Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1375

Search results for: edible tissue

1375 A Comparison of the Environmental Impacts of Edible and Non-Edible Oil Crops in Biodiesel Production

Authors: Halit Tutar, Omer Eren, Oguz Parlakay


The demand for food and energy of mankind has been increasing every passing day. Renewable energy sources have been pushed to forefront since fossil fuels will be run out in the near future and their negative effects to the environment. As in every sector, the transport sector benefits from biofuel (biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel) one of the renewable energy sources as well. The edible oil crops are used in production of biodiesel. Utilizing edible oil crops as renewable energy source may raise a debate in the view of that there is a shortage in raw material of edible oil crops in Turkey. Researches related to utilization of non-edible oil crops as biodiesel raw materials have been recently increased, and especially studies related to their vegetative production and adaptation have been accelerated in Europe. In this review edible oil crops are compared to non-edible oil crops for biodiesel production in the sense of biodiesel production, some features of non-edible oil crops and their harmful emissions to environment are introduced. The data used in this study, obtained from articles, thesis, reports relevant to edible and non edible oil crops in biodiesel.

Keywords: biodiesel, edible oil crops, environmental impacts, renewable energy

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1374 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar


The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.

Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathology

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1373 The Characteristcs and Amino Acid Profile of Edible Coating Extracted from Pigskin Gelatin

Authors: Meity Sompie, Agnes Triasih, Wisje Ponto


Edible coating is thin layers that act as a barrier to the external factors and protect the food products. The addition of the plasticizer to the edible coating is required to overcome film caused by extensive intermolecular forces. The potential development of pigskin with different ages as a raw material for the manufacture of edible films had not been widely publicized. This research was aimed to determine the influence of gelatin concentration and different type of plasticizer on the edible coating characteristics extracted from pigskin gelatin. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors and three replicates of treatments. The first factor was consisted of pigskin gelatin concentration ( 10, 20, and 30 %) and the second factor was different type of plasticizer (glycerol, sorbitol and PEG). The results show that the interaction between the use of gelatin concentrations and type of plasticizer had significant effect (P< 0.05) on the thickness, tensile strength, elongation, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), water content and amino acid profile of edible coating. It was concluded that the edible coating from pigskin gelatin with plasticizer gliserol had the best film characteristics, and it can be applied as an edible coating.

Keywords: edible coating, edible film, pigskin gelatin, plasticizer

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1372 Affectivity of Smoked Edible Sachet in Preventing Oxidation of Natural Condiment Stored in Ambient Temperature

Authors: Feny Mentang, Roike Iwan Montolalu, Henny Adeleida Dien, Kristhina P. Rahael, Tomy Moga, Ayub Meko, Siegfried Berhimpon


Smoked fish is one of the famous fish products in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Research in producing smoked fish using smoke liquid, and the use of that product as main taste for a new “natural condiment” have been done, including a series of researches to find materials for sachet. Research aims are to determine the effectiveness of smoked edible sachets, in preventing oxidation of natural condiment, stored in ambient temperature. Two kinds of natural condiment flavors were used, i.e. smoked Skipjack flavor, and Sea Food flavor. Three variables of edible sachets were used for the natural condiments, i.e. non-sachet, edible sachet without smoke liquid, and edible sachet with smoke liquid. The natural condiments were then stored in ambient temperature, for 0, 10, 20, and 30 days. To determine the effectiveness of edible sachets in preventing oxidation, analysis of TBA, water content, and pH were conducted. The results shown that natural condiment with smoked seafood taste had TBA values higher than that of smoked Skipjack. Edible sachet gave a highly significant effect (P > 0.01) on TBA. Natural condiment in smoked edible sachet has a lower TBA than natural condiment non-sachet, and with sachet without smoke liquid. The longer storing time, the higher TBA, especially for non-sachet and with sachet without smoke liquid. There were no significant effect (P > 0.05) of edible sachet on water content and pH.

Keywords: edible sachet, smoke liquid, natural condiment, oxidation

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1371 Microbiological Assessment of Fish Sausages Coated with Smoked-Edible Film, and Stored in Room and Refrigerator Temperatures

Authors: Henny A. Dien, Roike I. Montolalu, Feny Mentang, Jupni Keno, Reynerd S. Burdam, Siegfried Berhimpon


Fish Sausages became popular nowadays, because of high nutritious and low in cholesterol. However, this food is also highly perishable and often contaminated by pathogen bacteria. Edible film was made from myofibril of Black Marlin (Makaira indica) waste, with addition of liquid smoke 0.8%. The aim of this study were to determine the TPC, total coliform and Escherichia coli in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film, and stored in room temperature (26-29oC), and refrigerator (5-10oC). Results shown that TPC in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film were lower than that of without coated, both for storage in room temperature and in refrigerator. Total coliform in coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 7-120 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged between 7-93 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without liquid smoke were 7-240 MPN/g (1-4 days) in room temperature, and 7-150 MPN/g in refrigerator. Total E. coli of fish sausages coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 3-4 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged were 3 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without smoked both stored in room temperature and in refrigerator, shown total E. coli 3 MPN/g during 4 days in room temperature, and 6 days in refrigerator. Total E. coli of sausages without coated stored in room temperature ranged between 7-24 MPN/g, and that of stored in refrigerator ranged between 3-4 MPN/g.

Keywords: smoke liquid, edible film, coating, sausages

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1370 Characterization of Edible Film from Uwi Starch (Dioscorea alata L.)

Authors: Miksusanti, Herlina, Wiwin


The research about modification uwi starch (Dioscorea alata L) by using propylene oxide has been done. Concentration of propylene oxide were 6%(v/w), 8%(v/w), and 10%(v/w). The amilograf parameters after modification were characteristic breakdown viscosity 43 BU and setback viscosity 975 BU. The modification starch have edible properties according to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) which have degree of modification < 7%, degree of substitution < 0,1 and propylene oxide concentration < 10%(v/w). The best propylene oxide in making of edible film was 8 %( v/w). The starch control can be made into edible film with thickness 0,136 mm, tensile strength 20,4605 MPa and elongation 22%. Modification starch of uwi can be made into edible film with thickness 0,146 mm, tensile strength 25, 3521 Mpa, elongation 30% and water vapor transmission 7, 2651 g/m2/24 hours. FTIR characterization of uwi starch showed the occurrence of hydroxypropylation. The peak spectrum at 2900 cm-1 showed bonding of C-H from methyl group, which is characteristic for modification starch with hydroxypropyl. Characterization with scanning electron microscopy showed that modification of uwi starch has turned the granule of starch to be fully swallon.

Keywords: uwi starch, edible film, propylen oxide, modification

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1369 Occurrence of Ranavirus in Edible Frogs and Fish Sold for Human Consumption in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria

Authors: Inikpi Ameh, Grace Kia, A. K. B. Sackey, Joy Atawodi, Richard Whittington


Ranaviruses are belonging to the viral Family Iridoviridae, are a group of globally emerging pathogens recognized as major viral pathogens of cold-blooded vertebrates. They cause systemic infection in fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. Ranaviruses have been associated with numerous disease outbreaks in natural and cultured populations of fish, amphibians, and reptiles. To investigate the presence of the ranavirus in fish and edible frogs sourced from dams and ponds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 425 frogs (Rana spp.) and fishes (n=215 and n=200, respectively) were randomly collected based on consent and availability. Liver, kidney, and spleen tissue samples from each animal were pooled and homogenized. The samples were screened for ranavirus using the Indirect Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An overall prevalence of 46.1% (196/425) was obtained from the study. Frogs had a prevalence of 51.2% (110/215) while fish had 43% (86/200). This is the first study on ranavirus in fish and edible frogs in Nigeria. This study has established that edible frogs (Rana spp) and fishes sold in Zaria, Nigeria were infected with ranavirus which may have great economic importance to the nation’s aquaculture. In view of occasional massive economic losses observed in fishery industry due to deaths of unknown origin, this preliminary investigation is useful in directing veterinarians, policy makers and researchers on need to survey for ranavirus and also enlighten the relevant stakeholders on its prevention and control in Nigeria.

Keywords: fish, frogs, Nigeria, Ranavirus

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1368 Characteristics of Edible Film Made from Skin and Bone Fish Gelatin, Spotted Oceanic Triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata) and Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Normalina Arpi, Fahrizal Fahrizal, Dewi Yunita


Edible films can increase the shelf life of various food products by acting as water, oxygen, and lipid barrier. Fish gelatin as a film-forming agent has unique characteristics but varies depending on fish species. The purpose of this research is to characterize edible film made using skin and bone fish gelatin with the addition of plasticizer. Gelatin of spotted oceanic triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used. Glycerol and sorbitol with concentration of 0.25 and 0.5 % were added as a plasticizer. Spotted oceanic triggerfish gelatin with sorbitol resulted film with higher tensile strength and oxygen permeability, whereas tilapia gelatin with glycerol produced an edible film with higher elongation and water vapor permeability. The edible film made of spotted oceanic triggerfish gelatin and 0.25% sorbitol had the best characteristics.

Keywords: edible film, fish gelatin , glycerol, sorbitol

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1367 Edible and Ecofriendly Packaging – A Trendsetter of the Modern Era – Standardization and Properties of Films and Cutleries from Food Starch

Authors: P. Raajeswari, S. M. Devatha, R. Pragatheeswari


The edible packaging is a new trendsetter in the era of modern packaging. The researchers and food scientist recognise edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability. Starch was extracted from different sources that contains abundantly like potato, tapioca, rice, wheat, and corn. The starch based edible films and cutleries are developed as an alternative for conventional packages providing the nutritional benefit when consumed along with the food. The development of starch based edible films by the extraction of starch from various raw ingredients at lab scale level. The films are developed by the employment of plasticiser at different concentrations of 1.5ml and 2ml. The films developed using glycerol as a plasticiser in filmogenic solution to increase the flexibility and plasticity of film. It reduces intra and intermolecular forces in starch, and it increases the mobility of starch based edible films. The films developed are tested for its functional properties such as thickness, tensile strength, elongation at break, moisture permeability, moisture content, and puncture strength. The cutleries like spoons and cups are prepared by making dough and rolling the starch along with water. The overall results showed that starch based edible films absorbed less moisture, and they also contributed to the low moisture permeability with high tensile strength. Food colorants extracted from red onion peel, pumpkin, and red amaranth adds on the nutritive value, colour, and attraction when incorporated in edible cutleries, and it doesn’t influence the functional properties. Addition of a low quantity of glycerol in edible films and colour extraction from onion peel, pumpkin, and red amaranth enhances biodegradability and provides a good quantity of nutrients when consumed. Therefore, due to its multiple advantages, food starch can serve as the best response for eco-friendly industrial products aimed to replace single use plastics at low cost.

Keywords: edible films, edible cutleries, plasticizer, glycerol, starch, functional property

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1366 Edible Oil Industry Wastewater Treatment by Microfiltration with Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Zita Šereš, Dragana Šoronja Simović, Ljubica Dokić, Lidietta Giorno, Biljana Pajin, Cecilia Hodur, Nikola Maravić


Membrane technology is convenient for separation of suspended solids, colloids and high molecular weight materials that are present. The idea is that the waste stream from edible oil industry, after the separation of oil by using skimmers is subjected to microfiltration and the obtained permeate can be used again in the production process. The wastewater from edible oil industry was used for the microfiltration. For the microfiltration of this effluent a tubular membrane was used with a pore size of 200 nm at transmembrane pressure in range up to 3 bar and in range of flow rate up to 300 L/h. Box–Behnken design was selected for the experimental work and the responses considered were permeate flux and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. The reduction of the permeate COD was in the range 40-60% according to the feed. The highest permeate flux achieved during the process of microfiltration was 160 L/m2h.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, edible oil, microfiltration, wastewater

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1365 Exposure to Radio Frequency Waves of Mobile Phone and Temperature Changes of Brain Tissue

Authors: Farhad Forouharmajd, Hossein Ebrahimi, Siamak Pourabdian


Introduction: Prevalent use of cell phones (mobile phones) has led to increasing worries about the effect of radiofrequency waves on the physiology of human body. This study was done to determine different reactions of the temperatures in different depths of brain tissue in confronting with radiofrequency waves of cell phones. Methodology: This study was an empirical research. A cow's brain tissue was placed in a compartment and the effects of radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was analyzed during confrontation and after confrontation, in three different depths of 2, 12, and 22 mm of the tissue, in 4 mm and 4 cm distances of the tissue to a cell phone, for 15 min. Lutron thermometer was used to measure the tissue temperatures. Data analysis was done by Lutron software. Findings: The rate of increasing the temperature at the depth of 22 mm was higher than 2 mm and 12mm depths, during confrontation of the brain tissue at the distance of 4 mm with the cell phone, such that the tissue temperatures at 2, 12, and 22 mm depths increased by 0.29 ˚C, 0.31 ˚C, and 0.37 ˚C, respectively, relative to the base temperature (tissue temperature before confrontation). Moreover, the temperature of brain tissue at the distance of 4 cm by increasing the tissue depth was more than other depths. Increasing the tissue temperature also existed by increasing the brain tissue depth after the confrontation with the cell phone. The temperature of the 22 mm depth increased with higher speed at the time confrontation. Conclusion: Not only radiofrequency waves of cell phones increased the tissue temperature in all the depths of the brain tissue, but also the temperature due to radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was more at the depths higher than 22 mm of the tissue. In fact, the thermal effect of radiofrequency waves was higher in higher depths.

Keywords: mobile phone, radio frequency waves, brain tissue, temperature

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1364 Antioxidant Face Mask from Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batatas) with Oleum Cytrus

Authors: Lilis Kistriyani, Dine Olisvia, Lutfa Rahmawati


Facial mask is an important part of every beauty treatment because it will give a smooth and gentle effect on the face. This research is done to make edible film that will be applied for face mask. The main ingredient in making this edible film is purple sweet potato powder with the addition of glycerol as plasticizer. One of the ingredients in purple sweet potato is a flavonoid compound. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the amount of glycerol to flavonoids release and the effect on the physical properties and biological properties of edible film produced. The stages of this research are the making of edible film, then perform some analysis, among others, spectrophotometer UV-vis analysis to find out how many flavonoids can be released into facial skin, tensile strength and elongation of break analysis, biodegradability analysis, and microbiological analysis. The variation of edible film is the volume of glycerol that is 1 ml, 2 ml, 3 ml. The results of spectrophotometer UV-vis analysis showed that the most flavonoid release concentration is 20.33 ppm in the 2 ml glycerol variation. The best tensile strength value is 8,502 N, and the greatest elongation of break value is 14% in 1 ml glycerol variation. In the biodegradability test, the more volume of glycerol added the faster the edible film is degraded. The results of microbiological analysis showed that purple sweet potato extract has the ability to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes seen in the presence of inhibiting zone which is 18.9 mm.

Keywords: face mask, edible film, plasticizer, flavonoid

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1363 An Evaluation of Edible Plants for Remediation of Contaminated Soil- Can Edible Plants Be Used to Remove Heavy Metals on Soil?

Authors: Celia Marilia Martins, Sonia I. V. Guilundo, Iris M. Victorino, Antonio O. Quilambo


In Mozambique rapid industrialization (mining, aluminium and cement activities) and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of heavy metals on soil, thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting plants, animals and human healthy. Several methods have been used to remediate contaminated soils, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals from contaminated soil. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up a contamination from soils, sediments, and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. The present investigation summarised the potential of edible vegetable to grow under the high level of heavy metals such as lead and zinc. The plants used in these studies include Tomatoes, lettuce and Soya beans. The studies have shown that edible plants can be grown under the high level of heavy metals on the soil. Further investigations are identifying mechanisms used by plants to ensure a safe and sustainable use for remediation of contaminated soils by heavy metals.

Keywords: contaminated soil, edible plants, heavy metals, phytoremediation

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1362 Enhancement Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Separation of Edible Oil from Oil-Water Emulsion

Authors: Olfat A. Fadali, Mohamed S. Mahmoud, Omnia H. Abdelraheem, Shimaa G. Mohammed


The effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the removal of edible oil from oil-in-water emulsion by means of electrocoagulation was investigated in rectangular batch electrochemical cell with DC current. Iron (Fe) plate anodes and stainless steel cathodes were employed as electrodes. The effect of different magnetic field intensities (1.9, 3.9 and 5.2 tesla), three different positions of EMF (below, perpendicular and parallel to the electrocoagulation cell), as well as operating time; had been investigated. The application of electromagnetic field (5.2 tesla) raises percentage of oil removal from 72.4% for traditional electrocoagulation to 90.8% after 20 min.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, electromagnetic field, Oil-water emulsion, edible oil

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1361 An Assessment of Trace Heavy Metal Contamination of Some Edible Oils Regularly Marketed in Benue and Taraba States of Nigeria

Authors: Raphael Odoh, Obida J. Oko, Mary S. Dauda


The determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe,Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn contents in edible oils (palm oil, ground-nut oil and soybean oil) bought from various markets of Benue and Taraba state were carried out with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. The method 3031 developed acid digestion of oils for metal analysis by atomic absorption or ICP spectrometry was used in the preparation of the edible oil samples for the determination of total metal content in this study. The overall results (µg/g) in palm oil sample ranged from 0.028-0.076, 0.035-0.092, 1.011-1.955, 2.101-4.892, 0.666-0.922, 0.054-0.095, 0.031-0.068 and 1.987-2.971 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively, while in ground-nut oil the overall results ranged from 0.011-0.042, 0.011-0.052, 0.133-0.788, 1.789-2.511, 0.078-0.765, 0.045-0.092, 0.011-0.028 and 1.098-1.997 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. Of the heavy metals considered Cd and Ni showed the highest contamination in the soybean oil sample. The overall results in soybean oil samples ranged from 0.011-0.015, 0.017-0.032, 0.453-0.987, 1.789-2.511, 0.089-0.321, 0.011-0.016, 0.012-0.065 and 1.011-1.997 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The concentration of Pb was the highest. The degree of contamination by each metal was estimated by the transfer factor. The transfer factors obtained for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in edible oils (palm oil, ground-nut oil and soybean oil) were 10.800, 16.500, 16.000, 18.813, 15.115, 14.230, 23.000 and 9.418 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in palm oil, and 7.000, 12.500, 8.880, 11.333, 7.708, 10.833, 15.00 and 6.608 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in ground-nut oil while for soybean oil the transfer factors were 13.000, 11.000, 7.642, 11.578, 4.486, 13.00, 12.333 and 4.412 for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The inter-element correlation was found among metals in edible oil samples using Pearson’s correlation co-efficient. There were positive and negative correlations among the metals determined. All Metals determined showed degree of contamination but concentrations lower than the USP specification.

Keywords: Benue State, contamination, edible oils, heavy metals, markets, Taraba State

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1360 Morphological Parameters and Selection of Turkish Edible Seed Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) Germplasm

Authors: Onder Turkmen, Musa Seymen, Sali Fidan, Mustafa Paksoy


There is a requirement for registered edible seed pumpkin suitable for eating in Turkey. A total of 81 genotypes collected from the researchers in 2005 originated from Eskisehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Tekirdag, Sakarya, Kayseri and Kirsehir provinces were utilized. The used genetic materials were brought to S5 generation by the research groups among 2006 and 2010 years. In this research, S5 stage reached in the genotype given some of the morphological features, and selection of promising genotypes generated scale were made. Results showed that the A-1 (420), A-7 (410), A-8 (420), A-32 (420), B-17 (410), B-24 (410), B-25 (420), B-33 (400), C-24 (420), C-25 (410), C-26 (410) and C-30 (420) genotypes are expected to be promising varieties.

Keywords: candidate cultivar, edible seed pumpkin, morphologic parameters, selection

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1359 Design and Fabrication of a Scaffold with Appropriate Features for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Authors: S. S. Salehi, A. Shamloo


Poor ability of cartilage tissue when experiencing a damage leads scientists to use tissue engineering as a reliable and effective method for regenerating or replacing damaged tissues. An artificial tissue should have some features such as biocompatibility, biodegradation and, enough mechanical properties like the original tissue. In this work, a composite hydrogel is prepared by using natural and synthetic materials that has high porosity. Mechanical properties of different combinations of polymers such as modulus of elasticity were tested, and a hydrogel with good mechanical properties was selected. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were also seeded into the pores of the sponge, and the results showed the adhesion and proliferation of cells within the hydrogel after one month. In comparison with previous works, this study offers a new and efficient procedure for the fabrication of cartilage like tissue and further cartilage repair.

Keywords: cartilage tissue engineering, hydrogel, mechanical strength, mesenchymal stem cell

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1358 Mercury Detection in Two Fishes from the Persian Gulf

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Mehdi Kazaie, Sajedeh Neisi


In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in the north of Persian Gulf near the Iranian coastal lines. The two flatfishes were Yellofin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) and Longtail tuna (Thannus tonggol). We analyzed total Hg concentration of liver and muscle tissues by Mercury Analyzer (model LECO AMA 254). The average concentration of total Hg in edible Muscle tissue of deep-Flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 18.92 and it was 10.19 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for Oriental sole were 8.47 and 0.08 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Hg in liver tissue of deep-Flounder, in Bandar-Abbas was 25.49 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 12.52 µg.g-1.the values for Oriental sole were 11.88 and 3.2 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: mercury, Acanthopagrus latus, Thannus tonggol, Persian Gulf

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1357 Effect on Yield and Yield Components of Different Irrigation Levels in Edible Seed Pumpkin Growing

Authors: Musa Seymen, Duran Yavuz, Nurcan Yavuz, Önder Türkmen


Edible seed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) is one of the important edibles preferred by consumer in Turkey due to its higher nutrient contents. However, there is almost very few study on water consumption and irrigation water requirement of confectionary edible seed pumpkin in Turkey. Therefore, a 2-year study (2013-2014) was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation levels on the seed yield and yield components of drip-irrigated confectionary edible seed pumpkin under Turkey conditions. In the study, the experimental design was made in randomized blocks with three replications. Treatments consisted of five irrigation water levels that compensated for the 100% (I100, full irrigation), 75% (I75), 50% (I50), 25% (I25) and 0% (I0, no irrigation) of crop water requirements at 14-day irrigation intervals. Seasonal evapotranspiration of treatments varied from 194.2 to 625.2 mm in 2013 and from 208.6 to 556.6 mm in 2014. In both years, the highest seasonal evapotranspiration was obtained in I100 treatment. Average across years, the seed yields ranged between 1090 (I100) and 422 (I0) kg ha-1. The irrigation treatments were found to significantly affect the yield parameters such as the seed yield, oil seed yield number of seeds per fruit, seed size, seed width, fruit size, fruit width and fruit index.

Keywords: irrigation level, edible seed pumpkin, seed quality, seed yield

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1356 Effects of Ethylene Scavengering Packaging on the Shelf Life of Edible Mushroom

Authors: Majid Javanmard


Edible mushrooms are those agricultural products which contain high quantity of protein and can have special role in human diet. So search for methods to increase their shelf life is important. One of these strategies can be use of active packaging for absorb the ethylene which has been studied in present study. In this study, initially, production of impregnating zeolite with potassium permanganate has been studied with zeolite clinoptiolite available in iran. After that, these ethylene scavengers were placed in the package of edible mushrooms and then transferred to the refrigerator with temperature 4c for a period of 20 days. Each 5 days, several experiments accomplished on edible mushrooms such as weight loss, moisture content, color, texture, bacterial experiments and sensory evaluation. After production of impregnating zeolite with potassium permanganate (with a concentration of %2.5, %5, %7.5, %10 and %12.5) by zeolite type clinoptiolite (with mesh 35 and 60), samples have been analyzed with gas chromatography and titration with sodium oxalate. The results showed that zeolite by concentration of %5, %7.5 and %10 potassium permanganate and mesh 60 have a higher efficiency. Results from the experiments on edible mushrooms proved that impregnated zeolite with potassium permanganate have a meaningful influence in prevent the weight loss, decrease of moisture content and L-value, increase of a-value and overall color change (ΔE) and decrease of firmness texture of mushrooms. In addition, these absorbents can influence on decrease microbial load (mesophilic bacteria) rather than control. Generally, concluded that the impregnated zeolite with 10% permanganate potassium has a high efficiency on increase the shelf life of fresh edible mushrooms.

Keywords: active packaging, ethylene scavenger, zeolite clinoptiolite, permanganate potassium, shelf life

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1355 Nutritional Potential and Traditional Uses of High Altitude Wild Edible Plants in Eastern Himalayas, India

Authors: Hui Tag, Jambey Tsering, Pallabi Kalita Hui, Baikuntha Jyoti Gogoi, Vijay Veer


The food security issues and its relevance in High Mountain regions of the world have been often neglected. Wild edible plants have been playing a major role in livelihood security among the tribal Communities of East Himalayan Region of the world since time immemorial. The Eastern Himalayan Region of India is one of the mega diverse regions of world and rated as top 12th Global Biodiversity Hotspots by IUCN and recognized as one of the 200 significant eco-regions of the Globe. The region supports one of the world’s richest alpine floras and about one-third of them are endemic to the region. There are at least 7,500 flowering plants, 700 orchids, 58 bamboo species, 64 citrus species, 28 conifers, 500 mosses, 700 ferns and 728 lichens. The region is the home of more than three hundred different ethnic communities having diverse knowledge on traditional uses of flora and fauna as food, medicine and beverages. Monpa, Memba and Khamba are among the local communities residing in high altitude region of Eastern Himalaya with rich traditional knowledge related to utilization of wild edible plants. The Monpas, Memba and Khamba are the followers Mahayana sect of Himalayan Buddhism and they are mostly agrarian by primary occupation and also heavily relaying on wild edible plants for their livelihood security during famine since millennia. In the present study, we have reported traditional uses of 40 wild edible plant species and out of which 6 species were analysed at biochemical level for nutrients contents and free radical scavenging activities. The results have shown significant free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity and nutritional potential of the selected 6 wild edible plants used by the local communities of Eastern Himalayan Region of India.

Keywords: East Himalaya, local community, wild edible plants, nutrition, food security

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1354 Comparison of Allelopathic Activity of Some Edible Mushroom and Wild Mushroom in Japan

Authors: Asma Osivand, Hossein Mardani, Hiroshi Araya, Yoshiharu Fujii


Wild mushrooms have always been considered as valuable source of bioactive compounds, while edible mushrooms have been known for their importance as food source. However, their interaction with plants through chemicals that could lead to find new biochemical have not been well undertaken. A special bioassay method (Sandwich method) was applied to compare eight common edible mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Grifola frondosa, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus tessellatus and Pholiota namako) with some wild species (Ganoderma appelanatum, Amanita pantherina, Artomyces pyxidatus, Morchella conica, Tricholosporum porphyrophyllum, Trametes hirsuta) for their phytotoxicity against lettuce. Among all tested edible mushrooms, application of 5 mg of P. ostreatus showed stronger allelopathic activity by inhibiting the growth of radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce by 84% and 63% respectively. Moreover, same amount of T. porphyrophyllum exerted 77% and 67% growth inhibition on radicle and hypocotyl of lettuce. In general, biochemicals contributed in tested mushrooms could be the main cause for their inhibitory activity and could lead to find new allelochemicals.

Keywords: allelopathy, interaction, mushroom, phytotoxicity, Pleurotus sp., sandwich method

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1353 Heavy Metal Distribution in Tissues of Two Commercially Important Fish Species, Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei

Authors: Reza Khoshnood, Zahra Khoshnood, Ali Hajinajaf, Farzad Fahim, Behdokht Hajinajaf, Farhad Fahim


In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, the fishing grounds north of Hormoz Strait (Persian Gulf) near the Iranian coastline. The two flat fishes were oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and deep flounder (Psettodes erumei). Using the ROPME method (MOOPAM) for chemical digestion, Cd concentration was measured with a nonflame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The average concentration of Cd in the edible muscle tissue of deep flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 0.15±.06 µg g-1. It was 0.1±.05 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for oriental sole were 0.2±0.13 and 0.13±0.11 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Cd in the liver tissue of deep flounder in Bandar-Abbas was 0.22±.05 µg g-1 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 0.2±0.04 µg.g-1. The values for oriental sole were 0.31±0.09 and 0.24±0.13 µg g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: trace metal, Euryglossa orientalis, Psettodes erumei, Persian Gulf

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1352 Meat Yield and Proximate Composition Relations of Seabream (Sparus aurata) and Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Different Sizes

Authors: Mehmet Celik, Celal Erbas, Mehtap Baykal, Aygül Kucukgulmez, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu


In this study, determination of differences in fresh meat yield and proximate compositions of different weight groups of sea bream and sea bass grown in cages in Izmir region of the Aegean Sea were aimed. For this purpose, the length and weight of five different weight groups of sea bass (I: 175.8±5.2, II: 227.3±10.2, III: 293.3±21.3, IV: 404±9.9, V: 508.7±46 g) and sea bream (I: 146.6±13.6, II: 239.8±21.7, III: 279.2±20.8, IV: 400.9±10.5, V: 546.8±0.8 g) were measured and the amount of edible and non-edible parts were determined. Besides this, protein, lipid, dry matter, ash, condition factor, HSI and VSI values were compared according to different weight groups for each species. According to the results of analysis, while the absolute meat yields of sea bream was between 69-294 g, it was between 71-252 g for the sea bass and the highest meat yields were found in fifth (V) weight groups of fish for both species. The relative meat yield (%) was determined in weight group II for sea bass and in the IV. group in sea bream with 51.9%. However, the amount of muscle tissue lipids in I. and V. weight groups of sea bream ranged between 3.6 to 11.9 % and ranged between 6.2 to 9.0 % for sea bass respectively. Protein, fillet and ash content increased in direct proportion to the weight. As a result, it can be speculated that when the meat yield and lipid rates were considered, IV. group in sea bream and II. group in sea bass are the most advantageous groups for the consumers. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2015-3830.

Keywords: sea bream, sea bass, meat yield, proximate composition, different weight

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1351 Fabrication of Optical Tissue Phantoms Simulating Human Skin and Their Application

Authors: Jihoon Park, Sungkon Yu, Byungjo Jung


Although various optical tissue phantoms (OTPs) simulating human skin have been actively studied, their completeness is unclear because skin tissue has the intricate optical property and complicated structure disturbing the optical simulation. In this study, we designed multilayer OTP mimicking skin structure, and fabricated OTP models simulating skin-blood vessel and skin pigmentation in the skin, which are useful in Biomedical optics filed. The OTPs were characterized with the optical property and the cross-sectional structure, and analyzed by using various optical tools such as a laser speckle imaging system, OCT and a digital microscope to show the practicality. The measured optical property was within 5% error, and the thickness of each layer was uniform within 10% error in micrometer scale.

Keywords: blood vessel, optical tissue phantom, optical property, skin tissue, pigmentation

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1350 Fuel Quality of Biodiesel from Chlorella protothecoides Microalgae Species

Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Mahendra Pal Sharma


Depleting fossil fuel resources coupled with serious environmental degradation has led to the search for alternative resources for biodiesel production as a substitute of Petro-diesel. Currently, edible, non-edible oils and microalgal plant species are cultivated for biodiesel production. Looking at the demerits of edible and non-edible oil resources, the focus is being given to grow microalgal species having high oil productivities, less maturity time and less land requirement. Out of various microalgal species, Chlorella protothecoides is considered as the most promising species for biodiesel production owing to high oil content (58 %), faster growth rate (24–48 h) and high biomass productivity (1214 mg/l/day). The present paper reports the results of optimization of reaction parameters of transesterification process as well as the kinetics of transesterification with 97% yield of biodiesel. The measurement of fuel quality of microalgal biodiesel shows that the biodiesel exhibit very good oxidation stability (O.S) of 7 hrs, more than ASTM D6751 (3 hrs) and EN 14112 (6 hrs) specifications. The CP and PP of 0 and -3 °C are finding as per ASTM D 2500-11 and ASTM D 97-12 standards. These results show that the microalgal biodiesel does not need any enhancement in O.S & CFP and hence can be recommended to be directly used as MB100 or its blends into diesel engine operation. Further, scope is available for the production of binary blends using poor quality biodiesel for engine operation.

Keywords: fuel quality, methyl ester yield, microalgae, transesterification

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1349 Ultrasonic Densitometry of Bone Tissue of Jaws and Phalanges of Fingers in Patients after Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Margarita Belousova


The ultrasonic densitometry (RU patent № 2541038) was used to assess the density of the bone tissue in the jaws of patients after orthodontic treatment. In addition, by ultrasonic densitometry assessed the state of the bone tissue in the region III phalanges of middle fingers in above mentioned patients. A comparative study was carried out in healthy volunteers of same age. It was established a significant decrease of the ultrasound wave speed and bone mineral density after active period of orthodontic treatment. Statistically, significant differences in bone mineral density of the fingers by ultrasonic densitometry in both groups of patients were not detected.

Keywords: intraoral ultrasonic densitometry, bone tissue density of jaws, bone tissue density of phalanges of fingers, orthodontic treatment

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1348 The Use of Gelatin in Biomedical Engineering: Halal Perspective

Authors: Syazwani Ramli, Norhidayu Muhamad Zain


Nowadays, the use of gelatin as biomaterials in tissue engineering are evolving especially in skin graft and wound dressing applications. Towards year 2018, Malaysia is in the way of planning to get the halal certification for biomedical device in order to cater the needs of Muslims and non-Muslims in Malaysia. However, the use of gelatins in tissue engineering are mostly derived from non-halal sources. Currently, gelatin production mostly comes from mammalian gelatin sources. Moreover, within these past years, just a few studies of the uses of gelatin in tissue engineering from halal perspective has been studied. Thus, this paper aims to give overview of the use of gelatin from different sources from halal perspectives. This review also discussing the current status of halal for the emerging biomedical devices. In addition, the different sources of gelatin used in tissue engineering are being identified and provides better alternatives for halal gelatin. Cold- water fish skin gelatin could be an effective alternative to substitute the mammalian sources. Therefore, this review is important because the information about the halal biomedical devices will delighted Muslim consumers and give better insight of halal gelatin in tissue engineering application.

Keywords: biomedical device, gelatin, halal, skin graft, tissue engineering

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1347 Measurement of Rheologic Properties of Soft Tissue (Muscle Tissue) by Device Called Myotonometer

Authors: Petr Sifta, Vaclav Bittner, Martin Kysela, Matej Kolar


The purpose of the research described in this work is to answer how to measure the rheologic (viscoelastic) properties tendo–deformational characteristics of soft tissue. The method would also resemble muscle palpation examination as it is known in clinical practice. For this purpose, an instrument with the working name “myotonometer” has been used. At present, there is lack of objective methods for assessing the muscle tone by viscous and elastic properties of soft tissue. That is why we decided to focus on creating or finding quantitative and qualitative methodology capable of specifying muscle tone.

Keywords: rheologic properties, tendo–deformational characteristics, viscosity, elasticity, hypertonus

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1346 Bioactive, Nutritional and Heavy Metal Constituents of Some Edible Mushrooms Found in Abia State of Nigeria

Authors: I. C. Okwulehie, J. A. Ogoke


The phytocemical, mineral, proximate and heavy metals compositions of six edible and non-edible species of mushrooms were investigated. Fully fleshy mushrooms were used for the analysis. On the averagely, the bioactive constituents of the mushrooms were as follows Alkaloids 0.12 ± 0.02 – 1.01 ± 03 %, Tannins 0.44 ± 0.09 – 1.38 ± 0.6,). Phenols,(0.13 ± 0.01 – 0.26± 0.00, Saponins 0.14 ± 0.03 – 0.32 ± 0.04%, Flavonoids 0.08 ± 0.02 – 0.34 ± 0.02%. The result of proximate composition indicated that the mushroom contained (5.17 ± 0.06 – 12.28 ± 0.16% protein, 0.16 ± 0.02 – 0.67 ± 0.02% fats, 1.06 ± 0.03 – 8.49 ± 0.03 % fibre, (62.06 ± 0.52 – 80.01 ± 4.71% and carbohydrate. The mineral composition of the mushrooms were as follows, calcium 81.49 ± 2.32 - .914 ± 2.32mg/100g, Magnesium(8 ± 1.39-24 ± 2.40mg/100g, Potassium 64.54 ± 0.43 – 164.54 ± 1.23 mg/100g, sodium 9.47 ± 0.12 – 30.97 ± 0.16 mg/100g, and Phosphorus 22.19 ± 0.57-53.2± 0.44 mg/100g. Heavy metals concentration indicated Cadmium 0.7-0.94ppm. Zinc 27.82 – 70.98 ppm. Lead 0.66 – 2.86ppm and Copper 1.8-22.32ppm. The result obtained indicates that the mushrooms are of good sources of phytochemicals, proximate and minerals needed for maintenance of good health and can also be exploited in manufacture of drugs. Heavy metals obtained indicate that when consume intentionally in high content may cause liver, kidney damage and even death.

Keywords: bioactive, heavy metals, mushroom, nutritive

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