Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3169

Search results for: stress relief

3169 Effect of Stress Relief of the Footbath Using Bio-Marker in Japan

Authors: Harumi Katayama, Mina Suzuki, Taeko Muramatsu, Yui Shimogawa, Yoshimi Mizushima, Mitsuo Hiramatsu, Kimitsugu Nakamura, Takeshi Suzue

Abstract:

Purpose: There are very often footbaths in the hot-spring area as culture from old days in Japan. This culture moderately supported mental and physical health among people. In Japanese hospitals, nurses provide footbath for severe patients to mental comfortable. However, there are only a few evidences effect of footbath for mental comfortable. In this presentation, we show the effect of stress relief of the footbath using biomarker among 35 college students in volunteer. Methods: The experiment was designed in two groups of the footbath group and the simple relaxation group randomly. As mental load, Kraepelin test was given to the students beforehand. Ultra-weak chemiluminescence (UCL) in saliva and self-administered liner scale measurable emotional state were measured on four times concurrently; there is before and after the mental load, after the stress relief, and 30 minutes after the stress relief. The scale that measured emotional state was consisted of 7 factors; there is excitement, relaxation, vigorous, fatigue, tension, calm, and sleepiness with 22 items. ANOVA was calculated effect of the footbath for stress relief. Results: The level of UCL (photons/100sec) was significantly increased in response on both groups after mental load. After the two types of stress relief, UCL (photons/100sec) of footbath group was significantly decreased compared to simple relaxation group. Score of sleepiness and relaxation were significantly increased after the stress relief in the footbath group than the simple relaxation group. However, score of excitement, vigorous, tension, and calm were exhibit the same degree of decrease after the stress relief on both group. Conclusion: It was suggested that salivary UCL may be a sensitive biomarker for mild stress relief as nursing care. In the future, we will measure using UCL to evaluate as stress relief for inpatients, outpatients, or general public as the subjects.

Keywords: bio-marker, footbath, Japan, stress relief

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
3168 A Comparative Study of the Effects of Vibratory Stress Relief and Thermal Aging on the Residual Stress of Explosives Materials

Authors: Xuemei Yang, Xin Sun, Cheng Fu, Qiong Lan, Chao Han

Abstract:

Residual stresses, which can be produced during the manufacturing process of plastic bonded explosive (PBX), play an important role in weapon system security and reliability. Residual stresses can and do change in service. This paper mainly studies the influence of vibratory stress relief (VSR) and thermal aging on residual stress of explosives. Firstly, the residual stress relaxation of PBX via different physical condition of VSR, such as vibration time, amplitude and dynamic strain, were studied by drill-hole technique. The result indicated that the vibratory amplitude, time and dynamic strain had a significant influence on the residual stress relief of PBX. The rate of residual stress relief of PBX increases first and then decreases with the increase of dynamic strain, amplitude and time, because the activation energy is too small to make the PBX yield plastic deformation at first. Then the dynamic strain, time and amplitude exceed a certain threshold, the residual stress changes show the same rule and decrease sharply, this sharply drop of residual stress relief rate may have been caused by over vibration. Meanwhile, the comparison between VSR and thermal aging was also studied. The conclusion is that the reduction ratio of residual stress after VSR process with applicable vibratory parameters could be equivalent to 73% of thermal aging with 7 days. In addition, the density attenuation rate, mechanical property, and dimensional stability with 3 months after VSR process was almost the same compared with thermal aging. However, compared with traditional thermal aging, VSR only takes a very short time, which greatly improves the efficiency of aging treatment for explosive materials. Therefore, the VSR could be a potential alternative technique in the industry of residual stress relaxation of PBX explosives.

Keywords: explosives, residual stresses, thermal aging, vibratory stress relief, VSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
3167 A Dynamic Panel Model to Evaluate the Impact of Debt Relief on Poverty

Authors: Loujaina Abdelwahed

Abstract:

Debt relief granted to low-and middle-income countries effectively provides additional funds for governments that can be used to increase public investment on poverty-reducing services to alleviate poverty and boost economic growth. However, little is known about the extent to which the poor benefit from the increased public investment. This study aims to assess the impact of debt relief granted through multiple initiatives during the 1990s on poverty reduction. In particular, it assesses the impact on the level, depth and severity of poverty in 76 low-and middle income countries over the period 1990-2011. Debt relief is found to have a significant impact on reducing the level, the depth and the severity of poverty. Analysis of the different types of debt relief reveals that debt service relief reduces poverty, whereas debt principle relief does not have a significant impact.

Keywords: debt relief, developing countries, HIPC, poverty, system GMM estimator

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3166 Structural Design of a Relief Valve Considering Strength

Authors: Nam-Hee Kim, Jang-Hoon Ko, Kwon-Hee Lee

Abstract:

A relief valve is a mechanical element to keep safety by controlling high pressure. Usually, the high pressure is relieved by using the spring force and letting the fluid to flow from another way out of system. When its normal pressure is reached, the relief valve can return to initial state. The relief valve in this study has been applied for pressure vessel, evaporator, piping line, etc. The relief valve should be designed for smooth operation and should satisfy the structural safety requirement under operating condition. In general, the structural analysis is performed by following fluid flow analysis. In this process, the FSI (Fluid-Structure Interaction) is required to input the force obtained from the output of the flow analysis. Firstly, this study predicts the velocity profile and the pressure distribution in the given system. In this study, the assumptions for flow analysis are as follows: • The flow is steady-state and three-dimensional. • The fluid is Newtonian and incompressible. • The walls of the pipe and valve are smooth. The flow characteristics in this relief valve does not induce any problem. The commercial software ANSYS/CFX is utilized for flow analysis. On the contrary, very high pressure may cause structural problem due to severe stress. The relief valve is made of body, bonnet, guide, piston and nozzle, and its material is stainless steel. To investigate its structural safety, the worst case loading is considered as the pressure of 700 bar. The load is applied to inside the valve, which is greater than the load obtained from FSI. The maximum stress is calculated as 378 MPa by performing the finite element analysis. However, the value is greater than its allowable value. Thus, an alternative design is suggested to improve the structural performance through case study. We found that the sensitive design variable to the strength is the shape of the nozzle. The case study is to vary the size of the nozzle. Finally, it can be seen that the suggested design satisfy the structural design requirement. The FE analysis is performed by using the commercial software ANSYS/Workbench.

Keywords: relief valve, structural analysis, structural design, strength, safety factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
3165 Static Relaxation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Pipes

Authors: Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Mohamed K. Hassan, A. F. Mohamed, Shadi M. Munshi, A. M. Hashem

Abstract:

Pips made from glass fiber reinforced polymer has competitive role in petroleum industry. The need of evaluating the mechanical behavior of (GRP) pipes is essential objects. Stress relaxation illustrates how polymers relieve stress under constant strain. Static relaxation test is carried out at room temperature. The material gives poor static relaxation strength, two loading cycles have been observed for the tested specimen.

Keywords: GRP, sandwich composite material, static relaxation, stress relief

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
3164 An Exact Algorithm for Location–Transportation Problems in Humanitarian Relief

Authors: Chansiri Singhtaun

Abstract:

This paper proposes a mathematical model and examines the performance of an exact algorithm for a location–transportation problems in humanitarian relief. The model determines the number and location of distribution centers in a relief network, the amount of relief supplies to be stocked at each distribution center and the vehicles to take the supplies to meet the needs of disaster victims under capacity restriction, transportation and budgetary constraints. The computational experiments are conducted on the various sizes of problems that are generated. Branch and bound algorithm is applied for these problems. The results show that this algorithm can solve problem sizes of up to three candidate locations with five demand points and one candidate location with up to twenty demand points without premature termination.

Keywords: disaster response, facility location, humanitarian relief, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
3163 A Reinforcement Learning Approach for Evaluation of Real-Time Disaster Relief Demand and Network Condition

Authors: Ali Nadi, Ali Edrissi

Abstract:

Relief demand and transportation links availability is the essential information that is needed for every natural disaster operation. This information is not in hand once a disaster strikes. Relief demand and network condition has been evaluated based on prediction method in related works. Nevertheless, prediction seems to be over or under estimated due to uncertainties and may lead to a failure operation. Therefore, in this paper a stochastic programming model is proposed to evaluate real-time relief demand and network condition at the onset of a natural disaster. To address the time sensitivity of the emergency response, the proposed model uses reinforcement learning for optimization of the total relief assessment time. The proposed model is tested on a real size network problem. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model performs well in the case of collecting real-time information.

Keywords: disaster management, real-time demand, reinforcement learning, relief demand

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
3162 Experimental Pain Study Investigating the Distinction between Pain and Relief Reports

Authors: Abeer F. Almarzouki, Christopher A. Brown, Richard J. Brown, Anthony K. P. Jones

Abstract:

Although relief is commonly assumed to be a direct reflection of pain reduction, it seems to be driven by complex emotional interactions in which pain reduction is only one component. For example, termination of a painful/aversive event may be relieving and rewarding. Accordingly, in this study, whether terminating an aversive negative prediction of pain would be reflected in a greater relief experience was investigated, with a view to separating apart the effects of the manipulation on pain and relief. We use aversive conditioning paradigm to investigate the perception of relief in an aversive (threat) vs. positive context. Participants received positive predictors of a non-painful outcome which were presented within either a congruent positive (non-painful) context or an incongruent threat (painful) context that had been previously conditioned; trials followed by identical laser stimuli on both conditions. Participants were asked to rate the perceived intensity of pain as well as their perception of relief in response to the cue predicting the outcome. Results demonstrated that participants reported more pain in the aversive context compared to the positive context. Conversely, participants reported more relief in the aversive context compares to the neutral context. The rating of relief in the threat context was not correlated with pain reports. The results suggest that relief is not dependant on pain intensity. Consistent with this, relief in the threat context was greater than that in the positive expectancy condition, while the opposite pattern was obtained for the pain ratings. The value of relief in this study is better appreciated in the context of an impending negative threat, which is apparent in the higher pain ratings in the prior negative expectancy compared to the positive expectancy condition. Moreover, the more threatening the context (as manifested by higher unpleasantness/higher state anxiety scores), the more the relief is appreciated. The importance of the study highlights the importance of exploring relief and pain intensity in monitoring separately or evaluating pain-related suffering. The results also illustrate that the perception of painful input may largely be shaped by the context and not necessarily stimulus-related.

Keywords: aversive context, pain, predictions, relief

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
3161 A Situational Awareness Map for Allocating Relief Resources after Earthquake Occurrence

Authors: Hamid Reza Ranjbar, Ali Reza Azmoude Ardalan, Hamid Dehghani, Mohammad Reza Sarajian

Abstract:

Natural disasters are unexpected events which predicting them is difficult. Earthquake is one of the most devastating disasters among natural hazards with high rate of mortality and wide extent of damages. After the earthquake occurrence, managing the critical condition and allocating limited relief sources requiring a complete awareness of damaged area. The information for allocating relief teams should be precise and reliable as much as possible, and be presented in the appropriate time after the earthquake occurrence. This type of information was previously presented in the form of a damage map; conducting relief teams by using damage map mostly lead to waste of time for finding alive occupants under the rubble. In this research, a proposed standard for prioritizing damaged buildings in terms of requiring rescue and relief was presented. This standard prioritizes damaged buildings into four levels of priority including very high, high, moderate and low by considering key parameters such as type of land use, activity time, and inactivity time of each land use, time of earthquake occurrence and distinct index. The priority map by using the proposed standard could be a basis for guiding relief teams towards the areas with high relief priority.

Keywords: Damage map, GIS, priority map, USAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
3160 The Solution of the Direct Problem of Electrical Prospecting with Direct Current Under Conditions of Ground Surface Relief

Authors: Balgaisha Mukanova, Tolkyn Mirgalikyzy

Abstract:

Theory of interpretation of electromagnetic fields studied in the electrical prospecting with direct current is mainly developed for the case of a horizontal surface observation. However in practice we often have to work in difficult terrain surface. Conducting interpretation without the influence of topography can cause non-existent anomalies on sections. This raises the problem of studying the impact of different shapes of ground surface relief on the results of electrical prospecting's research. This research examines the numerical solutions of the direct problem of electrical prospecting for two-dimensional and three-dimensional media, taking into account the terrain. The problem is solved using the method of integral equations. The density of secondary currents on the relief surface is obtained.

Keywords: ground surface relief, method of integral equations, numerical method, electromagnetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
3159 Debt Relief for Emerging Economies: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Hummad Ch. Umar

Abstract:

Most of the developing economies, including Pakistan, are confronted with high level of external debt which is adversely affecting their economic performance. The hypothesis of debt overhang is often used to assess the negative relationship between foreign debt and the economic growth of the indebted country. As first objective of the present study, this hypothesis is tested by using Pooled OLS (POLS), Generalized Method of Moment (GMM), Random Effect (RE), and Fixed effect (FE) techniques. As second objective, the study uses the concept of debt Laffer Curve to determine the eligibility condition of the indebted countries for the relief programs. According to this approach, countries lying on the right side of the Laffer Curve are stated to be trapped in the strong debt overhang making them unable to come out of the vicious circle of low growth and high foreign debt. The empirical analysis confirms that only two countries out of twenty two completely fulfill the conditions of being eligible for the debt relief. All other countries continue to face debt burden of different magnitudes. The study further confirms that the debt relief alone is not sufficient for overcoming the debt problem. Instead, sound economic policies and conducive investment decisions are required to lay the foundations of long-term growth and development. Debt relief should be the option for only those countries that meet a minimum measurable criterion of good governance, economic freedom, and consistency of policies.

Keywords: external debt, debt burden, debt overhang, debt laffer curve, debt relief, investment decisions

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
3158 Stress Analysis of a Pressurizer in a Pressurized Water Reactor Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Tanvir Hasan, Minhaz Uddin, Anwar Sadat Anik

Abstract:

A pressurizer is a safety-related reactor component that maintains the reactor operating pressure to guarantee safety. Its structure is usually made of high thermal and pressure resistive material. The mechanical structure of these components should be maintained in all working settings, including transient to severe accidents conditions. The goal of this study is to examine the structural integrity and stress of the pressurizer in order to ensure its design integrity towards transient situations. For this, the finite element method (FEM) was used to analyze the mechanical stress on pressurizer components in this research. ANSYS MECHANICAL tool was used to analyze a 3D model of the pressurizer. The material for the body and safety relief nozzle is selected as low alloy steel i.e., SA-508 Gr.3 Cl.2. The model was put into ANSYS WORKBENCH and run under the boundary conditions of (internal Pressure, -17.2 MPa, inside radius, -1348mm, the thickness of the shell, -127mm, and the ratio of the outside radius to an inside radius, - 1.059). The theoretical calculation was done using the formulas and then the results were compared with the simulated results. When stimulated at design conditions, the findings revealed that the pressurizer stress analysis completely fulfilled the ASME standards.

Keywords: pressurizer, stress analysis, finite element method, nuclear reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
3157 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
3156 Decision Tree Modeling in Emergency Logistics Planning

Authors: Yousef Abu Nahleh, Arun Kumar, Fugen Daver, Reham Al-Hindawi

Abstract:

Despite the availability of natural disaster related time series data for last 110 years, there is no forecasting tool available to humanitarian relief organizations to determine forecasts for emergency logistics planning. This study develops a forecasting tool based on identifying probability of disaster for each country in the world by using decision tree modeling. Further, the determination of aggregate forecasts leads to efficient pre-disaster planning. Based on the research findings, the relief agencies can optimize the various resources allocation in emergency logistics planning.

Keywords: decision tree modeling, forecasting, humanitarian relief, emergency supply chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
3155 Thermal Radiation and Noise Safety Assessment of an Offshore Platform Flare Stack as Sudden Emergency Relief Takes Place

Authors: Lai Xuejiang, Huang Li, Yang Yi

Abstract:

To study the potential hazards of the sudden emergency relief of flare stack, the thermal radiation and noise calculation of flare stack is carried out by using Flaresim program 2.0. Thermal radiation and noise analysis should be considered as the sudden emergency relief takes place. According to the Flaresim software simulation results, the thermal radiation and noise meet the requirement.

Keywords: flare stack, thermal radiation, safety assessment, noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
3154 Tornado Disaster Impacts and Management: Learning from the 2016 Tornado Catastrophe in Jiangsu Province, China

Authors: Huicong Jia, Donghua Pan

Abstract:

As a key component of disaster reduction management, disaster emergency relief and reconstruction is an important process. Based on disaster system theory, this study analyzed the Jiangsu tornado from the formation mechanism of disasters, through to the economic losses, loss of life, and social infrastructure losses along the tornado disaster chain. The study then assessed the emergency relief and reconstruction efforts, based on an analytic hierarchy process method. The results were as follows: (1) An unstable weather system was the root cause of the tornado. The potentially hazardous local environment, acting in concert with the terrain and the river network, was able to gather energy from the unstable atmosphere. The wind belt passed through a densely populated district, with vulnerable infrastructure and other hazard-prone elements, which led to an accumulative disaster situation and the triggering of a catastrophe. (2) The tornado was accompanied by a hailstorm, which is an important triggering factor for a tornado catastrophe chain reaction. (3) The evaluation index (EI) of the emergency relief and reconstruction effect for the ‘‘6.23’’ tornado disaster in Yancheng was 91.5. Compared to other relief work in areas affected by disasters of the same magnitude, there was a more successful response than has previously been experienced. The results provide new insights for studies of disaster systems and the recovery measures in response to tornado catastrophe in China.

Keywords: China, disaster system, emergency relief, tornado catastrophe

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
3153 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim

Abstract:

The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
3152 Plastic Strain Accumulation Due to Asymmetric Cyclic Loading of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C

Authors: R. S. Rajpurohit, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh

Abstract:

Asymmetric stress cycling leads to accumulation of plastic strain which is called as ratcheting strain. The problem is generally associated with nuclear fuel cladding materials used in nuclear power plants and pressurized pipelines. In the present investigation, asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with three different parameters namely, mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate (keeping two parameters constant and varying third parameter) to see the plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C. The tests were conducted with variable mean stress (45-70 MPa), stress amplitude (95-120 MPa) and stress rate (30-750 MPa/s) and tested specimens were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that with the increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain accumulation increases with reduction in fatigue life. However, increase in stress rate leads to improvement in fatigue life of the material due to small ratcheting strain accumulation. Fractographs showed a decrease in area fraction of fatigue failed region.

Keywords: asymmetric cyclic loading, ratcheting fatigue, mean stress, stress amplitude, stress rate, plastic strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
3151 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Authors: Ail Akbar Emamverdian, Neriman Özada, Atabak Rahimzadeh Ilkhchi, Zahra Emamverdian

Abstract:

The reverse shoulder prosthesis is an innovative procedure design to treat of (GH) joint problems with severe rotator cuff deficiency. The original reverse shoulder prosthesis was invented by France surgery in1985 and has been in clinical use in the United States in 2004. These prostheses consist of baseplate that attached to the glenoid, in order to hold a spherical component, and humeral part consist of polyethylene insert which is flat. This prosthesis is the ‘reverse’ configuration. The indications for the reverse prosthesis are: (1) treating failed hemi arthroplasty with irrecoverable rotator cuff tears, (2) relief of painful arthritis associated with cuff tear arthropathy, (3) instauration after tumor resection, (4) pseudo paralysis because of irrecoverable rotator cuff tears (5) some fractures of the shoulder which reverse shoulder prostheses is only the option for treatment. This prosthesis resulting in relief of pain and decreasing the range of motion in above indications. However, this prosthesis and its applications such as notching of the scapula, dislocation of the prosthesis parts and acromial stress fractures. In this article the reverse shoulder prostheses, indication has been reviewed. This study can make clear aspect of reverse shoulder prosthesis that can help to find some solution in future.

Keywords: prostheses, complications, reverse shoulder prosthesis, indications

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
3150 Relationship between Stress and Personality in Young Adults

Authors: Sneha Sadana

Abstract:

Human beings are unique and so are their reactions towards varied stimuli. This study focuses on the impact personality has on how one deals with stressful situations. It can be intriguing to know how big of an impact our personality has on the way we react and how it is wired in us to respond to things in a particular manner all because of our personality and the traits which make us who we are. The study was done on 150 college going students, 75 males and 75 females mainly from Ahmedabad, India pursuing a variety of different streams and subjects. The questionnaire consists of two standardized questionnaires which measure stress and personality. The Student Stress Scale by Manju Agarwal evaluates stress of subjects and the big five personality locator by Norman.
The findings showed that there exists a positive relationship between stress and neuroticism and an inverse relationship between stress and sociability, stress and openness, stress and agreeableness and stress and conscientiousness.
And on doing a further comparative analysis on personality types of the same sample it was found out that females were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, sociability, openness, and neuroticism. In males, however, it was observed that males were more agreeable, followed by conscientiousness, neuroticism, sociability, and openness

Keywords: college students, personality, stress, theories of personality

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
3149 Efficacy of Biofeedback-Assisted Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Postoperative Stress Urinary Incontinence

Authors: Asmaa M. El-Bandrawy, Afaf M. Botla, Ghada E. El-Refaye, Hassan O. Ghareeb

Abstract:

Background: Urinary incontinence is a common problem among adults. Its incidence increases with age and it is more frequent in women. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is the first-line therapy in the treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) either alone or combined with biofeedback-assisted PFMT. The aim of the work: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of biofeedback-assisted PFMT in postoperative stress urinary incontinence. Settings and Design: A single blind controlled trial design was. Methods and Material: This study was carried out in 30 volunteer patients diagnosed as severe degree of stress urinary incontinence and they were admitted to surgical treatment. They were divided randomly into two equal groups: (Group A) consisted of 15 patients who had been treated with post-operative biofeedback-assisted PFMT and home exercise program (Group B) consisted of 15 patients who had been treated with home exercise program only. Assessment of all patients in both groups (A) and (B) was carried out before and after the treatment program by measuring intra-vaginal pressure in addition to the visual analog scale. Results: At the end of the treatment program, there was a highly statistically significant difference between group (A) and group (B) in the intra-vaginal pressure and the visual analog scale favoring the group (A). Conclusion: biofeedback-assisted PFMT is an effective method for the symptomatic relief of post-operative female stress urinary incontinence.

Keywords: stress urinary incontinence, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor exercises, biofeedback

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
3148 The Influence of Residual Stress on Hardness and Microstructure in Railway Rails

Authors: Muhammet Emre Turan, Sait Özçelik, Yavuz Sun

Abstract:

In railway rails, residual stress was measured and the values of residual stress were associated with hardness and micro structure in this study. At first, three rails as one meter long were taken and residual stresses were measured by cutting method according to the EN 13674-1 standardization. In this study, strain gauge that is an electrical apparatus was used. During the cutting, change in resistance in rail gave us residual stress value via computer program. After residual stress measurement, Brinell hardness distribution were performed for head parts of rails. Thus, the relationship between residual stress and hardness were established. In addition to that, micro structure analysis was carried out by optical microscope. The results show that, the micro structure and hardness value was changed with residual stress.

Keywords: residual stress, hardness, micro structure, rail, strain gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
3147 Simulation of Stress in Graphite Anode of Lithium-Ion Battery: Intra and Inter-Particle

Authors: Wenxin Mei, Jinhua Sun, Qingsong Wang

Abstract:

The volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries is mainly induced by intercalation induced stress within the negative electrode, resulting in capacity degradation and even battery failure. Stress generation due to lithium intercalation into graphite particles is investigated based on an electrochemical-mechanical model in this work. The two-dimensional model presented is fully coupled, inclusive of the impacts of intercalation-induced stress, stress-induced intercalation, to evaluate the lithium concentration, stress generation, and displacement intra and inter-particle. The results show that the distribution of lithium concentration and stress exhibits an analogous pattern, which reflects the relation between lithium diffusion and stress. The results of inter-particle stress indicate that larger Von-Mises stress is displayed where the two particles are in contact with each other, and deformation at the edge of particles is also observed, predicting fracture. Additionally, the maximum inter-particle stress at the end of lithium intercalation is nearly ten times the intraparticle stress. And the maximum inter-particle displacement is increased by 24% compared to the single-particle. Finally, the effect of graphite particle arrangement on inter-particle stress is studied. It is found that inter-particle stress with tighter arrangement exhibits lower stress. This work can provide guidance for predicting the intra and inter-particle stress to take measures to avoid cracking of electrode material.

Keywords: electrochemical-mechanical model, graphite particle, lithium concentration, lithium ion battery, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
3146 Determining the Extent and Direction of Relief Transformations Caused by Ski Run Construction Using LIDAR Data

Authors: Joanna Fidelus-Orzechowska, Dominika Wronska-Walach, Jaroslaw Cebulski

Abstract:

Mountain areas are very often exposed to numerous transformations connected with the development of tourist infrastructure. In mountain areas in Poland ski tourism is very popular, so agricultural areas are often transformed into tourist areas. The construction of new ski runs can change the direction and rate of slope development. The main aim of this research was to determine geomorphological and hydrological changes within slopes caused by ski run constructions. The study was conducted in the Remiaszów catchment in the Inner Polish Carpathians (southern Poland). The mean elevation of the catchment is 859 m a.s.l. and the maximum is 946 m a.s.l. The surface area of the catchment is 1.16 km2, of which 16.8% is the area of the two studied ski runs. The studied ski runs were constructed in 2014 and 2015. In order to determine the relief transformations connected with new ski run construction high resolution LIDAR data was analyzed. The general relief changes in the studied catchment were determined on the basis of ALS (Airborne Laser Scanning ) data obtained before (2013) and after (2016) ski run construction. Based on the two sets of ALS data a digital elevation models of differences (DoDs) was created, which made it possible to determine the quantitative relief changes in the entire studied catchment. Additionally, cross and longitudinal profiles were calculated within slopes where new ski runs were built. Detailed data on relief changes within selected test surfaces was obtained based on TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning). Hydrological changes within the analyzed catchment were determined based on the convergence and divergence index. The study shows that the construction of the new ski runs caused significant geomorphological and hydrological changes in the entire studied catchment. However, the most important changes were identified within the ski slopes. After the construction of ski runs the entire catchment area lowered about 0.02 m. Hydrological changes in the studied catchment mainly led to the interruption of surface runoff pathways and changes in runoff direction and geometry.

Keywords: hydrological changes, mountain areas, relief transformations, ski run construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
3145 Variation in Adaptation Strategies of Commelina Communis L. Biotypes under Drought Stress Condition

Authors: Muhammad Haroon, LI Xiangju

Abstract:

C. communis L. is an important weed of many crop, but very little information about the adaptation strategies of C. communis L. biotypes under drought stress. We investigated five biotypes of C. communis L under drought stress to identify the adaptation mechanism. The expression of drought stress related genes (DRS1, EREB and HRB1) was up-regulated in biotypes, while in some biotypes their expression was down regulated. All five biotypes can thus regulate water balance to consume less water to maintain their status under drought stress condition. This result concluded that C. communis L. biotypes can survive longer under drought stress condition. Weed scientist should seek more effective management strategies to deal with C. communis L.

Keywords: C. communis, biotypes, drought stress, gene expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
3144 Channel Characteristics and Morphometry of a Part of Umtrew River, Meghalaya

Authors: Pratyashi Phukan, Ranjan Saikia

Abstract:

Morphometry incorporates quantitative study of the area ,altitude,volume, slope profiles of a land and drainage basin characteristics of the area concerned.Fluvial geomorphology includes the consideration of linear,areal and relief aspects of a fluvially originated drainage basin. The linear aspect deals with the hierarchical orders of streams, numbers, and lenghts of stream segments and various relationship among them.The areal aspect includes the analysis of basin perimeters,basin shape, basin area, and related morphometric laws. The relief aspect incorporates besides hypsometric, climographic and altimetric analysis,the study of absolute and relative reliefs, relief ratios, average slope, etc. In this paper we have analysed the relationship among stream velocity, channel shape,sediment load,channel width,channel depth, etc.

Keywords: morphometry, hydraulic geometry, Umtrew river, Meghalaya

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
3143 The Comparison of of Stress Level between Students with Parents and Those without Parents

Authors: Hendeh Majdi, Zahra Arzjani

Abstract:

This research aimed at the comparison of level of stress between students had parents and those without parents by descriptive-analytical study. To do research number of 128 questionnaires (64 students with parents and 64 students without parents) were distributed among high school in Ray city, Tehran province through classified sampling. The results showed that level of stress in stud tent without parents has been effective and the most important proposal is that necessity study should be considered in decreasing level of stress in students without parent.

Keywords: stress, students with parents, without parents, Ray city

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
3142 Strategies to Improve Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea and Dissecting the Cross Talk Mechanism

Authors: Renu Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

In northern India, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) come across with terminal high-temperature stress during reproductive stage which leads to reduced yield. Hence, stable production of chickpea will depend on the development of new methods like ‘priming’ which allow improved adaptation to the drought and heat stress. In the present experiment, 11-day chickpea seedling was primed with mild drought stress and put on recovery stage by irrigating and finally 30-day seedlings were exposed to heat stress 38°C (4 hours), 35°C (8 hours) and 32°C (12 hours). To study the effect of combinatorial stress, heat and drought stress was applied simultaneously. Analyses of various physiological parameters like membrane damage assay, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative enzyme, total sugars were estimated at all stages. To study the effect of heat stress on the metabolites of the plants, GC-MS and HPLC were performed, while at transcriptional level Real-Time PCR of predicted heat stress-related genes was done. It was concluded that the heat stress significantly affected the chickpea plant at physiological and molecular level in all the five varieties. Results also show less damaging effect in primed plants by increasing the activity of antioxidative enzymes and increased expression of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors.

Keywords: chickpea, combinatorial stress, heat stress, oxidative stress, priming, RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
3141 Estimation of Stress Intensity Factors from near Crack Tip Field

Authors: Zhuang He, Andrei Kotousov

Abstract:

All current experimental methods for determination of stress intensity factors are based on the assumption that the state of stress near the crack tip is plane stress. Therefore, these methods rely on strain and displacement measurements made outside the near crack tip region affected by the three-dimensional effects or by process zone. In this paper, we develop and validate an experimental procedure for the evaluation of stress intensity factors from the measurements of the out-of-plane displacements in the surface area controlled by 3D effects. The evaluation of stress intensity factors is possible when the process zone is sufficiently small, and the displacement field generated by the 3D effects is fully encapsulated by K-dominance region.

Keywords: digital image correlation, stress intensity factors, three-dimensional effects, transverse displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
3140 The Level of Stress and Coping Stress Strategies of Young People with Profound Hearing Impairment

Authors: Anna Czyż

Abstract:

This article is focused on the issues of stress and coping with the stress of young people with profound hearing loss. Perceptional disorders, especially visual or hearing defects, are the reason of homeostasis dysfunction. Biopsychological development can become poor. A substitute reality is formed as a result of compensatory activities of other senses. The hearing disorder itself is a stress-inducing factor, affecting the quality of human functioning. In addition, the limitations of perceptual capabilities in the context of the functioning environment can contribute to increasing the amount of stressors, as well as the specific sensitivity to the stressors, and the use of specific strategies to overcome the difficulties. The appropriate study was conducted on a sample of 92 students, aged 16 -19 years old, 43 females, 49 males. For diagnostic purposes, the standardized psychological' research tools were used. The level of the stress and the strategies of coping with the stress were evaluated. The results of the research indicate that level of the stress is indifferent. The most frequently chosen strategies for coping with the stress in the sample are concentrated on 1) acceptation, 2) 'doing something different', 3) searching of emotional supporting, 4) searching of instrumental supporting, and the factors (grouped items) of coping with the stress are concentrated on 1) searching of support, 2) acceptance. The relationships in both male and female research groups were specified. Also the relationships between the highlighted variables were determined.

Keywords: cooping stress, deaf, hearing impairment, quality of life, stress, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 143