Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 636

Search results for: TV channels

636 Channels Splitting Strategy for Optical Local Area Networks of Passive Star Topology

Authors: Peristera Baziana


In this paper, we present a network configuration for a WDM LANs of passive star topology that assume that the set of data WDM channels is split into two separate sets of channels, with different access rights over them. Especially, a synchronous transmission WDMA access algorithm is adopted in order to increase the probability of successful transmission over the data channels and consequently to reduce the probability of data packets transmission cancellation in order to avoid the data channels collisions. Thus, a control pre-transmission access scheme is followed over a separate control channel. An analytical Markovian model is studied and the average throughput is mathematically derived. The performance is studied for several numbers of data channels and various values of control phase duration.

Keywords: access algorithm, channels division, collisions avoidance, wavelength division multiplexing

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635 Research and Development of Intelligent Cooling Channels Design System

Authors: Q. Niu, X. H. Zhou, W. Liu


The cooling channels of injection mould play a crucial role in determining the productivity of moulding process and the product quality. It’s not a simple task to design high quality cooling channels. In this paper, an intelligent cooling channels design system including automatic layout of cooling channels, interference checking and assembly of accessories is studied. Automatic layout of cooling channels using genetic algorithm is analyzed. Through integrating experience criteria of designing cooling channels, considering the factors such as the mould temperature and interference checking, the automatic layout of cooling channels is implemented. The method of checking interference based on distance constraint algorithm and the function of automatic and continuous assembly of accessories are developed and integrated into the system. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the intelligent design system.

Keywords: injection mould, cooling channel, intelligent design, automatic layout, interference checking

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634 Analytical Solution of Specific Energy Equation in Exponential Channels

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman


The specific energy equation has many applications in practical channels, such as exponential channels. In this paper, the governing equation of alternate depth ratio for exponential channels, in general, was investigated towards obtaining analytical solution for the alternate depth ratio in three exponential channel shapes, viz., rectangular, triangular, and parabolic channels. The alternate depth ratio for rectangular channels is quadratic; hence it is very simple to solve. While for parabolic and triangular channels, the alternate depth ratio is cubic and quartic equations, respectively, analytical solution for these equations may be achieved easily for a given Froud number. Different examples are solved to prove the efficiency of the proposed solution. Such analytical solution can be easily used in natural rivers and most of practical channels.

Keywords: alternate depth, analytical solution, specific energy, parabolic channel, rectangular channel, triangular channel, open channel flow

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633 Convective Boiling of CO₂ in Macro and Mini-Channels

Authors: Adonis Menezes, Julio C. Passos


The present work deals with the theoretical and experimental investigation of the convective boiling of CO₂ in macro and mini-channels. A review of the state of the art of convective boiling studies in mini-channels and conventional channels for operating with CO₂ was carried out, with special attention to the flow patterns and pressure drop maps in single-phase and two-phase flows. To carry out an experimental analysis of the convective boiling of CO₂, a properly instrumented experimental bench was built, which allows a parametric analysis for different thermodynamic conditions, such as mass velocities between 200 and 1300 kg/(m².s), pressures between 20 and 70bar, temperature monitoring at the entrance of the mini-channels, heat flow and pressure drop in the test section. The visualization of flow patterns was possible with the use of a high-speed CMOS camera. The results obtained are in line with those found in the literature, both for flow patterns and for the heat transfer coefficient.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, convective boiling, CO₂, mini-channels

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632 Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in a Conduit with Multiple Channels under a Magnetic Field Applied Perpendicular to the Plane of Flow

Authors: Yang Luo, Chang Nyung Kim


This study numerically analyzes a steady-state, three-dimensional liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in a conduit with multiple channels under a uniform magnetic field. The geometry of the conduit is of a four-parallel-channels system including one inflow channel and three outflow channels. The liquid-metal flows in the inflow channel, then turns 1800 in the transition segment, finally flows into three different outflow channels simultaneously. This kind of channel system can induce counter flow and co-flow, which is rarely investigated before. The axial velocity in the side layer near the first partitioning wall, which is located between the inflow channel and the first outflow channel, is the highest. ‘M-shaped’ velocity profiles are obtained in the side layers of the inflow and outflow channels. The interdependency of the current, fluid velocity, pressure, electric potential is examined in order to describe the electromagnetic characteristics of the liquid-metal flows.

Keywords: liquid-metal, multiple channels, magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic

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631 Investigation on the Cooling Performance of Cooling Channels Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting for Injection Molding

Authors: Changyong Liu, Junda Tong, Feng Xu, Ninggui Huang


In the injection molding process, the performance of cooling channels is crucial to the part quality. Through the application of conformal cooling channels fabricated via metal additive manufacturing, part distortion, warpage can be greatly reduced and cycle time can be greatly shortened. However, the properties of additively manufactured conformal cooling channels are quite different from conventional drilling processes such as the poorer dimensional accuracy and larger surface roughness. These features have significant influences on its cooling performance. In this study, test molds with the cooling channel diameters of φ2 mm, φ3 mm and φ4 mm were fabricated via selective laser melting and conventional drilling process respectively. A test system was designed and manufactured to measure the pressure difference between the channel inlet and outlet, the coolant flow rate and the temperature variation during the heating process. It was found that the cooling performance of SLM-fabricated channels was poorer than drilled cooling channels due to the smaller sectional area of cooling channels resulted from the low dimensional accuracy and the unmolten particles adhered to the channel surface. Theoretical models were established to determine the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient of SLM-fabricated cooling channels. These findings may provide guidance to the design of conformal cooling channels.

Keywords: conformal cooling channels, selective laser melting, cooling performance, injection molding

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630 Determination of Concentrated State Using Multiple EEG Channels

Authors: Tae Jin Choi, Jong Ok Kim, Sang Min Jin, Gilwon Yoon


Analysis of EEG brainwave provides information on mental or emotional states. One of the particular states that can have various applications in human machine interface (HMI) is concentration. 8-channel EEG signals were measured and analyzed. The concentration index was compared during resting and concentrating periods. Among eight channels, locations the frontal lobe (Fp1 and Fp2) showed a clear increase of the concentration index during concentration regardless of subjects. The rest six channels produced conflicting observations depending on subjects. At this time, it is not clear whether individual difference or how to concentrate made these results for the rest six channels. Nevertheless, it is expected that Fp1 and Fp2 are promising locations for extracting control signal for HMI applications.

Keywords: concentration, EEG, human machine interface, biophysical

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629 Security Over OFDM Fading Channels with Friendly Jammer

Authors: Munnujahan Ara


In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels. We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading. The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated. Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations. We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading channels in the presence of friendly jammers.

Keywords: fading parallel channels, wire-tap channel, OFDM, secrecy capacity, power allocation

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628 Achievable Average Secrecy Rates over Bank of Parallel Independent Fading Channels with Friendly Jamming

Authors: Munnujahan Ara


In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels. We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading. The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated. Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations. We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading channels in the presence of friendly jammers.

Keywords: fading parallel channels, wire-tap channel, OFDM, secrecy capacity, power allocation

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627 Numerical Analysis of Liquid Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in a Manifold with Three Sub-Channels

Authors: Meimei Wen, Chang Nyung Kim


In the current study, three-dimensional liquid metal (LM) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) flows in a manifold with three sub-channels under a uniform magnetic field are numerically investigated. In the manifold, the electrical current can cross channel walls, thus having influence on the flow distribution in each sub-channel. A case with various arrangements of electric conductivity for different parts of channel walls is considered, yielding different current distributions as well as flow distributions in each sub-channel. Here, the imbalance of mass flow rates in the three sub-channels is addressed. Meanwhile, predicted are detailed behaviors of the flow velocity, pressure, current and electric potential of LM MHD flows with three sub-channels. Commercial software CFX is used for the numerical simulation of LM MHD flows.

Keywords: CFX, liquid metal, manifold, MHD flow

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626 Effects of Structure on Density-Induced Flow in Coastal and Estuarine Navigation Channel

Authors: Shuo Huang, Huomiao Guo, Wenrui Huang


In navigation channels located in coasts and estuaries as the waterways connecting coastal water to ports or harbors, density-induced flow often exist due to the density-gradient or gravity gradient as the results of mixing between fresh water from coastal rivers and saline water in the coasts. The density-induced flow often carries sediment transport into navigation channels and causes sediment depositions in the channels. As a result, expensive dredging may need to maintain the water depth required for navigation. In our study, we conduct a series of experiments to investigate the characteristics of density-induced flow in the estuarine navigation channels under different density gradients. Empirical equations between density flow and salinity gradient were derived. Effects of coastal structures for regulating navigation channel on density-induced flow have also been investigated. Results will be very helpful for improving the understanding of the characteristics of density-induced flow in estuarine navigation channels. The results will also provide technical support for cost-effective waterway regulation and management to maintain coastal and estuarine navigation channels.

Keywords: density flow, estuarine, navigation channel, structure

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625 Assessment of Academic Knowledge Transfer Channels in Field of Environment

Authors: Jagul Huma Lashari, Arabella Bhutto


Last few years have shown increased an interest of researchers in knowledge and technology transfer. However, facts show fewer types of knowledge transfer practices in the developing countries. This article focuses on assessment transfer channels of academic research produced by highly qualified academicians working in universities in Sindh offering degrees in field of an Environment in Sindh Pakistan. The academic field has been chosen because in field of the environment there is alarming need of research into practice for sustainable development. Using case study approach; in this research qualitative interviews have been conducted from PhD faculty members working in the universities offering degrees in field of environment. Obtained data is analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test with the help of statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS). Research explored 31 channels of academic knowledge transfer from detailed review of literature and exploratory interviews with participants. Identified knowledge transfer channels have been grouped together in 6 groups of knowledge transfer channels; As knowledge transfer through publications, networking, mobility of researchers, joint research, intellectual property and co-operations. Results revealed that academic knowledge have been transferred through publications, networking, and co-operation. However, less number of academic knowledge has been transferred through groups of knowledge transfer channels such as Intellectual Property and joint research.

Keywords: environment, research knowledge, transfer channels, universities

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624 Quantification of Effect of Linear Anionic Polyacrylamide on Seepage in Irrigation Channels

Authors: Hamil Uribe, Cristian Arancibia


In Chile, the water for irrigation and hydropower generation is delivery essentially through unlined channels on earth, which have high seepage losses. Traditional seepage-abatement technologies are very expensive. The goals of this work were to quantify water loss in unlined channels and select reaches to evaluate the use of linear anionic polyacrylamide (LA-PAM) to reduce seepage losses. The study was carried out in Maule Region, central area of Chile. Water users indicated reaches with potential seepage losses, 45 km of channels in total, whose flow varied between 1.07 and 23.6 m³ s⁻¹. According to seepage measurements, 4 reaches of channels, 4.5 km in total, were selected for LA-PAM application. One to 4 LA-PAM applications were performed at rates of 11 kg ha⁻¹, considering wet perimeter area as basis of calculation. Large channels were used to allow motorboat moving against the current to carry-out LA-PAM application. For applications, a seeder machine was used to evenly distribute granulated polymer on water surface. Water flow was measured (StreamPro ADCP) upstream and downstream in selected reaches, to estimate seepage losses before and after LA-PAM application. Weekly measurements were made to quantify treatment effect and duration. In each case, water turbidity and temperature were measured. Channels showed variable losses up to 13.5%. Channels showing water gains were not treated with PAM. In all cases, LA-PAM effect was positive, achieving average loss reductions of 8% to 3.1%. Water loss was confirmed and it was possible to reduce seepage through LA-PAM applications provided that losses were known and correctly determined when applying the polymer. This could allow increasing irrigation security in critical periods, especially under drought conditions.

Keywords: canal seepage, irrigation, polyacrylamide, water management

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623 Isolation and Characterization of the First Known Inhibitor Cystine Knot Peptide in Sea Anemone: Inhibitory Activity on Acid-Sensing Ion Channels

Authors: Armando A. Rodríguez, Emilio Salceda, Anoland Garateix, André J. Zaharenko, Steve Peigneur, Omar López, Tirso Pons, Michael Richardson, Maylín Díaz, Yasnay Hernández, Ludger Ständker, Jan Tytgat, Enrique Soto


Acid-sensing ion channels are cation (Na+) channels activated by a pH drop. These proteins belong to the ENaC/degenerin superfamily of sodium channels. ASICs are involved in sensory perception, synaptic plasticity, learning, memory formation, cell migration and proliferation, nociception, and neurodegenerative disorders, among other processes; therefore those molecules that specifically target these channels are of growing pharmacological and biomedical interest. Sea anemones produce a large variety of ion channels peptide toxins; however, those acting on ligand-gated ion channels, such as Glu-gated, Ach-gated ion channels, and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), remain barely explored. The peptide PhcrTx1 is the first compound characterized from the sea anemone Phymanthus crucifer, and it constitutes a novel ASIC inhibitor. This peptide was purified by chromatographic techniques and pharmacologically characterized on acid-sensing ion channels of mammalian neurons using patch-clamp techniques. PhcrTx1 inhibited ASIC currents with an IC50 of 100 nM. Edman degradation yielded a sequence of 32 amino acids residues, with a molecular mass of 3477 Da by MALDI-TOF. No similarity to known sea anemone peptides was found in protein databases. The computational analysis of Cys-pattern and secondary structure arrangement suggested that this is a structurally ICK (Inhibitor Cystine Knot)-type peptide, a scaffold that had not been found in sea anemones but in other venomous organisms. These results show that PhcrTx1 represents the first member of a new structural group of sea anemones toxins acting on ASICs. Also, this peptide constitutes a novel template for the development of drugs against pathologies related to ASICs function.

Keywords: animal toxin, inhibitor cystine knot, ion channel, sea anemone

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622 Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Sub-Channels of Pressurized Water Reactors with Hexagonal Array: A Numerical Approach

Authors: Md. Asif Ullah, M. A. R. Sarkar


This paper illustrates 2-D and 3-D simulations of sub-channels of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) having hexagonal array of fuel rods. At a steady state, the temperature of outer surface of the cladding of fuel rod is kept about 1200°C. The temperature of this isothermal surface is taken as boundary condition for simulation. Water with temperature of 290°C is given as a coolant inlet to the primary water circuit which is pressurized upto 157 bar. Turbulent flow of pressurized water is used for heat removal. In 2-D model, temperature, velocity, pressure and Nusselt number distributions are simulated in a vertical sectional plane through the sub-channels of a hexagonal fuel rod assembly. Temperature, Nusselt number and Y-component of convective heat flux along a line in this plane near the end of fuel rods are plotted for different Reynold’s number. A comparison between X-component and Y-component of convective heat flux in this vertical plane is analyzed. Hexagonal fuel rod assembly has three types of sub-channels according to geometrical shape whose boundary conditions are different too. In 3-D model, temperature, velocity, pressure, Nusselt number, total heat flux magnitude distributions for all the three sub-channels are studied for a suitable Reynold’s number. A horizontal sectional plane is taken from each of the three sub-channels to study temperature, velocity, pressure, Nusselt number and convective heat flux distribution in it. Greater values of temperature, Nusselt number and Y-component of convective heat flux are found for greater Reynold’s number. X-component of convective heat flux is found to be non-zero near the bottom of fuel rod and zero near the end of fuel rod. This indicates that the convective heat transfer occurs totally along the direction of flow near the outlet. As, length to radius ratio of sub-channels is very high, simulation for a short length of the sub-channels are done for graphical interface advantage. For the simulations, Turbulent Flow (K-Є ) module and Heat Transfer in Fluids (ht) module of COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 5.0 are used.

Keywords: sub-channels, Reynold’s number, Nusselt number, convective heat transfer

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621 Computation of Drag and Lift Coefficients on Submerged Vanes in Open Channels

Authors: Anshul Jain, P. Deepak Kumar, P. K. S. Dikshit


To stabilize the riverbanks in the curved reaches of alluvial channels due to erosion and to stop sediment transportation, many models and theories have been put forth. One among such methods is to install flat vanes on the channel bed in predetermined manner. In practical, a relatively small no of vanes can produce bend flows which are practically uniform across the channel. The objective of the present study is to measure the drag and lift on such submerged vanes in open channels. Experiments were performed and the data collected have been presented and analyzed. Using the data collected herein, predictors for the coefficients of drag and lift have been developed. Such predictors yield the value of these coefficients for the known fluid properties and flow characteristic of the channel.

Keywords: drag, lift, vanes, open channel

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620 Mobile Traffic Management in Congested Cells using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: A. A. Balkhi, G. M. Mir, Javid A. Sheikh


To cater the demands of increasing traffic with new applications the cellular mobile networks face new changes in deployment in infrastructure for making cellular networks heterogeneous. To reduce overhead processing the densely deployed cells require smart behavior with self-organizing capabilities with high adaptation to the neighborhood. We propose self-organization of unused resources usually excessive unused channels of neighbouring cells with densely populated cells to reduce handover failure rates. The neighboring cells share unused channels after fulfilling some conditional candidature criterion using threshold values so that they are not suffered themselves for starvation of channels in case of any abrupt change in traffic pattern. The cells are classified as ‘red’, ‘yellow’, or ‘green’, as per the available channels in cell which is governed by traffic pattern and thresholds. To combat the deficiency of channels in red cell, migration of unused channels from under-loaded cells, hierarchically from the qualified candidate neighboring cells is explored. The resources are returned back when the congested cell is capable of self-contained traffic management. In either of the cases conditional sharing of resources is executed for enhanced traffic management so that User Equipment (UE) is provided uninterrupted services with high Quality of Service (QoS). The fuzzy logic-based simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is efficiently in coincidence with improved successful handoffs.

Keywords: candidate cell, channel sharing, fuzzy logic, handover, small cells

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619 An Efficient Encryption Scheme Using DWT and Arnold Transforms

Authors: Ali Abdrhman M. Ukasha


Data security needed in data transmission, storage, and communication to ensure the security. The color image is decomposed into red, green, and blue channels. The blue and green channels are compressed using 3-levels discrete wavelet transform. The Arnold transform uses to changes the locations of red image channel pixels as image scrambling process. Then all these channels are encrypted separately using a key image that has same original size and is generating using private keys and modulo operations. Performing the X-OR and modulo operations between the encrypted channels images for image pixel values change purpose. The extracted contours of color image recovery can be obtained with accepted level of distortion using Canny edge detector. Experiments have demonstrated that proposed algorithm can fully encrypt 2D color image and completely reconstructed without any distortion. It has shown that the color image can be protected with a higher security level. The presented method has easy hardware implementation and suitable for multimedia protection in real time applications such as wireless networks and mobile phone services.

Keywords: color image, wavelet transform, edge detector, Arnold transform, lossy image encryption

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618 The Image of Egypt in CNN, BBC and Al Jazeera News Channels in Terms of Democracy, Economic Status and Stability

Authors: Sarah El Mokadem


Egypt has been the focus of international media since 2011 revolution and its repercussions. By the end of 2017, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi will have finished his first term of presidency. With an upcoming presidential election, all eyes are returning back to Egypt as there are speculations about whether the current regime will uphold or change points in the constitution determining the years of presidency term and the allowed number or reelections. In this paper, the researcher examines the reports related to Egypt in three international news channels with different ideologies. The research aims to identify the frames used to portray major issues in Egypt like the economic struggle, democracy levels and stability and safety of the country. All available reports from these three channels in 2017 on YouTube were analyzed which is the year before the presidential elections.

Keywords: content analysis, Egypt, image building, news channel ideology

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617 Part Performance Improvement through Design Optimisation of Cooling Channels in the Injection Moulding Process

Authors: M. A. Alhubail, A. I. Alateyah, D. Alenezi, B. Aldousiri


In this study conformal cooling channel (CCC) was employed to dissipate heat of, Polypropylene (PP) parts injected into the Stereolithography (SLA) insert to form tensile and flexural test specimens. The direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to fabricate a mould with optimised CCC, while optimum parameters of injection moulding were obtained using Optimal-D. The obtained results show that optimisation of the cooling channel layout using a DMLS mould has significantly shortened cycle time without sacrificing the part’s mechanical properties. By applying conformal cooling channels, the cooling time phase was reduced by 20 seconds, and also defected parts were eliminated.

Keywords: optimum parameters, injection moulding, conformal cooling channels, cycle time

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616 Performance of Nakagami Fading Channel over Energy Detection Based Spectrum Sensing

Authors: M. Ranjeeth, S. Anuradha


Spectrum sensing is the main feature of cognitive radio technology. Spectrum sensing gives an idea of detecting the presence of the primary users in a licensed spectrum. In this paper we compare the theoretical results of detection probability of different fading environments like Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m fading channels with the simulation results using energy detection based spectrum sensing. The numerical results are plotted as P_f Vs P_d for different SNR values, fading parameters. It is observed that Nakagami fading channel performance is better than other fading channels by using energy detection in spectrum sensing. A MATLAB simulation test bench has been implemented to know the performance of energy detection in different fading channel environment.

Keywords: spectrum sensing, energy detection, fading channels, probability of detection, probability of false alarm

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615 Hydraulic Performance of Urban Drainage System Using SWMM: A Case Study of Siti Khadijah Retention Pond in Palembang City

Authors: Muhammad B. Al Amin, Nyimas S. Rika, Dwi F. Yanto, Marcelina


Siti Khadijah retention pond is located beside of Siti Khadijah Islamic Hospital on Demang Lebar Daun Street in Palembang City. This retention pond is functioned as storage for runoff from drainage channels in the surrounding area before entering Sekanak River, which is one of Musi River tributaries. However, in recent years, the developments in the surrounding area into paved area trigger to increase runoff discharge that causes the pond can no longer store it adequately. This study aimed to investigate the hydraulic performance of drainage system in the area around Siti Khadijah retention pond. A SWMM model was used to simulate runoff discharge into the pond and out from the pond, so the water level fluctuation within the pond and its capacity could be determined. Besides that, the water depth within drainage channels was simulated as well. The results showed that capacity of retention pond and some drainage channels already inadequate, so the area around it potentially to be flooded. Thus, it is necessary to increase the capacity of the retention pond and drainage channels.

Keywords: flood, retention pond, SWMM, urban drainage system

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614 The Effects of Distribution Channels on the Selling Prices of Hotels in Time of Crisis

Authors: Y. Yılmaz, C. Ünal, A. Dursun


Distribution channels play significant role for hotels. Direct and indirect selling options of hotel rooms have been increased especially with the help of new technologies, i.e. hotel’s own web sites and online booking sites. Although these options emerged as tools for diversifying the distribution channels, vast number of hotels -mostly resort hotels- is still heavily dependent upon international tour operators when selling their products. On the other hand, hotel sector is so vulnerable against crises. Economic, political or any other crisis can affect hotels very badly and so it is critical to have the right balance of distribution channel to avoid the adverse impacts of a crisis. In this study, it is aimed to search the impacts of a general crisis on the selling prices of hotels which have different weights of distribution channels. The study was done in Turkey where various crises occurred in 2015 and 2016 which had great negative impacts on Turkish tourism and led enormous occupancy rate and selling price reductions. 112 upscale resort hotel in Antalya, which is the most popular tourism destination of Turkey, joined to the research. According to the results, hotels with high dependency to international tour operators are more forced to reduce their room prices in crisis time compared to the ones which use their own web sites more. It was also found that the decline in room prices is limited for hotels which are working with national tour operators and travel agencies in crisis time.

Keywords: marketing channels, crisis, hotel, international tour operators, online travel agencies

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613 Characterization of Optical Communication Channels as Non-Deterministic Model

Authors: Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford


Increasingly telecommunications sectors are adopting optical technologies, due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. However, as in all systems of data transmission, optical communication channels suffer from undesirable and non-deterministic effects, being essential to know the same. Thus, this research allows the assessment of these effects, as well as their characterization and beneficial uses of these effects.

Keywords: optical communication, optical fiber, non-deterministic effects, telecommunication

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612 Survival Struggle: To Be a Female Competitor in Survivor

Authors: Gülbuğ Erol, Gamze Beyge, Hakan Ekemen


In Turkey national TV channels broadcast a wide range of programs to audience attract viewers. Since the year 2000, especially the competition programs were directed towards entertainment and audience has gained. Even today, television channels have just begun to be broadcast on entertainment channels. Except from the news, the TV collects pleasure with its broadcasts aiming to meet the expectation of the Turkish people of TV 8 TV channels. Survivor, one of the TV 8 programs, draws attention with the ratings it receives and the broad target audience it addresses. Survivor, however, is one of the most exciting competitions on the Turkish television scene, which is rightly and ambitiously competitive in television contest programs. It is a format in which women and men struggle their power borders by winning the competition with their names thanks to their intelligence and endurance games. The contestants of the program, which has been running since March 22, 2005, are seen in a platform where they must present their struggle for their various awards. In Survivor, where competition is at stake, courage and strength are reduced by the reduction of sex. In this study, the critical discourse was made taking into consideration the challenges of female competitors competing to the final stage which is behind the male competitors. Secondly, the variables from the beginning to the present day of the adaptation of the judge to Turkey have been debated in a critical context.

Keywords: television, meaning, discourse, contest program

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611 Signal Estimation and Closed Loop System Performance in Atrial Fibrillation Monitoring with Communication Channels

Authors: Mohammad Obeidat, Ayman Mansour


In this paper a unique issue rising from feedback control of Atrial Fibrillation monitoring system with embedded communication channels has been investigated. One of the important factors to measure the performance of the feedback control closed loop system is disturbance and noise attenuation factor. It is important that the feedback system can attenuate such disturbances on the atrial fibrillation heart rate signals. Communication channels depend on network traffic conditions and deliver different throughput, implying that the sampling intervals may change. Since signal estimation is updated on the arrival of new data, its dynamics actually change with the sampling interval. Consequently, interaction among sampling, signal estimation, and the controller will introduce new issues in remotely controlled Atrial Fibrillation system. This paper treats a remotely controlled atrial fibrillation system with one communication channel which connects between the heart rate and rhythm measurements to the remote controller. Typical and optimal signal estimation schemes is represented by a signal averaging filter with its time constant derived from the step size of the signal estimation algorithm.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, communication channels, closed loop, estimation

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610 Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Water Channels of the Opposed-Piston Diesel Engine

Authors: Michal Bialy, Marcin Szlachetka, Mateusz Paszko


This paper discusses the CFD results of heat transfer in water channels in the engine body. The research engine was a newly designed Diesel combustion engine. The engine has three cylinders with three pairs of opposed pistons inside. The engine will be able to generate 100 kW mechanical power at a crankshaft speed of 3,800-4,000 rpm. The water channels are in the engine body along the axis of the three cylinders. These channels are around the three combustion chambers. The water channels transfer combustion heat that occurs the cylinders to the external radiator. This CFD research was based on the ANSYS Fluent software and aimed to optimize the geometry of the water channels. These channels should have a maximum flow of heat from the combustion chamber or the external radiator. Based on the parallel simulation research, the boundary and initial conditions enabled us to specify average values of key parameters for our numerical analysis. Our simulation used the average momentum equations and turbulence model k-epsilon double equation. There was also used a real k-epsilon model with a function of a standard wall. The turbulence intensity factor was 10%. The working fluid mass flow rate was calculated for a single typical value, specified in line with the research into the flow rate of automotive engine cooling pumps used in engines of similar power. The research uses a series of geometric models which differ, for instance, in the shape of the cross-section of the channel along the axis of the cylinder. The results are presented as colourful distribution maps of temperature, speed fields and heat flow through the cylinder walls. Due to limitations of space, our paper presents the results on the most representative geometric model only. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A. and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: Ansys fluent, combustion engine, computational fluid dynamics CFD, cooling system

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609 The Advertising Channels Affecting to Consumer Purchasing Decisions: Case Study of Hair-Care Market in Thailand

Authors: Narong Anurak


This study aimed to find out the hair-care purchasing behavior at hypermarkets and to investigate two factors, package design and advertising channels, that influenced hair-care purchasing behavior. The subjects of the study consisted of 100 housewives aged between 20-60 who usually shopped at Big C Tiwanon. They were selected by accidental sampling, and were asked to complete a questionnaire. The main findings of the survey were that the majority of respondents regarding their brand selection of hair-care products, they gave priority to the product quality followed by a reasonable price, and fragrance, respectively. Besides, more than half of the respondents had brand loyalty while the rest were attracted by an attractive package design and advertising promotion campaigns. The respondents who were attracted by the package design said that the information on the labels influenced their purchasing decision the most, and television was a medium that best reached them as well.

Keywords: advertising channels, consumer purchasing decisions, hair-care market, package design

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608 Generation of Symmetric Key Using Randomness of Hash Function

Authors: Sai Charan Kamana, Harsha Vardhan Nakkina, B.R. Chandavarkar


In a highly secure and robust key generation process, a key role is played by randomness and random numbers when current real-world cryptosystems are observed. Most of the present-day cryptographic protocols depend upon the Random Number Generators (RNG), Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG). These protocols often use noisy channels such as Disk seek time, CPU temperature, Mouse pointer movement, Fan noise to obtain true random values. Despite being cost-effective, these noisy channels may need additional hardware devices to continuously communicate with them. On the other hand, Hash functions are Pseudo-Random (because of their requirements). So, they are a good replacement for these noisy channels and have low hardware requirements. This paper discusses, some of the key generation methodologies, and their drawbacks. This paper explains how hash functions can be used in key generation, how to combine Key Derivation Functions with hash functions.

Keywords: key derivation, hash based key derivation, password based key derivation, symmetric key derivation

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607 Environmental Modeling of Storm Water Channels

Authors: L. Grinis


Turbulent flow in complex geometries receives considerable attention due to its importance in many engineering applications. It has been the subject of interest for many researchers. Some of these interests include the design of storm water channels. The design of these channels requires testing through physical models. The main practical limitation of physical models is the so called “scale effect”, that is, the fact that in many cases only primary physical mechanisms can be correctly represented, while secondary mechanisms are often distorted. These observations form the basis of our study, which centered on problems associated with the design of storm water channels near the Dead Sea, in Israel. To help reach a final design decision we used different physical models. Our research showed good coincidence with the results of laboratory tests and theoretical calculations, and allowed us to study different effects of fluid flow in an open channel. We determined that problems of this nature cannot be solved only by means of theoretical calculation and computer simulation. This study demonstrates the use of physical models to help resolve very complicated problems of fluid flow through baffles and similar structures. The study applies these models and observations to different construction and multiphase water flows, among them, those that include sand and stone particles, a significant attempt to bring to the testing laboratory a closer association with reality.

Keywords: open channel, physical modeling, baffles, turbulent flow

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