion incorporating various recommendations to improve transparency and gradually decrease the amount of migrant work turned forced labor that typifies the economic migrant experience, especially in the case of women. The internal and international migrant workers in China are bound by different and uncomplimentary systems. The first, which governs Chinese citizens moving to different regions or provinces to find more sustainable employment (internal migrants), is called the hukou (or huji) residency system. This law enforces strict regulation of the movement of peoples, while ensuring that residents of urban areas receive preferential benefits to those received by their so-called “agricultural” resident counterparts. Given the overwhelming presence of the Communist Party of China throughout the vast state, the management of internal migrants and the disregard for foreign domestic workers is, at minimum, a surprising oversight. This paper endeavors to provide a much-needed foundation for future commentary and discussion on the treatment of female migrant workers and their families in the People’s Republic of China.

Keywords: female migrant worker’s rights, the People’s Republic of China, forced labor, Hukou residency system

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1176 A Rapid Assessment of the Impacts of COVID-19 on Overseas Labor Migration: Findings from Bangladesh

Authors: Vaiddehi Bansal, Ridhi Sahai, Kareem Kysia

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Overseas labor migration is currently one of the most important contributors to the economy of Bangladesh and is a highly profitable form of labor for Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) countries. In 2019, 700,159 migrant workers from Bangladeshtraveled abroad for employment. GCC countries are a major destination for Bangladeshi migrant workers, with Saudi Arabia being the most common destination for Bangladeshi migrant workers since 2016. Despite the high rate of migration between these countries every year, the OLR industry remains complex and often leaves migrants susceptible to human trafficking, forced labor, and modern slavery. While the prevalence of forced labor among Bangladeshi migrants in GCC countries is still unknown, the IOM estimates international migrant workers comprise one fourth of the victims of forced labor. Moreover, the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic has exposed migrant workers to additional adverse situations, making them even more vulnerable to forced labor and health risks. This paper presents findings from a rapid assessment of the impacts of COVID-19 on OLR in Bangladesh, with an emphasis on the increased risk of forced labor among vulnerable migrant worker populations, particularly women.Rapid reviews are a useful approach to swiftly provide actionable evidence for informed decision-making during emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The research team conducted semi-structured key information interviews (KIIs) with a range of stakeholders, including government officials, local NGOs, international organizations, migration researchers, and formal and informal recruiting agencies, to obtain insights on the multi-facted impacts of COVID-19 on the OLR sector. The research team also conducted a comprehensive review of available resources, including media articles, blogs, policy briefs, reports, white papers, and other online content, to triangulate findings from the KIIs. After screening for inclusion criteria, a total of 110 grey literature documents were included in the review. A total of 31 KIIs were conducted, data from which was transcribed and translated from Bangla to English, andanalyzed using a detailed codebook. Findings indicate that there was limited reintegration support for returnee migrants. Facing increasing amounts of debt, financial insecurity, and social discrimination, returnee migrants, were extremely vulnerable to forced labor and exploitation. Growing financial debt and limited job opportunities in their home country will likely push migrants to resort to unsafe migration channels. Evidence suggests that women, who are primarily domestic works in GCC countries, were exposed to increased risk of forced labor and workplace violence. Due to stay-at-home measures, women migrant workers were tasked with additional housekeeping working and subjected to longer work hours, wage withholding, and physical abuse. In Bangladesh, returnee women migrant workers also faced an increased risk of domestic violence.

Keywords: forced labor, migration, gender, human trafficking

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1175 Migrant Workers and the Challenge for Human Security in Southeast Asia since 1997

Authors: Hanen Khaldi

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This paper aims to study the impact of international migration on human security in the Southeastern region of Asia, especially after Asian Financial Crisis 1997-98. International migration has impacts on many dimensions of security: the state security (sovereignty and autonomy); international relationships security (conflicts, terrorism, etc); and immigrants security. The paper aims to improve our comprehension of the impact of international migration on immigrant security in the region of Southeast Asia, particularly “vulnerable workers’’ whose number is growing very fast in the region. The literature review carried out on this matter led us to ask the following two question: 1) Did the creation of ASEAN Community matter on the evolution of immigrants in the region? And How governments try to resolve the gap between economic objectifs and security of immigrants in the region? To answer these two questions, the paper is subdivided in three parts: Firstly, we will show how the creation of the ASEAN Community, especially ASEAN Economic Community, had a significant impact on the pattern of evolution of immigration in this region. Secondly, we will paint a portrait illustrating the vulnerability of immigrants in Southeast Asia, particularly unskilled workers. Finally, using the theories of regional integration, we will assess how governments try to ensure the security and safety of the immigrants. Overall, our analysis illustrate the significant change of the official discourse of the leaders of the ASEAN member states, now more conciliator and especially more open to cooperation, as well as the proliferation of meetings and initiatives between these countries to control mobility flows in the region, and the ensure immigrants security.

Keywords: migrant workers, human security, human rights

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1174 Informalization and Feminization of Labour Force in the Context of Globalization of Production: Case Study of Women Migrant Workers in Kinfra Apparel Park of India

Authors: Manasi Mahanty

Abstract:

In the current phase of globalization, the mobility of capital facilitates outsourcing and subcontracting of production processes to the developing economies for cheap and flexible labour force. In such process, the globalization of production networks operates at multi-locational points within the nation. Under the new quota regime in the globalization period, the Indian manufacturing exporters came under the influence of corporate buyers and large retailers from the importing countries. As part of such process, the garment manufacturing sector is expected to create huge employment opportunities and to expand the export market in the country. While following these, expectations, the apparel and garment industries mostly target to hire female migrant workers with a purpose of establishing more flexible industrial relations through the casual nature of employment contract. It leads to an increasing women’s participation in the labour market as well as the rise in precarious forms of female paid employment. In the context, the main objective of the paper is to understand the wider dynamics of globalization of production and its link with informalization, feminization of labour force and internal migration process of the country. For this purpose, the study examines the changing labour relations in the KINFRA Apparel Park at Kerala’s Special Economic Zone which operates under the scheme ‘Apparel Parks for Export’ (APE) of the Government of India. The present study was based on both quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the first, the secondary sources of data were collected from the source location (SEAM centre) and destination (KINFRA Park). The official figures and data were discussed and analyzed in order to find out the various dimensions of labour relations under globalization of production. In the second, the primary survey was conducted to make a comparative analysis of local and migrant female workers. The study is executed by taking 100 workers in total. The local workers comprised of 53% of the sample whereas the outside state workers were 47%. Even personal interviews with management staff, and workers were also made for collecting the information regarding the organisational structure, nature, and mode of recruitment, work environment, etc. The study shows the enormous presence of rural women migrant workers in KINFRA Apparel Park. A Public Private Partnership (PPP) arranged migration system is found as Skills for Employment in Apparel Manufacturing (SEAM) from where young women and girls are being sent to work in garment factories of Kerala’s KINFRA International Apparel Park under the guise of an apprenticeship based recruitment. The study concludes that such arrangements try to avoid standard employment relationships and strengthen informalization, casualization and contractualization of work. In this process, the recruitment of women migrant workers is to be considered as best option for the employers of private industries which could be more easily hired and fired.

Keywords: female migration, globalization, informalization, KINFRA apparel park

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1173 Unscrupulous Intermediaries in International Labour Migration of Nepal

Authors: Anurag Devkota

Abstract:

Foreign employment serves to be the strongest pillar in engendering employment options for a large number of the young Nepali population. Nepali workers are forced to leave the comfort of their homes and are exposed to precarious conditions while on a journey to earn enough money to live better their lives. The exponential rise in foreign labour migration has produced a snowball effect on the economy of the nation. The dramatic variation in the economic development of the state has proved to establish the fact that migration is increasingly significant for livelihood, economic development, political stability, academic discourse and policy planning in Nepal. The foreign employment practice in Nepal largely incorporates the role of individual agents in the entire process of migration. With the fraudulent acts and false promises of these agents, the problems associated with every Nepali migrant worker starts at home. The workers encounter tremendous pre-departure malpractice and exploitation at home by different individual agents during different stages of processing. Although these epidemic and repetitive ill activities of intermediaries are dominant and deeply rooted, the agents have been allowed to walk free in the absence of proper laws to curb their wrongdoings and misconduct. It has been found that the existing regulatory mechanisms have not been utilised to their full efficacy and often fall short in addressing the actual concerns of the workers because of the complex legal and judicial procedures. Structural changes in the judicial setting will help bring perpetrators under the law and victims towards access to justice. Thus, a qualitative improvement of the overall situation of Nepali migrant workers calls for a proper 'regulatory' arrangement vis-à-vis these brokers. Hence, the author aims to carry out a doctrinal study using reports and scholarly articles as a major source of data collection. Various reports published by different non-governmental and governmental organizations working in the field of labour migration will be examined and the research will focus on the inductive and deductive data analysis. Hence, the real challenge of establishing a pro-migrant worker regime in recent times is to bring the agents under the jurisdiction of the court in Nepal. The Gulf Visit Study Report, 2017 prepared and launched by the International Relation and Labour Committee of Legislature-Parliament of Nepal finds that solving the problems at home solves 80 percent of the problems concerning migrant workers in Nepal. Against this backdrop, this research study is intended to determine the ways and measures to curb the role of agents in the foreign employment and labour migration process of Nepal. It will further dig deeper into the regulatory mechanisms of Nepal and map out essential determinant behind the impunity of agents.

Keywords: foreign employment, labour migration, human rights, migrant workers

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1172 The Nexus between Migration and Human Security: The Case of Ethiopian Female Migration to Sudan

Authors: Anwar Hassen Tsega

Abstract:

International labor migration is an integral part of the modern globalized world. However, the phenomenon has its roots in some earlier periods in human history. This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of female migration in Africa. In the past, African women migrants were only spouses or dependent family members. But as modernity swept most African societies, with rising unemployment rates, there is evidence everywhere in Africa that women labor migration is a growing phenomenon that deserves to be understood in the context of human security research. This work explores these issues further, focusing on the experience of Ethiopian women labor migrants to Sudan. The migration of Ethiopian people to Sudan is historical; nevertheless, labor migration mainly started since the discovery and subsequent exploration of oil in the Sudan. While the paper is concerned with the human security aspect of the migrant workers, we need to be certain that the migration process will provide with a decent wage, good working conditions, the necessary social security coverage, and labor protection as a whole. However, migration to Sudan is not always safe and female migrants become subject to violence at the hands of brokers, employers and migration officials. For this matter, the paper argued that identifying the vulnerable stages and major problem facing female migrant workers at various stages of migration is a prerequisite to combat the problem and secure the lives of the migrant workers. The major problems female migrants face include extra degrees of gender-based violence, underpayment, various forms of abuse like verbal, physical and sexual and other forms of torture which include beating and slaps. This peculiar situation could be attributed to the fact that most of these women are irregular migrants and fall under the category of unskilled and/or illiterate migrants.

Keywords: Ethiopia, human security, labor migration, Sudan

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1171 Critical Reading Achievement of Rural Migrant Children in China: The Roles of Educational Expectation

Authors: Liman Zhao, Jianlong Zhang, Mingman Ren, Chuang Wang, Jian Liu

Abstract:

Rural migrant children have become a fast-growing population in China as a consequence of the large-scale population flow from rural to urban areas in the context of urbanization. In China, the socioeconomic status of migrant children is relatively low in comparison to non-migrant children. Parents of migrant children often work in occupations with long working hours, high labor intensity, and low pay due to their poor academic qualifications. Most migrant children's parents have not received higher education and have no time to read with their children. The family of migrant children usually does not have a good collection of books either, which leads to these children’s insufficient reading and low reading levels. Moreover, migrant children frequently relocate with their parents, and their needs for knowledge and reading are often neglected by schools, which puts migrant children at risk of academic failure in China. Therefore, the academic achievement of rural migrant children has become a focus of education in China. This study explores the relationship between the educational expectation of rural migrant children and their critical reading competence in general and the moderating effect of the difference between parental educational expectation to their children and the children’s own educational expectation. The responses to a survey from 5113 seventh-grade children in a district of the capital city in China revealed that children who moved to cities in grades 4-6 of primary school performed the best in critical reading, and children who moved to cities after middle school showed the worst performance in critical reading. In addition, parents’ educational expectations of their children and their own educational expectations were both significant predictors of rural migrant children’s reading competence. The higher a child's expectations of a degree and the smaller the gap between parents' expectations of a child's education and the child's own education expectations, the better the child's performance in critical reading.

Keywords: educational expectation, critical reading competence, rural migrant children, moderating effect

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1170 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

Abstract:

The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: economic crisis, international migration, mobility, return migration, employement

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1169 Development of Border Trade of Thailand-Myanmar: Case Study of Ranong Province

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai

Abstract:

This research has objective to study and analysis, expending linkage of trading border of Thai-Myanmar and the way of development trading of Thai-Myanmar border. There are advantage of competition in ASEAN Community on collection data and observation, in-depth interview, group conversation and exchange opinion of public agency, entrepreneur and people. Result of study found that main development of border trade is 1) Cross-border service should be development infrastructure of land telecommunication, sea has support economics of cross-border trade, 2) International consumption service should be expand service with Myanmar and India for linkage with entrepreneur and trading from international to Thailand, 3) Establish business for provide service has development cooperation of logistics via Andaman of Thailand, and 4) Mobility personnel, exchange personnel including labor for development potential of border trade has competition advantage.

Keywords: border trade, development, service, ASEAN

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1168 The Internal Migration in Jiangxi Province, China after the Migrating Decision

Authors: Gourida Siham

Abstract:

Chinese society has witnessed a continuing trend of nationwide rural to urban migration since the 1970's. Before that age, under restricted hukou systems, peasants were kept still and fixed in the farm land. The year 1978 and later years saw the control of migration in China was relaxed gradually, freeing peasants to start their own businesses and reach out to work also in urban areas. Since then the “floating population” (migrants without local hukou) took great momentum and drew great attention from both the media and academia. The scale of such internal migration is enormous –the floating population has reached to a number of 79 million in 2000, and as of 2010, the number of migrant workers from rural China amounts to over 221 million and according to the annual survey results projections by National Bureau of Statistics; the total migrant workers in china in 2012 amounted to 262.61 million, which refers to an increase of 9.83 million compared with the previous year with increase percentage by 3.9%. Using China’s Jiangxi Province as a case, this paper examines patterns of internal migration as a response of emigrations in the context of high emigration communities. Our findings suggest that emigration of individuals initially deterred both inter-provincial and intra- provincial migration of other family members, and yet, overtime they had an increasing propensity to migrate internally at both scales.

Keywords: internal migration, jiangxi, nanchang, remittances

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1167 The Impact of the Constitution of Myanmar on the Political Power of Aung San Suu Kyi and the Rohingya Conflict

Authors: Nur R. Daut

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The objective of this paper is to offer an insight on how political power inequality has contributed and exacerbated the political violence towards the Rohingya ethnic group in Myanmar. In particular, this paper attempts to illustrate how power inequality in the country has prevented Myanmar’s leader Aung San Suu Kyi from taking effective measures on the issue. The research centers on the question of why Aung San Suu Kyi has been seen as not doing enough to stop the persecution of the Rohingya ethnic group ever since she was appointed the State Counsellor to the Myanmar government. As a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, Suu Kyi’s lack of action on the matter has come under severe criticism by the international community. Many have seen this as Suu Kyi’s failure to establish democracy and allowing mass killing to spread in the country. The real question that many perhaps should be asking, however, is how much power Suu Kyi actually holds within the government which is still heavily controlled by the military or Tatmadaw. This paper argues that Suu Kyi’s role within the government is limited which hinders constructive and effective measures to be taken on the Rohingya issue. Political power in this research is being measured by 3 factors: control over events such as burning of Rohingya villages, control over resources such as land ownership and media and control over actors such the Tatmadaw, police force and civil society who are greatly needed to ease and resolve the conflict. In order to illustrate which individuals or institution have control over all the 3 above factors, this paper will first study the constitution of Myanmar. The constitution will also be able to show the asymmetrical power relations as it will provide evidence as to how much political power Suu Kyi holds within the government in comparison to other political actors and institutions. Suu Kyi’s role as a state counsellor akin to a prime minister is a newly created position as the current constitution of Myanmar bars anyone with a foreign spouse from holding the post of a president in the country. This is already an indication of the inequality of political power between Suu Kyi and the military. Apart from studying the constitution of Myanmar, Suu Kyi’s speeches and various interviews are also studied in order to answer the research question. Unfortunately, Suu Kyi’s limited political power also involves the Buddhist monks in Myanmar who have held significant influence throughout the history of the country. This factor further prevents Suu Kyi from preserving the sanctity of human rights in Myanmar.

Keywords: Aung San Suu Kyi, constitution of Myanmar, inequality, political power, political violence, Rohingya, Tatmadaw

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1166 A Study on Occupational Injuries among Building Construction Workers in Bhubaneswar City Odisha

Authors: Rahul Pal

Abstract:

In India, construction industry plays a vital role in the development of infrastructures. It is one of the most hazardous industries. Construction workers are a group that is particularly vulnerable to health risks because they have few legal protection. India has the world’s highest accident rate among construction workers. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of occupation injury among construction workers and to find out the factors responsible for such injuries. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire among 305 construction workers in Bhubaneswar city. In this study, it was found that the overall prevalence of injury was 43.28% in the previous one year period. Majority of the construction workers were less experience in the construction work. Factors responsible for injuries are fall of the object followed by striking, and majority of the workers reported their injuries to have occurred in the summer season. And most of the construction workers are not using personal protective equipment (PPE). Conclusion: Given the occupational injuries, the majority of the construction workers are injured in this study; there is a need to address this issue to ensure necessary step for the safety and well-being of construction workers.

Keywords: construction, construction workers, occupational injuries, personal protective equipment

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1165 Self-Efficacy, Self-Knowledge, Empathy and Psychological Well-Being as Predictors of Workers’ Job Performance in Food and Beverage Industries in the South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ayodeji Boyede

Abstract:

Studies have shown that workers’ job performance is very low in Nigeria, especially in the food and beverage industry. This trend had been partially attributed to low workers’ self-efficacy, poor self-knowledge, lack of empathy and poor psychological well-being. The descriptive survey design was adopted. Four factories were purposively selected from three states in Southwestern, Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States). Proportionate random sampling techniques were used in selecting 1,820 junior and supervisory cadre workers in Nestle Plc (369), Coca-Cola Plc (392), Cadbury Plc (443) and Nigeria Breweries (616). The five research instruments used were: Workers’ self-efficacy (r=0.81), Workers’ self-knowledge (r=0.78), Workers’ empathy (r=0.74), Workers’ psychological well-being (r=0.70) and Workers’ performance rating (r=0.72) scales. Quantitative data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation, Multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance. Findings show that there were significant relationships between Workers’ job performance and self-efficacy (r=.56), self-knowledge (r=.54), Empathy (r=.55) and Psychological Well-being (r=.69) respectively. Self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy and psychological well-being jointly predict workers’ job performance (F (4,1815) = 491.05) accounting for 52.0% of its variance. Psychological well-being (B=.52). Self-efficacy (B=.10), self-knowledge (B=.11), empathy (B=. 09) had predictive relative weights on workers’ job performance. Inadequate knowledge and training of the supervisors led to a mismatch of workers thereby reducing workers’ job performance. High self-efficacy, empathy, psychological well-being and good self-knowledge influence workers job performance in the food and beverage industry. Based on the finding employers of labour should provide work environment that would enhance and promote the development of these factors among the workers.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy, psychological well-being, job performance

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