Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3677

Search results for: Ultra Wide Band (UWB)

3677 An Approach For Evolving a Relaible Low Power Ultra Wide Band Transmitter with Capacitve Sensing

Authors: N.Revathy, C.Gomathi

Abstract:

This work aims for a tunable capacitor as a sensor which can vary the control voltage of a voltage control oscillator in a ultra wide band (UWB) transmitter. In this paper power consumption is concentrated. The reason for choosing a capacitive sensing is it give slow temperature drift, high sensitivity and robustness. Previous works report a resistive sensing in a voltage control oscillator (VCO) not aiming at power consumption. But this work aims for power consumption of a capacitive sensing in ultra wide band transmitter. The ultra wide band transmitter to be used is a direct modulation of pulses. The VCO which is the heart of pulse generator of UWB transmitter works on the principle of voltage to frequency conversion. The VCO has and odd number of inverter stages which works on the control voltage input this input is now from a variable capacitor and the buffer stages is reduced from the previous work to maintain the oscillating frequency. The VCO is also aimed to consume low power. Then the concentration in choosing a variable capacitor is aimed. A compact model of a capacitor with the transient characteristics is to be designed with a movable dielectric and multi metal membranes. Previous modeling of the capacitor transient characteristics is with a movable membrane and a fixed membrane. This work aims at a membrane with a wide tuning suitable for ultra wide band transmitter.This is used in this work because a capacitive in a ultra wide transmitter need to be tuned in such a way that all satisfies FCC regulations.

Keywords: capacitive sensing, ultra wide band transmitter, voltage control oscillator, FCC regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
3676 A Novel Design of Inset Feed Patch Antenna for Ultra Wide Band Application

Authors: Priyanka Aggarwal, Priyanka Mangla

Abstract:

This work has focused on the aspect of UWB antenna design, which is very suitable for portable UWB applications. The design of new UWB antenna faces some challenges. The antenna should be compact, preferably conformal, and low cost for manufacture, and have good electrical performance, such as good matching, directional radiation performance over a wide band, good time response, etc. Keeping these goals in mind a compact and directional compact open-slot antenna was built. The antenna radiating structure is in the form of two exponentially tapered arms that lie on the opposite sides of the substrate. The antenna operates over the frequency band from 2.95 GHz to more than 12.1 GHz. It exhibits a directive radiation performance with a peak gain which is between 5.4 dBi and 8.3 dBi in the specified band. The antenna has linear phase response over the entire UWB frequency range and hence constant group delay which is vital for transmission and reception of sub-nanosecond pulses. Due to its planar profile, physically compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, directive performance over a wide bandwidth proposed antenna is a good candidate for portable UWB applications and other UWB integrated circuits.

Keywords: inset feed patch antenna, ultra wide band, radiation performance, geometry, antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
3675 Biosignal Measurement System Based on Ultra-Wide Band Human Body Communication

Authors: Jonghoon Kim, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

A wrist-band type biosignal measurement system and its data transfer through human body communication (HBC) were investigated. An HBC method based on pulses of ultra-wide band instead of using frequency or amplitude modulations was studied and implemented since the system became very compact and it was more suited for personal or mobile health monitoring. Our system measured photo-plethysmogram (PPG) and measured PPG signals were transmitted through a finger to a monitoring PC system. The device was compact and low-power consuming. HBC communication has very strong security measures since it does not use wireless network. Furthermore, biosignal monitoring system becomes handy because it does not need to have wire connections.

Keywords: biosignal, human body communication, mobile health, PPG, ultrawide band

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
3674 A Compact Ultra-Wide Band Antenna with C-Shaped Slot for WLAN Notching

Authors: Maryam Rasool, Farhan Munir, Fahad Nawaz, Saad Ahmad

Abstract:

A patch antenna operating in the Ultra-Wide Band of frequency (3.1 GHz – 10.6 GHz) is designed with enhanced security from interference from other applications by incorporating the notching technique. Patch antennas in the Ultra-Wide Band are becoming widely famous due to their low power, light weight and high data rate capability. Micro strip patch antenna’s patch can be altered to increase its bandwidth and introduce UWB character in it. The designed antenna is a patch antenna consisting of a conductive sheet of metal mounted over a large sheet of metal called the ground plane with a substrate separating the two. Notched bands are public safety WLAN, WLAN and FSS. Different techniques used to implement the UWB antenna were individually implemented and there results were examined. V shaped patch was then chosen and modified to an arrow shaped patch to give the optimized results operating on the entire UWB region with considerable return loss. The frequency notch prevents the operation of the antenna at a particular range of frequency, hence minimizing interference from other systems. There are countless techniques for introducing the notch but we have used inverted C-shaped slots in the UWB patch to get the notch characteristics as output and also wavelength resonators to introduce notch in UWB band. The designed antenna is simulated in High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) 13.0 by Ansoft.

Keywords: HFSS, Notch, UWB, WLAN

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
3673 A Parasitic Resonator-Based Diamond Shape Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wide-Band Applications

Authors: M. Zulfiker Mahmud, M. Naimur Rahman, Farhad Bin Ashraf, Norbahiah Misran, Mohammad Tariqul Islam

Abstract:

This study proposes a diamond-shaped microstrip patch antenna for ultra-wideband applications. The antenna is made up of a diamond shape radiating patch, partial ground plane, and three asterisk-shaped parasitic elements. The parasitic elements are positioned above the ground plane to enhance the bandwidth and gain. The proposed antenna has a compact dimension of 30 x 25 x 1.6 mm3 and achieves an overall bandwidth (S11<-10dB) is 5.8 GHz from 2.7 GHz to 8.5 GHz. The antenna attains more than 4 dBi realized the gain and 80% efficiency over the bandwidth with omnidirectional radiation pattern. The design and simulation of the proposed antenna are performed in Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio. The observation during the analysis of the simulated data reveals that the proposed antenna is suitable for Ultra wide-band (UWB) applications where high gain is required.

Keywords: diamond-shaped antenna, microstrip antenna, parasitic resonator, UWB applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
3672 Microstrip Bandpass Filter with Wide Stopband and High Out-of-Band Rejection Based on Inter-Digital Capacitor

Authors: Mohamad Farhat, Bal Virdee

Abstract:

This paper present a compact Microstrip Bandpass filter exhibiting a very wide stop band and high selectivity. The filter comprises of asymmetric resonator structures, which are interconnected by an inter-digital capacitor to enable the realization of a wide bandwidth with high rejection level. High selectivity is obtained by optimizing the parameters of the interdigital capacitor. The filter has high out-of-band rejection (> 30 dB), less than 0.6 dB of insertion-loss, up to 5.5 GHz spurii free, and about 18 dB of return-loss. Full-wave electromagnetic simulator ADSTM (Mom) is used to analyze and optimize the prototype bandpass filter. The proposed technique was verified practically to validate the design methodology. The experimental results of the prototype circuit are presented and a good agreement was obtained comparing with the simulation results. The dimensions of the proposed filter are 32 x 24 mm2.The filter’s characteristics and compact size make it suitable for wireless communication systems.

Keywords: asymmetric resonator, bandpass filter, microstrip, spurious suppression, ultra-wide stop band

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
3671 Smart Meter Incorporating UWB Technology

Authors: T. A. Khan, A. B. Khan, M. Babar, T. A. Taj, Imran Ijaz Imran

Abstract:

Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional services as compared to the conventional energy meters. One of the important element that makes a meter smart and different is its communication module. Smart meters usually have two way and real-time communication between the consumer and the supplier through which its transfer data and information. In this paper, Ultra Wide Band (UWB) is recommended as communication platform because of its high data-rate and presents the physical layer, which could be easily incorporated in existing Smart Meters. The physical layer is simulated in MATLAB Simulink and the results are provided.

Keywords: Ultra Wide Band (UWB), Smart Meter, MATLAB, transfer data

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
3670 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, MahaLakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao

Abstract:

A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: absorber, C-band, metamaterial, multilayer, X-band

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
3669 Modified Step Size Patch Array Antenna for UWB Wireless Applications

Authors: Hamid Aslani, Ahmed Radwan

Abstract:

In this paper, a single element microstrip antenna is presented for UWB applications by using techniques as partial ground plane and modified the shape of the patch. The antenna is properly designed to have a compact size and constant gain against frequency. The simulated results have done using two EM software and show good agreement with the measured results for the fabricated antenna. Then a designing of two elements patch antenna array for UWB in the frequency band of 3.1-10 GHz is presented in this paper. The array is constructed by means of feeding two omni-directional modified circular patch elements with a modified power divider. Experimental results show that the array has a stable radiation pattern and low return loss over a broad bandwidth of 64% (3.1–10 GHz). Due to its planar profile, physically compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, directive performance over a wide bandwidth proposed antenna is a good candidate for portable UWB applications and other UWB integrated circuits.

Keywords: ultra wide band, radiation performance, microstrip antenna, size miniaturized antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
3668 Experimental Demonstration of Broadband Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier

Authors: Belloui Bouzid

Abstract:

In this paper, broadband design of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated and proved experimentally. High and broad gain is covered in C and L bands. The used technique combines, in one configuration, two double passes with split band structure for the amplification of two traveled signals one for the C band and the other for L band. This new topology is to investigate the trends of high gain and wide amplification at different status of pumping power, input wavelength, and input signal power. The presented paper is to explore the performance of EDFA gain using what it can be called double pass double branch wide band amplification configuration. The obtained results show high gain and wide broadening range of 44.24 dB and 80 nm amplification respectively.

Keywords: erbium doped fiber amplifier, erbium doped fiber laser, optical amplification, fiber laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
3667 Design Ultra Fast Gate Drive Board for Silicon Carbide MOSFET Applications

Authors: Syakirin O. Yong, Nasrudin A. Rahim, Bilal M. Eid, Buray Tankut

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to develop an ultra-fast gate driver for Silicon Carbide (SiC) based switching device applications such as AC/DC DC/AC converters. Wide bandgap semiconductors such as SiC switches are growing rapidly nowadays due to their numerous capabilities such as faster switching, higher power density and higher voltage level. Wide band-gap switches can work properly on high frequencies such 50-250 kHz which is very useful for many power electronic applications such as solar inverters. Increasing the frequency minimizes the output filter size and system complexity however, this causes huge spike between MOSFET’s drain and source leg which leads to the failure of MOSFET if the voltage rating is exceeded. This paper investigates and concludes the optimum design for a gate drive board for SiC MOSFET switches without causing spikes and noises.

Keywords: PV system, lithium-ion, charger, constant current, constant voltage, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
3666 Octagon Shaped Wearable Antenna for Band at 4GHz

Authors: M. Khazini, M.Damou, Z. Souar

Abstract:

In this paper, octagon antenna ultra wideband (UWB) low band wearable antenna designs have been proposed for in-body to on-body communication channel of wireless. Single element antenna, dual elements, are designed and compared in free space and in body proximity. Conformal design has been focused. Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is a material that has gained attention as a potential high-performance microwave substrate and packaging material. This investigation uses several methods to determine the electrical properties of LCP for millimeter-wave frequencies.

Keywords: ultra wideband, wearable antenna, slot antenna, liquid crystal polymer (LCP), CST studio

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
3665 Bandwidth Control Using Reconfigurable Antenna Elements

Authors: Sudhina H. K, Ravi M. Yadahalli, N. M. Shetti

Abstract:

Reconfigurable antennas represent a recent innovation in antenna design that changes from classical fixed-form, Fixed function antennas to modifiable structures that can be adapted to fit the requirements of a time varying system. The ability to control the operating band of an antenna system can have many useful applications. Systems that operate in an acquire-and-track configuration would see a benefit from active bandwidth control. In such systems a wide band search mode is first employed to find a desired signal, Then a narrow band track mode is used to follow only that signal. Utilizing active antenna bandwidth control, A single antenna would function for both the wide band and narrow band configurations providing the rejection of unwanted signals with the antenna hardware. This ability to move a portion of the RF filtering out of the receiver and onto the antenna itself will also aid in reducing the complexity of the often expensive RF processing subsystems.

Keywords: designing methods, mems, stack, reconfigurable elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3664 Compact Ultra-Wideband Printed Monopole Antenna with Inverted L-Shaped Slots for Data Communication and RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Mohamed Adel Sennouni, Jamal Zbitou, Benaissa Abboud, Abdelwahed Tribak, Hamid Bennis, Mohamed Latrach

Abstract:

A compact UWB planar antenna fed with a microstrip-line is proposed. The new design is composed of a rectangular patch with symmetric L-shaped slots and fed by 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and a reduced ground-plane which have a periodic slots with an overall size of 47 mm x 20 mm. It is intended to be used in wireless applications that cover the ultra-wideband (UWB) frequency band. A wider impedance bandwidth of around 116.5% (1.875

Keywords: UWB planar antenna, L-shaped slots, wireless applications, impedance band-width, radiation pattern, CST

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
3663 Multi-Band, Polarization Insensitive, Wide Angle Receptive Metamaterial Absorber for Microwave Applications

Authors: Lincy Stephen, N. Yogesh, G. Vasantharajan, V. Subramanian

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and simulation of a five band metamaterial absorber at microwave frequencies. The absorber unit cell consists of squares and strips arranged as the top layer and a metallic ground plane as the bottom layer on a dielectric substrate. Simulation results show five near perfect absorption bands at 3.15 GHz, 7.15 GHz, 11.12 GHz, 13.87 GHz, and 16.85 GHz with absorption magnitudes 99.68%, 99.05%, 96.98%, 98.36% and 99.44% respectively. Further, the proposed absorber exhibits polarization insensitivity and wide angle receptivity. The surface current analysis is presented to explain the mechanism of absorption in the structure. With these preferable features, the proposed absorber can be excellent choice for potential applications such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, radar cross section reduction.

Keywords: electromagnetic absorber, metamaterial, multi- band, polarization insensitive, wide angle receptive

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3662 Low-Voltage and Low-Power Bulk-Driven Continuous-Time Current-Mode Differentiator Filters

Authors: Ravi Kiran Jaladi, Ezz I. El-Masry

Abstract:

Emerging technologies such as ultra-wide band wireless access technology that operate at ultra-low power present several challenges due to their inherent design that limits the use of voltage-mode filters. Therefore, Continuous-time current-mode (CTCM) filters have become very popular in recent times due to the fact they have a wider dynamic range, improved linearity, and extended bandwidth compared to their voltage-mode counterparts. The goal of this research is to develop analog filters which are suitable for the current scaling CMOS technologies. Bulk-driven MOSFET is one of the most popular low power design technique for the existing challenges, while other techniques have obvious shortcomings. In this work, a CTCM Gate-driven (GD) differentiator has been presented with a frequency range from dc to 100MHz which operates at very low supply voltage of 0.7 volts. A novel CTCM Bulk-driven (BD) differentiator has been designed for the first time which reduces the power consumption multiple times that of GD differentiator. These GD and BD differentiator has been simulated using CADENCE TSMC 65nm technology for all the bilinear and biquadratic band-pass frequency responses. These basic building blocks can be used to implement the higher order filters. A 6th order cascade CTCM Chebyshev band-pass filter has been designed using the GD and BD techniques. As a conclusion, a low power GD and BD 6th order chebyshev stagger-tuned band-pass filter was simulated and all the parameters obtained from all the resulting realizations are analyzed and compared. Monte Carlo analysis is performed for both the 6th order filters and the results of sensitivity analysis are presented.

Keywords: bulk-driven (BD), continuous-time current-mode filters (CTCM), gate-driven (GD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3661 A Wideband CMOS Power Amplifier with 23.3 dB S21, 10.6 dBm Psat and 12.3% PAE for 60 GHz WPAN and 77 GHz Automobile Radar Systems

Authors: Yo-Sheng Lin, Chien-Chin Wang, Yun-Wen Lin, Chien-Yo Lee

Abstract:

A wide band power amplifier (PA) for 60 GHz and 77 GHz direct-conversion transceiver using standard 90 nm CMOS technology is reported. The PA comprises a cascode input stage with a wide band T-type input-matching network and inductive interconnection and load, followed by a common-source (CS) gain stage and a CS output stage. To increase the saturated output power (PSAT) and power-added efficiency (PAE), the output stage adopts a two-way power dividing and combining architecture. Instead of the area-consumed Wilkinson power divider and combiner, miniature low-loss transmission-line inductors are used at the input and output terminals of each of the output stages for wide band input and output impedance matching to 100 ohm. This in turn results in further PSAT and PAE enhancement. The PA consumes 92.2 mW and achieves maximum power gain (S21) of 23.3 dB at 56 GHz, and S21 of 21.7 dB and 14 dB, respectively, at 60 GHz and 77 GHz. In addition, the PA achieves excellent saturated output power (PSAT) of 10.6 dB and maximum power added efficiency (PAE) of 12.3% at 60 GHz. At 77 GHz, the PA achieves excellent PSAT of 10.4 dB and maximum PAE of 6%. These results demonstrate the proposed wide band PA architecture is very promising for 60 GHz wireless personal local network (WPAN) and 77 GHz automobile radar systems.

Keywords: 60 GHz, 77 GHz, PA, WPAN, automotive radar

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
3660 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad

Abstract:

In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: wearable electronics, slot Antenna, LTE, WLAN

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
3659 Low Profile Wide-Band Broad Side RMSA Suitable for On-Board Applications

Authors: Qaisar Fraz, H. M. Jafar, Mojeeb Bin Ihsan

Abstract:

This paper presents simulation and experimen-tal results for wide band U-shaped side slots loaded linearly polarized rectangular microstrip antenna with broad side radiation characteristics suitable for onboard applications. The structure has been evolved in rugged and compact form to make it suitable for on-board applications. In addition to U-shaped central slot, pair of parallel narrow slots has been embedded close to non-radiating edges. The size and shape of these side slots have been optimized to improve the matching at upper frequency of the band. The impedance bandwidth of 34.8% as compared to 2-5% bandwidth of conventional microstrip antenna has been achieved. The frequency ratio of the two well-matched operating sections is found to be f2 / f1=1.33. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results.

Keywords: low profile antennas, u-slot antennas, broad band antennas, broad-side radiation pattern, high gain antennas

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3658 A Compact Via-less Ultra-Wideband Microstrip Filter by Utilizing Open-Circuit Quarter Wavelength Stubs

Authors: Muhammad Yasir Wadood, Fatemeh Babaeian

Abstract:

By developing ultra-wideband (UWB) systems, there is a high demand for UWB filters with low insertion loss, wide bandwidth, and having a planar structure which is compatible with other components of the UWB system. A microstrip interdigital filter is a great option for designing UWB filters. However, the presence of via holes in this structure creates difficulties in the fabrication procedure of the filter. Especially in the higher frequency band, any misalignment of the drilled via hole with the Microstrip stubs causes large errors in the measurement results compared to the desired results. Moreover, in this case (high-frequency designs), the line width of the stubs are very narrow, so highly precise small via holes are required to be implemented, which increases the cost of fabrication significantly. Also, in this case, there is a risk of having fabrication errors. To combat this issue, in this paper, a via-less UWB microstrip filter is proposed which is designed based on a modification of a conventional inter-digital bandpass filter. The novel approaches in this filter design are 1) replacement of each via hole with a quarter-wavelength open circuit stub to avoid the complexity of manufacturing, 2) using a bend structure to reduce the unwanted coupling effects and 3) minimising the size. Using the proposed structure, a UWB filter operating in the frequency band of 3.9-6.6 GHz (1-dB bandwidth) is designed and fabricated. The promising results of the simulation and measurement are presented in this paper. The selected substrate for these designs was Rogers RO4003 with a thickness of 20 mils. This is a common substrate in most of the industrial projects. The compact size of the proposed filter is highly beneficial for applications which require a very miniature size of hardware.

Keywords: band-pass filters, inter-digital filter, microstrip, via-less

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
3657 Electronic Structure Calculation of AsSiTeB/SiAsBTe Nanostructures Using Density Functional Theory

Authors: Ankit Kargeti, Ravikant Shrivastav, Tabish Rasheed

Abstract:

The electronic structure calculation for the nanoclusters of AsSiTeB/SiAsBTe quaternary semiconductor alloy belonging to the III-V Group elements was performed. Motivation for this research work was to look for accurate electronic and geometric data of small nanoclusters of AsSiTeB/SiAsBTe in the gaseous form. The two clusters, one in the linear form and the other in the bent form, were studied under the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) using the B3LYP functional and LANL2DZ basis set with the software packaged Gaussian 16. We have discussed the Optimized Energy, Frontier Orbital Energy Gap in terms of HOMO-LUMO, Dipole Moment, Ionization Potential, Electron Affinity, Binding Energy, Embedding Energy, Density of States (DoS) spectrum for both structures. The important findings of the predicted nanostructures are that these structures have wide band gap energy, where linear structure has band gap energy (Eg) value is 2.375 eV and bent structure (Eg) value is 2.778 eV. Therefore, these structures can be utilized as wide band gap semiconductors. These structures have high electron affinity value of 4.259 eV for the linear structure and electron affinity value of 3.387 eV for the bent structure form. It shows that electron acceptor capability is high for both forms. The widely known application of these compounds is in the light emitting diodes due to their wide band gap nature.

Keywords: density functional theory, DFT, density functional theory, nanostructures, HOMO-LUMO, density of states

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
3656 Ultra-Wideband Antennas for Ultra-Wideband Communication and Sensing Systems

Authors: Meng Miao, Jeongwoo Han, Cam Nguyen

Abstract:

Ultra-wideband (UWB) time-domain impulse communication and radar systems use ultra-short duration pulses in the sub-nanosecond regime, instead of continuous sinusoidal waves, to transmit information. The pulse directly generates a very wide-band instantaneous signal with various duty cycles depending on specific usages. In UWB systems, the total transmitted power is spread over an extremely wide range of frequencies; the power spectral density is extremely low. This effectively results in extremely small interference to other radio signals while maintains excellent immunity to interference from these signals. UWB devices can therefore work within frequencies already allocated for other radio services, thus helping to maximize this dwindling resource. Therefore, impulse UWB technique is attractive for realizing high-data-rate, short-range communications, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and military radar with relatively low emission power levels. UWB antennas are the key element dictating the transmitted and received pulse shape and amplitude in both time and frequency domain. They should have good impulse response with minimal distortion. To facilitate integration with transmitters and receivers employing microwave integrated circuits, UWB antennas enabling direct integration are preferred. We present the development of two UWB antennas operating from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz and 0.3-6 GHz for UWB systems that provide direct integration with microwave integrated circuits. The operation of these antennas is based on the principle of wave propagation on a non-uniform transmission line. Time-domain EM simulation is conducted to optimize the antenna structures to minimize reflections occurring at the open-end transition. Calculated and measured results of these UWB antennas are presented in both frequency and time domains. The antennas have good time-domain responses. They can transmit and receive pulses effectively with minimum distortion, little ringing, and small reflection, clearly demonstrating the signal fidelity of the antennas in reproducing the waveform of UWB signals which is critical for UWB sensors and communication systems. Good performance together with seamless microwave integrated-circuit integration makes these antennas good candidates not only for UWB applications but also for integration with printed-circuit UWB transmitters and receivers.

Keywords: antennas, ultra-wideband, UWB, UWB communication systems, UWB radar systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
3655 Parametric Analysis of Water Lily Shaped Split Ring Resonator Loaded Fractal Monopole Antenna for Multiband Applications

Authors: C. Elavarasi, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

A coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed is presented, and comprising a split ring resonator (SRR) loaded fractal with water lily shape is used for multi band applications. The impedance matching of the antenna is determined by the number of Koch curve fractal unit cells. The antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate with a permittivity of εr = 4.4 and size of 14 x 16 x 1.6 mm3 to generate multi resonant mode at 3.8 GHz covering S band, 8.68 GHz at X band, 13.96 GHz at Ku band, and 19.74 GHz at K band with reflection coefficient better than -10 dB. Simulation results show that the antenna exhibits the desired voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) level and radiation patterns across the wide frequency range. The fundamental parameters of the antenna such as return loss, VSWR, good radiation pattern with reasonable gain across the operating bands are obtained.

Keywords: fractal, metamaterial, split ring resonator, waterlily shape

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
3654 Performance Analysis of VoIP Coders for Different Modulations Under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Jasbinder Singh, Harjit Pal Singh, S. A. Khan

Abstract:

The work, in this paper, presents the comparison of encoded speech signals by different VoIP narrow-band and wide-band codecs for different modulation schemes. The simulation results indicate that codec has an impact on the speech quality and also effected by modulation schemes.

Keywords: VoIP, coders, modulations, BER, MOS

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
3653 Performance Improvement of UWB Corrugated Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Using Spiral Shape Negative Index Metamaterial

Authors: Rahul Singha, D. Vakula

Abstract:

This paper presents a corrugated antipodal vivaldi antenna with improved performance by using negative index metamaterial (NIM) of the Archimedean spiral design. A single layer NIM piece is placed perpendicular middle of the two arm of the proposed antenna. The antenna size is 30×60×0.787 mm3 operating at 8GHz. The simulated results of NIM corrugated antipodal vivaldi antenna show that the gain and directivity has increased up to 1.2dB and 1dB respectively. The HPBW is increased by 90 with the reflection coefficient less than ‒10 dB from 4.7 GHz to 11 GHz for UWB application.

Keywords: Negative Index Metamaterial (NIM), Ultra Wide Band (UWB), Half Power Beam Width (HPBW), vivaldi antenna

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3652 Preparation and Visible Light Photoactivity of N-Doped ZnO/ZnS Photocatalysts

Authors: Nuray Güy, Mahmut Özacar

Abstract:

Semiconductor nanoparticles such as TiO₂ and ZnO as photocatalysts are very efficient catalysts for wastewater treatment by the chemical utilization of light energy, which is capable of converting the toxic and nonbiodegradable organic compounds into carbon dioxide and mineral acids. ZnO semiconductor has a wide bandgap energy of 3.37 eV and a relatively large exciton binding Energy (60 meV), thus can absorb only UV light with the wavelength equal to or less than 385 nm. It exhibits low efficiency under visible light illumination due to its wide band gap energy. In order to improve photocatalytic activity of ZnO under visible light, band gap of ZnO may be narrowed by doping such as N, C, S nonmetal ions and coupled two separate semiconductors possessing different energy levels for their corresponding conduction and valence bands. ZnS has a wider band gap (Eg=3.7 eV) than ZnO and generates electron–hole pairs by photoexcitation rapidly. In the present work, N doped ZnO/ZnS nano photocatalysts with visible-light response were synthesized by microwave-hydrothermal method using thiourea as N source. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV–visible (UV–vis). The photocatalytic activities samples and undoped ZnO have been studied for the degradation of dye, and have also been compared with together.

Keywords: photocatalyst, synthesis, visible light, ZnO/ZnS

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
3651 Design of Ka-Band Satellite Links in Indonesia

Authors: Zulfajri Basri Hasanuddin

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for broadband services in Indonesia. Therefore, the answer is the use of Ka-Band which has some advantages such as wider bandwidth, the higher transmission speeds, and smaller size of antenna in the ground. However, rain attenuation is the primary factor in the degradation of signal at the Kaband. In this paper, the author will determine whether the Ka-band frequency can be implemented in Indonesia which has high intensity of rainfall.

Keywords: Ka-band, link budget, link availability, BER, Eb/No, C/N

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
3650 Novel Microstrip MIMO Antenna for 3G/4G Applications

Authors: Sandro Samir Nasief, Hussein Hamed Ghouz, Mohamed Fathy

Abstract:

A compact ultra-wide band micro-strip MIMO antenna is introduced. The antenna consists of two elements each of size 24X24 mm2 (square millimetre) while the total MIMO size is 58X24 mm2 after the spacing between MIMO elements and adding a decouple circuit. The first one covers from 3.29 to 6.9 GHZ using digital ground and the second antenna covers from 8.76 to 13.27 GHZ using defective ground. This type of antenna is used for 3G and 4G applications. The introduction for the antenna structure and the parametric study (reflection coefficients, gain, coupling and decoupling) will be introduced.

Keywords: micro-strip antenna, MIMO, digital ground, defective ground, decouple circuit, bandwidth

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3649 Miniaturized Wideband Single-Feed Shorted-Edge Stacked Patch Antenna for C-Band Applications

Authors: Abdelheq Boukarkar, Omar Guermoua

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a miniaturized and wideband patch antenna for C-band applications. The antenna miniaturization is obtained by loading shorting vias along one patch edge. At the same time, the wideband performance is achieved by combining two resonances using one feed line. The measured results reveal that the antenna covers the frequency band 4.32 GHz to 6.52 GHz (41%) with a peak gain and a peak efficiency of 5.5 dBi and 87%, respectively. The antenna occupies a relatively small size of only 26 x 22 x 5.6 mm3, making it suitable for compact wireless devices requiring a stable unidirectional gain over a wide frequency range.

Keywords: miniaturized antennas, patch antennas, stable gain, wideband antennas

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3648 Band Structure Computation of GaMnAs Using the Multiband k.p Theory

Authors: Khadijah B. Alziyadi, Khawlh A. Alzubaidi, Amor M. Alsayari

Abstract:

Recently, GaMnAs diluted magnetic semiconductors(DMSs) have received considerable attention because they combine semiconductor and magnetic properties. GaMnAs has been used as a model DMS and as a test bed for many concepts and functionalities of spintronic devices. In this paper, a theoretical study on the band structure ofGaMnAswill be presented. The model that we used in this study is the 8-band k.p methodwherespin-orbit interaction, spin splitting, and strain are considered. The band structure of GaMnAs will be calculated in different directions in the reciprocal space. The effect of manganese content on the GaMnAs band structure will be discussed. Also, the influence of strain, which varied continuously from tensile to compressive, on the different bands will be studied.

Keywords: band structure, diluted magnetic semiconductor, k.p method, strain

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