Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4865

Search results for: blended learning

4865 Blended Learning through Google Classroom

Authors: Lee Bih Ni

Abstract:

This paper discusses that good learning involves all academic groups in the school. Blended learning is learning outside the classroom. Google Classroom is a free service learning app for schools, non-profit organizations and anyone with a personal Google account. Facilities accessed through computers and mobile phones are very useful for school teachers and students. Blended learning classrooms using both traditional and technology-based methods for teaching have become the norm for many educators. Using Google Classroom gives students access to online learning. Even if the teacher is not in the classroom, the teacher can provide learning. This is the supervision of the form of the teacher when the student is outside the school.

Keywords: blended learning, learning app, google classroom, schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
4864 Investigating the Experiences of Higher Education Academics on the Blended Approach Used during the Induction Course

Authors: Ann-May Marais

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South African higher education institutions are following the global adoption of a blended approach to teaching and learning. Blended learning is viewed as a transformative teaching-learning approach, as it provides students with the optimum experience by mixing the best of face-to-face and online learning. Although academics realise the benefits of blended learning, they find it challenging and time-consuming to implement blended strategies. Professional development is a critical component of the adoption of higher education teaching-learning approaches. The Institutional course for higher education academics offered at a South African University was designed in a blended model, implemented and evaluated. This paper reports on a study that investigated the experiences of academics on the blended approach used during the induction course. A qualitative design-based research methodology was employed, and data was collected using participant feedback and document analysis. The data gathered from each of the four ICNL offerings were used to inform the design of the next course. Findings indicated that lecturers realised that blended learning could cater to student diversity, different learning styles, engagement, and innovation. Furthermore, it emerged that the course has to cater for diversity in technology proficiency and readiness of participants. Participants also require ongoing support in technology usage and discipline-specific blended learning workshops. This paper contends that the modelling of a blended approach to professional development can be an effective way to motivate academics to apply blended learning in their teaching-learning experiences.

Keywords: blended learning, professional development, induction course, integration of technology

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4863 The Design of the Blended Learning System via E-Media and Online Learning for the Asynchronous Learning: Case Study of Process Management Subject

Authors: Pimploi Tirastittam, Suppara Charoenpoom

Abstract:

Nowadays the asynchronous learning has granted the permission to the anywhere and anything learning via the technology and E-media which give the learner more convenient. This research is about the design of the blended and online learning for the asynchronous learning of the process management subject in order to create the prototype of this subject asynchronous learning which will create the easiness and increase capability in the learning. The pattern of learning is the integration between the in-class learning and online learning via the internet. This research is mainly focused on the online learning and the online learning can be divided into 5 parts which are virtual classroom, online content, collaboration, assessment and reference material. After the system design was finished, it was evaluated and tested by 5 experts in blended learning design and 10 students which the user’s satisfaction level is good. The result is as good as the assumption so the system can be used in the process management subject for a real usage.

Keywords: blended learning, asynchronous learning, design, process management

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4862 The Determinants of Senior Students, Behavioral Intention on the Blended E-Learning for the Ceramics Teaching Course at the Active Aging University

Authors: Horng-Jyh Chen, Yi-Fang Chen, Chien-Liang Lin

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors try to investigate the determinants of behavioral intention of the blended e-learning course for senior students at the Active Ageing University in Taiwan. Due to lower proficiency in the use of computers and less experience on learning styles of the blended e-learning course for senior students will be expected quite different from those for most young students. After more than five weeks course for two years the questionnaire survey is executed to collect data for statistical analysis in order to understand the determinants of the behavioral intention for senior students. The object of this study is at one of the Active Ageing University in Taiwan total of 84 senior students in the blended e-learning for the ceramics teaching course. The research results show that only the perceived usefulness of the blended e-learning course has significant positive relationship with the behavioral intention.

Keywords: Active Aging University, blended e-learning, ceramics teaching course, behavioral intention

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4861 Blended Learning and English Language Teaching: Instructors' Perceptions and Aspirations

Authors: Rasha Alshaye

Abstract:

Blended learning has become an innovative model that combines face-to-face with e-learning approaches. The Saudi Electronic University (SEU) has adopted blended learning as a flexible approach that provides instructors and learners with a motivating learning environment to stimulate the teaching and learning process. This study investigates the perceptions of English language instructors, teaching the four English language skills at Saudi Electronic University. Four main domains were examined in this study; challenges that the instructors encounter while implementing the blended learning approach, enhancing student-instructor interaction, flexibility in teaching, and the lack of technical skills. Furthermore, the study identifies and represents the instructors’ aspirations and plans to utilize this approach in enhancing the teaching and learning experience. Main findings indicate that instructors at Saudi Electronic University experience some challenges while teaching the four language skills. However, they find the blended learning approach motivating and flexible for them and their students. This study offers some important understandings into how instructors are applying the blended learning approach and how this process can be enriched.

Keywords: blended learning, English language skills, English teaching, instructors' perceptions

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4860 WhatsApp as Part of a Blended Learning Model to Help Programming Novices

Authors: Tlou J. Ramabu

Abstract:

Programming is one of the challenging subjects in the field of computing. In the higher education sphere, some programming novices’ performance, retention rate, and success rate are not improving. Most of the time, the problem is caused by the slow pace of learning, difficulty in grasping the syntax of the programming language and poor logical skills. More importantly, programming forms part of major subjects within the field of computing. As a result, specialized pedagogical methods and innovation are highly recommended. Little research has been done on the potential productivity of the WhatsApp platform as part of a blended learning model. In this article, the authors discuss the WhatsApp group as a part of blended learning model incorporated for a group of programming novices. We discuss possible administrative activities for productive utilisation of the WhatsApp group on the blended learning overview. The aim is to take advantage of the popularity of WhatsApp and the time students spend on it for their educational purpose. We believe that blended learning featuring a WhatsApp group may ease novices’ cognitive load and strengthen their foundational programming knowledge and skills. This is a work in progress as the proposed blended learning model with WhatsApp incorporated is yet to be implemented.

Keywords: blended learning, higher education, WhatsApp, programming, novices, lecturers

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4859 Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Public School During Covid-19: A Way Forward

Authors: Sumaira Taj

Abstract:

Blended learning is emerged as a prerequisite approach for teaching in all schools after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, how much public elementary and secondary schools in Pakistan are ready for adapting this approach and what should be done to prepare schools and students for blended learning are the questions that this paper attempts to answer. Mixed-method research methodology was used to collect data from 40 teachers, 500 students, and 10 mothers. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze quantitative data. As for as readiness is concerned, schools lack resources for blended/ virtual/ online classes from infra-structure to skills, parents’ literacy level hindered students’ learning process and teachers’ skills presented challenges in a smooth and swift shift of the schools from face-to-face learning to blended learning. It is recommended to establish a conducive environment in schools by providing all required resources and skills. Special trainings should be organized for low literacy level parents. Multiple ways should be adopted to benefit all students.

Keywords: blended learning, challenges in online classes, education in covid-19, public schools in pakistan

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4858 Approaches and Strategies Used to Increase Student Engagement in Blended Learning Courses

Authors: Pinar Ozdemir Ayber, Zeina Hojeij

Abstract:

Blended Learning (BL) is a rapidly growing teaching and learning approach, which brings together the best of both face-to-face and online learning to expand learning opportunities for students. However, there is limited research on the practices, opportunities and quality of instruction in Blended Classrooms, and on the role of the teaching faculty as well as the learners in these types of classes. This paper will highlight the researchers’ experiences and reflections on blending their classes. It will focus on the importance of designing effective lesson plans that emphasize learner engagement and motivation in alignment with course learning outcomes. In addition, it will identify the changing roles of the teacher and the learners and suggest appropriate variations to the traditional classroom setting taking into consideration the benefits and the challenges of the Blended Classroom. It is hoped that this paper would provide sufficient input for participants to reflect on ways they can blend their own lessons to promote ubiquitous learning and student autonomy. Practical tips and ideas will be shared with the participants on various strategies and technologies that were used in the researchers’ classes.

Keywords: blended learning, learner autonomy, learner engagement, learner motivation, mobile learning tools

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4857 Improving Listening Comprehension for EFL Pre-Intermediate Students through a Blended Learning Strategy

Authors: Heba Mustafa Abdullah

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The research aimed at examining the effect of using a suggested blended learning (BL) strategy on developing EFL pre- intermediate students. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design. The sample of the research consisted of a group of 26 EFL pre- intermediate students. Tools of the study included a listening comprehension checklist and a pre-post listening comprehension test. Results were discussed in relation to several factors that affected the language learning process. Finally, the research provided beneficial contributions in relation to manipulating BL strategy with respect to language learning process in general and oral language learning in particular.

Keywords: blended learning, english as a foreign language, listening comprehension, oral language instruction

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4856 A Design of the Infrastructure and Computer Network for Distance Education, Online Learning via New Media, E-Learning and Blended Learning

Authors: Sumitra Nuanmeesri

Abstract:

The research focus on study, analyze and design the model of the infrastructure and computer networks for distance education, online learning via new media, e-learning and blended learning. The collected information from study and analyze process that information was evaluated by the index of item objective congruence (IOC) by 9 specialists to design model. The results of evaluate the model with the mean and standard deviation by the sample of 9 specialists value is 3.85. The results showed that the infrastructure and computer networks are designed to be appropriate to a great extent appropriate to a great extent.

Keywords: blended learning, new media, infrastructure and computer network, tele-education, online learning

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4855 The Factors Affecting the Use of Massive Open Online Courses in Blended Learning by Lecturers in Universities

Authors: Taghreed Alghamdi, Wendy Hall, David Millard

Abstract:

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have recently gained widespread interest in the academic world, starting a wide range of discussion of a number of issues. One of these issues, using MOOCs in teaching and learning in the higher education by integrating MOOCs’ contents with traditional face-to-face activities in blended learning format, is called blended MOOCs (bMOOCs) and is intended not to replace traditional learning but to enhance students learning. Most research on MOOCs has focused on students’ perception and institutional threats whereas there is a lack of published research on academics’ experiences and practices. Thus, the first aim of the study is to develop a classification of blended MOOCs models by conducting a systematic literature review, classifying 19 different case studies, and identifying the broad types of bMOOCs models namely: Supplementary Model and Integrated Model. Thus, the analyses phase will emphasize on these different types of bMOOCs models in terms of adopting MOOCs by lecturers. The second aim of the study is to improve the understanding of lecturers’ acceptance of bMOOCs by investigate the factors that influence academics’ acceptance of using MOOCs in traditional learning by distributing an online survey to lecturers who participate in MOOCs platforms. These factors can help institutions to encourage their lecturers to integrate MOOCs with their traditional courses in universities.

Keywords: acceptance, blended learning, blended MOOCs, higher education, lecturers, MOOCs, professors

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4854 The Use of Active Methodologies as a Means to Promote Autonomy and Motivation in English as a Foreign Language High School Students

Authors: Danielle Guerra, Marden Silva

Abstract:

The use of active methodologies in the teaching of English has been widely encouraged recently, due to its potential to create propitious conditions for the learners to develop autonomy and studying skills that tend to keep them motivated throughout the learning process. The constant use of technology by the students makes it possible to implement strategies such as blended learning, which blends regular classes with online instruction and practice. (Horn and Staker, 2015) For that reason, the aim of this study was to implement the blended approach in a High School second-grade English class in Brazil, in order to analyze the impacts of this methodology on the students' autonomy. The teacher's role was that of a mediator, being responsible for selecting the best resources for students to study with, and also for helping them with questions when necessary. The results show that taking learner characteristics and learning experiences into account and allowing the students to follow their learning paths at their own pace was crucial to promoting engagement that led to the desired outcomes. In conclusion, the research shows that blended learning is a helpful strategy to foster autonomy and promote motivation in EFL students.

Keywords: active methodologies, autonomy, blended learning, motivation

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4853 Preservice EFL Teachers in a Blended Professional Development Program: Learning to Teach Speech Acts

Authors: Mei-Hui Liu

Abstract:

This study examines the effectiveness of a blended professional development program on preservice EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers’ learning to teach speech acts with the advent of Information and Communication Technology, researchers and scholars underscore the significance of integrating online and face-to-face learning opportunities in the teacher education field. Yet, a paucity of evidence has been documented to investigate the extent to which such a blended professional learning model may impact real classroom practice and student learning outcome. This yearlong project involves various stakeholders, including 25 preservice teachers, 5 English professionals, and 45 secondary school students. Multiple data sources collected are surveys, interviews, reflection journals, online discussion messages, artifacts, and discourse completion tests. Relying on the theoretical lenses of Community of Inquiry, data analysis depicts the nature and process of preservice teachers’ professional development in this blended learning community, which triggers and fosters both face-to-face and synchronous/asynchronous online interactions among preservice teachers and English professionals (i.e., university faculty and in-service teachers). Also included is the student learning outcome after preservice teachers put what they learn from the support community into instructional practice. Pedagogical implications and research suggestions are further provided based on the research findings and limitations.

Keywords: blended professional development, preservice EFL teachers, speech act instruction, student learning outcome

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4852 Using Educational Gaming as a Blended Learning Tool in South African Education

Authors: Maroonisha Maharajh

Abstract:

Based on the Black Swan and Disruptive Innovation Theories, this study proposes an educational game based learning model within the context of the traditional classroom learning environment. In the proposed model, the perceived e-learning component is decomposed into accessibility, perceived quality and perceived usability within the traditional rural classroom environment. A sample of 92 respondents took part in this study. The results suggest that users’ continuance intention is determined by both economic and grassroots internet accessibility, which in turn is jointly determined by perceived usefulness, information quality, service quality, system quality, perceived ease of use and cognitive absorption of learning.

Keywords: blended learning, flipped classroom, e-learning, gaming

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4851 Online or Offline: A Pilot Study of Blended Ear-Training Course

Authors: Monika Benedek

Abstract:

This paper intends to present a pilot study of blended ear-training course at a Finnish university. The course ran for ten weeks and included both traditional (offline) group lessons for 90 minutes each week and an online learning platform. Twelve students majored in musicology and music education participated in the course. The aims of pilot research were to develop a new blended ear-training course at university level, to determine the ideal amount of workload in each part of the blended instruction (offline and online) and to develop the course material. The course material was selected from the Classical period in order to develop students’ aural skills together with their stylistic knowledge. Students were asked to provide written feedback of the course content and learning approaches of face-to-face group lessons and online learning platform each week during the course. Therefore, the teaching material is continuously planned for each week. This qualitative data collection and weekly analysis of data are on progress. However, based on the teacher-researcher’s experiences and the students’ feedback already collected, it could be seen that the blended instruction would be an ideal teaching strategy for ear-trainging at the music programmes of universities to develop students’ aural skills and stylistic knowledge. It is also presumed that such blended instruction with less workload would already improve university students’ aural skills and related musicianship skills. The preliminary findings of research also indicated that students generally found those ear-training tasks the most useful to learn online that combined listening, singing, singing and playing an instrument. This paper intends to summarise the final results of the pilot study.

Keywords: blended-learning, ear-training, higher music education, online-learning, pilot study

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4850 Investigating the Potential of a Blended Format for the Academic Reading Module Course Redesign

Authors: Reham Niazi, Marwa Helmy, Susanne Rizzo

Abstract:

This classroom action research is designed to explore the possibility of adding effective online content to supplement and add learning value to the current reading module. The aim of this research was two-fold, first to investigate students’ acceptance of and interactivity with online components, chosen to orient students with the content, and to pave the way for more in-class activities and skill practice. Secondly, the instructor aimed to examine students’ willingness to have the course contact hours remain the same with some online components to be done at home (flipped approach) or if students were open to turn the class into a blended format with two scenarios; either to have the current contact hours and apply the blended and in this case the face to face component will be less or keep the number of face to face classes the same and add more online structured classes as part of the course hours.

Keywords: blended learning, flipped classroom, graduate students, education

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4849 The Implementation of Self-Determination Theory on the Opportunities and Challenges for Blended E-Learning in Motivating Egyptian Logistics Learners

Authors: Aisha Noour, Nick Hubbard

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Learner motivation is considered an important premise for the Blended e-Learning (BL) method. BL is an effective learning method in multiple domains, which opens several opportunities for its participants to engage in the learning environment. This research explores the learners’ perspective of BL according to the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). It identifies the opportunities and challenges for using the BL in Logistics Education (LE) in Egyptian Higher Education (HE). SDT is approached from different perspectives within the relationship between Intrinsic Motivation (IM), Extrinsic Motivation (EM) and Amotivation (AM). A self-administered face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect data from learners who were geographically widely spread around three colleges of International Transport and Logistics (CILTs) at the Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport (AAST&MT) in Egypt. Six hundred and sixteen undergraduates responded to a questionnaire survey. Respondents were drawn from three branches in Greater Cairo, Alexandria, and Port Said. The data analysis used was SPSS 22 and AMOS 18.

Keywords: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation, blended e-learning, Self Determination Theory

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4848 Students' Statistical Reasoning and Attitudes towards Statistics in Blended Learning, E-Learning and On-Campus Learning

Authors: Petros Roussos

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The present study focused on students' statistical reasoning related to Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing and p-values. Its objective was to test the hypothesis that neither the place (classroom, at a distance, online) nor the medium that actually supports the learning (ICT, internet, books) has an effect on understanding of statistical concepts. In addition, it was expected that students' attitudes towards statistics would not predict understanding of statistical concepts. The sample consisted of 385 undergraduate and postgraduate students from six state and private universities (five in Greece and one in Cyprus). Students were administered two questionnaires: a) the Greek version of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics, and b) a short instrument which measures students' understanding of statistical significance and p-values. Results suggest that attitudes towards statistics do not predict students' understanding of statistical concepts, whereas the medium did not have an effect.

Keywords: attitudes towards statistics, blended learning, e-learning, statistical reasoning

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4847 An Appraisal of Blended Learning Approach for English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia

Authors: H. Alqunayeer, S. Zamir

Abstract:

Blended learning, an ideal amalgamation of online learning and face to face traditional approach is a new approach that may result in outstanding outcomes in the realm of teaching and learning. The dexterity and effectiveness offered by e-learning experience cannot be guaranteed in a traditional classroom, whereas one-to-one interaction the essential element of learning that can only be found in a traditional classroom. In recent years, a spectacular expansion in the incorporation of technology in language teaching and learning is observed in many universities of Saudi Arabia. Some universities recognize the importance of blending face-to-face with online instruction in language pedagogy, Qassim University is one of the many universities adopting Blackboard Learning Management system (LMS). The university has adopted this new mode of teaching/learning in year 2015. Although the experience is immature; however great pedagogical transformations are anticipated in the university through this new approach. This paper examines the role of blended language learning with particular reference to the influence of Blackboard Learning Management System on the development of English language learning for EFL learners registered in Bachelors of English language program. This paper aims at exploring three main areas: (i) the present status of Blended learning in the educational process in Saudi Arabia especially in Qassim University by providing a survey report on the number of training courses on Blackboard LMS conducted for the male and female teachers at various colleges of Qassim University, (ii) a survey on teachers perception about the utility, application and the outcome of using blended Learning approach in teaching English language skills courses, (iii) the students’ views on the efficiency of Blended learning approach in learning English language skills courses. Besides, analysis of students’ limitations and challenges related to the experience of blended learning via Blackboard, the suggestion and recommendations offered by the language learners have also been thought-out. The study is empirical in nature. In order to gather data on the afore mentioned areas survey questionnaire method has been used: in order to study students’ perception, a 5 point Likert-scale questionnaire has been distributed to 200 students of English department registered in Bachelors in English program (level 5 through level 8). Teachers’ views have been surveyed with the help of interviewing 25 EFL teachers skilled in using Blackboard LMS in their lectures. In order to ensure the validity and reliability of questionnaire, the inter-rater approach and Cronbach’s Alpha analysis have been used respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used to analyze the students’ perception about the productivity of the Blended approach in learning English language skills. The analysis of feedback by Saudi teachers and students about the usefulness, ingenuity, and productivity of Blended Learning via Blackboard LMS highlights the need of encouraging and expanding the implementation of this new approach into the field of English language teaching in Saudi Arabia, in order to augment congenial learning aura. Furthermore, it is hoped that the propositions and practical suggestions offered by the study will be functional for other similar learning environments.

Keywords: blended learning, black board learning management system, English as foreign language (EFL) learners, EFL teachers

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4846 Effects of Research-Based Blended Learning Model Using Adaptive Scaffolding to Enhance Graduate Students' Research Competency and Analytical Thinking Skills

Authors: Panita Wannapiroon, Prachyanun Nilsook

Abstract:

This paper is a report on the findings of a Research and Development (R&D) aiming to develop the model of Research-Based Blended Learning Model Using Adaptive Scaffolding (RBBL-AS) to enhance graduate students’ research competency and analytical thinking skills, to study the result of using such model. The sample consisted of 10 experts in the fields during the model developing stage, while there were 23 graduate students of KMUTNB for the RBBL-AS model try out stage. The research procedures included 4 phases: 1) literature review, 2) model development, 3) model experiment, and 4) model revision and confirmation. The research results were divided into 3 parts according to the procedures as described in the following session. First, the data gathering from the literature review were reported as a draft model; followed by the research finding from the experts’ interviews indicated that the model should be included 8 components to enhance graduate students’ research competency and analytical thinking skills. The 8 components were 1) cloud learning environment, 2) Ubiquitous Cloud Learning Management System (UCLMS), 3) learning courseware, 4) learning resources, 5) adaptive Scaffolding, 6) communication and collaboration tolls, 7) learning assessment, and 8) research-based blended learning activity. Second, the research finding from the experimental stage found that there were statistically significant difference of the research competency and analytical thinking skills posttest scores over the pretest scores at the .05 level. The Graduate students agreed that learning with the RBBL-AS model was at a high level of satisfaction. Third, according to the finding from the experimental stage and the comments from the experts, the developed model was revised and proposed in the report for further implication and references.

Keywords: research based learning, blended learning, adaptive scaffolding, research competency, analytical thinking skills

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4845 Motivating the Independent Learner at the Arab Open University, Kuwait Branch

Authors: Hassan Sharafuddin, Chekra Allani

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Academicians at the Arab Open University have always voiced their concern about the efficacy of the blended learning process. Based on 75% independent study and 25% face-to-face tutorial, it poses the challenge of the predisposition to adjustment. Being used to the psychology of traditional educational systems, AOU students cannot be easily weaned from being spoon-fed. Hence they lack the motivation to plunge into self-study. For better involvement of AOU students into the learning practices, it is imperative to diagnose the factors that impede or increase their motivation. This is conducted through an empirical study grounded upon observations and tested hypothesis and aimed at monitoring and optimizing the students’ learning outcome. Recommendations of the research will follow the findings.

Keywords: academic performance, blended learning, educational psychology, independent study, pedagogy

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4844 Outcome-Based Education as Mediator of the Effect of Blended Learning on the Student Performance in Statistics

Authors: Restituto I. Rodelas

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The higher education has adopted the outcomes-based education from K-12. In this approach, the teacher uses any teaching and learning strategies that enable the students to achieve the learning outcomes. The students may be required to exert more effort and figure things out on their own. Hence, outcomes-based students are assumed to be more responsible and more capable of applying the knowledge learned. Another approach that the higher education in the Philippines is starting to adopt from other countries is blended learning. This combination of classroom and fully online instruction and learning is expected to be more effective. Participating in the online sessions, however, is entirely up to the students. Thus, the effect of blended learning on the performance of students in Statistics may be mediated by outcomes-based education. If there is a significant positive mediating effect, then blended learning can be optimized by integrating outcomes-based education. In this study, the sample will consist of four blended learning Statistics classes at Jose Rizal University in the second semester of AY 2015–2016. Two of these classes will be assigned randomly to the experimental group that will be handled using outcomes-based education. The two classes in the control group will be handled using the traditional lecture approach. Prior to the discussion of the first topic, a pre-test will be administered. The same test will be given as posttest after the last topic is covered. In order to establish equality of the groups’ initial knowledge, single factor ANOVA of the pretest scores will be performed. Single factor ANOVA of the posttest-pretest score differences will also be conducted to compare the performance of the experimental and control groups. When a significant difference is obtained in any of these ANOVAs, post hoc analysis will be done using Tukey's honestly significant difference test (HSD). Mediating effect will be evaluated using correlation and regression analyses. The groups’ initial knowledge are equal when the result of pretest scores ANOVA is not significant. If the result of score differences ANOVA is significant and the post hoc test indicates that the classes in the experimental group have significantly different scores from those in the control group, then outcomes-based education has a positive effect. Let blended learning be the independent variable (IV), outcomes-based education be the mediating variable (MV), and score difference be the dependent variable (DV). There is mediating effect when the following requirements are satisfied: significant correlation of IV to DV, significant correlation of IV to MV, significant relationship of MV to DV when both IV and MV are predictors in a regression model, and the absolute value of the coefficient of IV as sole predictor is larger than that when both IV and MV are predictors. With a positive mediating effect of outcomes-base education on the effect of blended learning on student performance, it will be recommended to integrate outcomes-based education into blended learning. This will yield the best learning results.

Keywords: outcome-based teaching, blended learning, face-to-face, student-centered

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4843 Flipped Classroom in Bioethics Education: A Blended and Interactive Online Learning Courseware that Enhances Active Learning and Student Engagement

Authors: Molly Pui Man Wong

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In this presentation, a blended and interactive e-learning Courseware that our team developed will be introduced, and our team’s experiences on how the e-learning Courseware and the flipped classroom benefit student learning in bioethics in the medical program will be shared. First, a series of animated videos introducing selected topics of bioethics and related issues will be introduced. Then, a set of problem-based learning videos (“simulated doctor-patient role play”) along with discussion questions and online platforms will be showcased. These activities introduced by our Courseware enable students to engage in the learning of bioethics, reproductive technologies and medical advancement technology and enhance their creativity. Moreover, the educational benefits of the online art exhibition, art jamming and competition will be discussed, through which students could express bioethics through arts and enrich their learning in medical research in an interactive, fun and entertaining way, strengthening their interests in bioethics. Furthermore, online survey questionnaires and focus group interviews were conducted. Through the use of this e-learning Courseware in a flipped-classroom approach, we observed that students engaged more actively in classes and that students found learning bioethics more fun and interesting. Taken together, our Courseware strengthens education in art, bioethics and medicine, significantly raises students’ awareness of socio-ethical concerns from the advancement of medical technology and provides a useful learning tool in medical teaching.

Keywords: bioethics, courseware, e-learning, flipped classroom

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4842 Project Work with Design Thinking and Blended Learning: A Practical Report from Teaching in Higher Education

Authors: C. Vogeler

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Change processes such as individualization and digitalization have an impact on higher education. Graduates are expected to cooperate in creative work processes in their professional life. During their studies, they need to be prepared accordingly. This includes modern learning scenarios that integrate the benefits of digital media. Therefore, design thinking and blended learning have been combined in the project-based seminar conception introduced here. The presented seminar conception has been realized and evaluated with students of information sciences since September 2017. Within the seminar, the students learn to work on a project. They apply the methods in a problem-based learning scenario. Task of the case study is to arrange a conference on the topic gaming in libraries. In order to collaborative develop creative possibilities of realization within the group of students the design thinking method has been chosen. Design thinking is a method, used to create user-centric, problem-solving and need-driven innovation through creative collaboration in multidisciplinary teams. Central characteristics are the openness of this approach to work results and the visualization of ideas. This approach is now also accepted in the field of higher education. Especially in problem-based learning scenarios, the method offers clearly defined process steps for creative ideas and their realization. The creative process can be supported by digital media, such as search engines and tools for the documentation of brainstorming, creation of mind maps, project management etc. Because the students have to do two-thirds of the workload in their private study, design thinking has been combined with a blended learning approach. This supports students’ preparation and follow-up of the joint work in workshops (flipped classroom scenario) as well as the communication and collaboration during the entire project work phase. For this purpose, learning materials are provided on a Moodle-based learning platform as well as various tools that supported the design thinking process as described above. In this paper, the seminar conception with a combination of design thinking and blended learning is described and the potentials and limitations of the chosen strategy for the development of a course with a multimedia approach in higher education are reflected.

Keywords: blended learning, design thinking, digital media tools and methods, flipped classroom

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4841 Teaching for Knowledge Transfer: Best Practices from a Graduate-Level Educational Psychology Distance Learning Program

Authors: Bobby Hoffman

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One measure of effective instruction is the ability to solve authentic, real-world problems by effectively transferring and applying classroom and textbook knowledge. While many students can productively earn high grades and learn course content, they are not always able to apply the knowledge they gain. As such, this quasi-experimental study compared the comprehensive exit exam results of learners across instructional modalities who completed a prominent graduate-level educational psychology program. ANCOVA revealed superior knowledge transfer for blended-learning students compared to those who completed distance education and significantly greater transfer of declarative, procedural, and self-regulatory knowledge by the blended-learning students. This paper briefly summarizes the study results while highlighting evidence-based programmatic and course level modifications that were implemented to specifically address the transfer of learning and practical application of educational psychology knowledge.

Keywords: assessment, distance learning, educational psychology, knowledge transfer

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4840 The Impact of Blended Learning on Developing the students' Writing Skills and the Perception of Instructors and Students: Hawassa University in Focus

Authors: Mulu G. Gencha, Gebremedhin Simon, Menna Olango

Abstract:

This study was conducted at Hawassa University (HwU) in the Southern Nation Nationalities Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS) of Ethiopia. The prime concern of this study was to examine the writing performances of experimental and control group students, perception of experimental group students, and subject instructors. The course was blended learning (BL). Blended learning is a hybrid of classroom and on-line learning. Participants were eighty students from the School of Computer Science. Forty students attended the BL delivery involved using Face-to-Face (FTF) and campus-based online instruction. All instructors, fifty, of School of Language and Communication Studies along with 10 FGD members participated in the study. The experimental group went to the computer lab two times a week for four months, March-June, 2012, using the local area network (LAN), and software (MOODLE) writing program. On the other hand, the control group, forty students, took the FTF writing course five times a week for four months in similar academic calendar. The three instruments, the attitude questionnaire, tests and FGD were designed to identify views of students, instructors, and FGD participants on BL. At the end of the study, students’ final course scores were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests. A statistically, significant difference was found between the FTF and BL (p<0.05). The analysis showed that the BL group was more successful than the conventional group. Besides, both instructors and students had positive attitude towards BL. The final section of the thesis showed the potential benefits and challenges, considering the pedagogical implications for the BL, and recommended possible avenues for further works.

Keywords: blended learning, computer attitudes, computer usefulness, computer liking, computer confidence, computer phobia

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4839 Blended Learning Instructional Approach to Teach Pharmaceutical Calculations

Authors: Sini George

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Active learning pedagogies are valued for their success in increasing 21st-century learners’ engagement, developing transferable skills like critical thinking or quantitative reasoning, and creating deeper and more lasting educational gains. 'Blended learning' is an active learning pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter. This project aimed to develop a blended learning instructional approach to teaching concepts around pharmaceutical calculations to year 1 pharmacy students. The wrong dose, strength or frequency of a medication accounts for almost a third of medication errors in the NHS therefore, progression to year 2 requires a 70% pass in this calculation test, in addition to the standard progression requirements. Many students were struggling to achieve this requirement in the past. It was also challenging to teach these concepts to students of a large class (> 130) with mixed mathematical abilities, especially within a traditional didactic lecture format. Therefore, short screencasts with voice-over of the lecturer were provided in advance of a total of four teaching sessions (two hours/session), incorporating core content of each session and talking through how they approached the calculations to model metacognition. Links to the screencasts were posted on the learning management. Viewership counts were used to determine that the students were indeed accessing and watching the screencasts on schedule. In the classroom, students had to apply the knowledge learned beforehand to a series of increasingly difficult set of questions. Students were then asked to create a question in group settings (two students/group) and to discuss the questions created by their peers in their groups to promote deep conceptual learning. Students were also given time for question-and-answer period to seek clarifications on the concepts covered. Student response to this instructional approach and their test grades were collected. After collecting and organizing the data, statistical analysis was carried out to calculate binomial statistics for the two data sets: the test grade for students who received blended learning instruction and the test grades for students who received instruction in a standard lecture format in class, to compare the effectiveness of each type of instruction. Student response and their performance data on the assessment indicate that the learning of content in the blended learning instructional approach led to higher levels of student engagement, satisfaction, and more substantial learning gains. The blended learning approach enabled each student to learn how to do calculations at their own pace freeing class time for interactive application of this knowledge. Although time-consuming for an instructor to implement, the findings of this research demonstrate that the blended learning instructional approach improves student academic outcomes and represents a valuable method to incorporate active learning methodologies while still maintaining broad content coverage. Satisfaction with this approach was high, and we are currently developing more pharmacy content for delivery in this format.

Keywords: active learning, blended learning, deep conceptual learning, instructional approach, metacognition, pharmaceutical calculations

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4838 Disruptions to Medical Education during COVID-19: Perceptions and Recommendations from Students at the University of the West, Indies, Jamaica

Authors: Charléa M. Smith, Raiden L. Schodowski, Arletty Pinel

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Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Faculty of Medical Sciences of The University of the West Indies (UWI) Mona in Kingston, Jamaica, had to rapidly migrate to digital and blended learning. Students in the preclinical stage of the program transitioned to full-time online learning, while students in the clinical stage experienced decreased daily patient contact and the implementation of a blend of online lectures and virtual clinical practice. Such sudden changes were coupled with the institutional pressure of the need to introduce a novel approach to education without much time for preparation, as well as additional strain endured by the faculty, who were overwhelmed by serving as frontline workers. During the period July 20 to August 23, 2021, this study surveyed preclinical and clinical students to capture their experiences with these changes and their recommendations for future use of digital modalities of learning to enhance medical education. It was conducted with a fellow student of the 2021 cohort of the MultiPod mentoring program. A questionnaire was developed and distributed digitally via WhatsApp to all medical students of the UWI Mona campus to assess students’ experiences and perceptions of the advantages, challenges, and impact on individual knowledge proficiencies brought about by the transition to predominantly digital learning environments. 108 students replied, 53.7% preclinical and 46.3% clinical. 67.6% of the total were female and 30.6 % were male; 1.8% did not identify themselves by gender. 67.2% of preclinical students preferred blended learning and 60.3% considered that the content presented did not prepare them for clinical work. Only 31% considered that the online classes were interactive and encouraged student participation. 84.5% missed socialization with classmates and friends and 79.3% missed a focused environment for learning. 80% of the clinical students felt that they had not learned all that they expected and only 34% had virtual interaction with patients, mostly by telephone and video calls. Observing direct consultations was considered the most useful, yet this was the least-used modality. 96% of the preclinical students and 100% of the clinical ones supplemented their learning with additional online tools. The main recommendations from the survey are the use of interactive teaching strategies, more discussion time with lecturers, and increased virtual interactions with patients. Universities are returning to face-to-face learning, yet it is unlikely that blended education will disappear. This study demonstrates that students’ perceptions of their experience during mobility restrictions must be taken into consideration in creating more effective, inclusive, and efficient blended learning opportunities.

Keywords: blended learning, digital learning, medical education, student perceptions

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4837 Blended Learning in a Mathematics Classroom: A Focus in Khan Academy

Authors: Sibawu Witness Siyepu

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This study explores the effects of instructional design using blended learning in the learning of radian measures among Engineering students. Blended learning is an education programme that combines online digital media with traditional classroom methods. It requires the physical presence of both lecturer and student in a mathematics computer laboratory. Blended learning provides element of class control over time, place, path or pace. The focus was on the use of Khan Academy to supplement traditional classroom interactions. Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organisation created by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating an accessible place for students to learn through watching videos in a computer assisted computer. The researcher who is an also lecturer in mathematics support programme collected data through instructing students to watch Khan Academy videos on radian measures, and by supplying students with traditional classroom activities. Classroom activities entails radian measure activities extracted from the Internet. Students were given an opportunity to engage in class discussions, social interactions and collaborations. These activities necessitated students to write formative assessments tests. The purpose of formative assessments tests was to find out about the students’ understanding of radian measures, including errors and misconceptions they displayed in their calculations. Identification of errors and misconceptions serve as pointers of students’ weaknesses and strengths in their learning of radian measures. At the end of data collection, semi-structure interviews were administered to a purposefully sampled group to explore their perceptions and feedback regarding the use of blended learning approach in teaching and learning of radian measures. The study employed Algebraic Insight Framework to analyse data collected. Algebraic Insight Framework is a subset of symbol sense which allows a student to correctly enter expressions into a computer assisted systems efficiently. This study offers students opportunities to enter topics and subtopics on radian measures into a computer through the lens of Khan Academy. Khan academy demonstrates procedures followed to reach solutions of mathematical problems. The researcher performed the task of explaining mathematical concepts and facilitated the process of reinvention of rules and formulae in the learning of radian measures. Lastly, activities that reinforce students’ understanding of radian were distributed. Results showed that this study enthused the students in their learning of radian measures. Learning through videos prompted the students to ask questions which brought about clarity and sense making to the classroom discussions. Data revealed that sense making through reinvention of rules and formulae assisted the students in enhancing their learning of radian measures. This study recommends the use of Khan Academy in blended learning to be introduced as a socialisation programme to all first year students. This will prepare students that are computer illiterate to become conversant with the use of Khan Academy as a powerful tool in the learning of mathematics. Khan Academy is a key technological tool that is pivotal for the development of students’ autonomy in the learning of mathematics and that promotes collaboration with lecturers and peers.

Keywords: algebraic insight framework, blended learning, Khan Academy, radian measures

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4836 E-Learning in Life-Long Learning: Best Practices from the University of the Aegean

Authors: Chryssi Vitsilaki, Apostolos Kostas, Ilias Efthymiou

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This paper presents selected best practices on online learning and teaching derived from a novel and innovating Lifelong Learning program through e-Learning, which has during the last five years been set up at the University of the Aegean in Greece. The university, capitalizing on an award-winning, decade-long experience in e-learning and blended learning in undergraduate and postgraduate studies, recently expanded into continuous education and vocational training programs in various cutting-edge fields. So, in this article we present: (a) the academic structure/infrastructure which has been developed for the administrative, organizational and educational support of the e-Learning process, including training the trainers, (b) the mode of design and implementation based on a sound pedagogical framework of open and distance education, and (c) the key results of the assessment of the e-learning process by the participants, as they are used to feedback on continuous organizational and teaching improvement and quality control.

Keywords: distance education, e-learning, life-long programs, synchronous/asynchronous learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 230