Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 413

Search results for: antibacterial

413 An Antibacterial Dental Restorative Containing 3,4-Dichlorocrotonolactone: Synthesis, Formulation and Evaluation

Authors: Dong Xie, Leah Howard, Yiming Weng

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 5-acryloyloxy-3,4-dichlorocrotonolactone (a furanone derivative), use this derivative to modify a dental restorative, and study the effect of the derivative on the antibacterial activity and compressive strength of the formed restorative. In this study, a furanone derivative was synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate a dental restorative. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed restorative. The fabricated restorative specimens were photocured and conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h, followed by direct testing for CS or/and incubating with S. mutans for 48 h for antibacterial testing. The results show that the modified dental restorative showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With addition of the antibacterial derivative up to 30%, the restorative kept its original CS nearly unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with 68% reduction in the S. mutans viability. Furthermore, the antibacterial function of the modified restorative was not affected by human saliva. The aging study also indicates that the modified restorative may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. It is concluded that this experimental antibacterial restorative may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental filling restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function.

Keywords: antibacterial, dental restorative, compressive strength, S. mutans viability

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412 A Furaneol-Containing Glass-Ionomer Cement for Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Dong Xie, Yuling Xu, Leah Howard

Abstract:

Secondary caries is found to be one of the main reasons to the restoration failure of dental restoratives. To prevent secondary caries formation, dental restoratives ought to be made antibacterial. In this study, a natural fruit component furaneol was tethered onto polyacid, the formed polyacid was used to formulate the light-curable glass-ionomer cements, and then the effect of this new antibacterial compound on compressive strength (CS) and antibacterial activity of the formed cement was evaluated. Fuji II LC glass powders were used as fillers. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed cement. The experimental cement showed a significant antibacterial activity, accompanying with an initial CS reduction. Increasing the compound loading significantly decreased the S. mutans viability from 5 to 81% and also reduced the initial CS of the formed cements from 4 to 58%. The cement loading with 7% antibacterial polymer showed 168 MPa, 7.8 GPa, 243 MPa, 46 MPa, and 57 MPa in yield strength, modulus, CS, diametral tensile strength and flexural strength, respectively, as compared to 141, 6.9, 236, 42 and 53 for Fuji II LC. The cement also showed an antibacterial function to other bacteria. No human saliva effect was noticed. It is concluded that the experimental cement may potentially be developed to a permanent antibacterial cement.

Keywords: antibacterial, dental materials, strength, cell viability

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411 Mansonone G and Its Ether Analogues as New Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Rita Hairani, Warinthorn Chavasiri

Abstract:

Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widespread in nature and can be produced by plants, fungi and actinomycetes. The interest of naphthoquinones is not only limited as organic dyes, but also their wide variety of biological activities such as antitumor, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. Typical 1,2-naphthoquinones such as mansonones can be found in Mansonia gagei Drumm. (“chan-cha-mod”), Sterculaceae family. This plant has been used traditionally to treat some diseases such as antiemetic and antidepressant. In this study, some natural mansonones isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract of M. gagei heartwood have been assessed for their antibacterial activities using agar well diffusion method. According to the antibacterial activity results of four natural mansonones (mansonones C, E, G and H), mansonones E and G showed higher activities than the others against Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi, respectively. Since mansonone G exhibited good antibacterial activity and was obtained in the highest yield, we decided to derivertize mansonone G into five ether analogues. Based on the antibacterial activities of these synthesized compounds, four ether analogues (compounds 1-4) revealed higher antibacterial activities than its natural mansonone G against S. aureus and S. typhi.

Keywords: Mansonia gagei Drumm., antibacterial activities, mansonone G, ether analogues

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410 Anti-Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Compounds from Bauhinia kockiana Korth and Their Mechanism of Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Yik Ling Chew, Adlina Maisarah Mahadi, Joo Kheng Goh

Abstract:

Bauhinia kockiana originates from Peninsular Malaysia, and it is grown as a garden ornamental plant. However, it is used as medicinal plant by Malaysia ‘Kelabit’ ethic group in treating various diseases and illnesses. This study focused on the assessment of the antibacterial activity of B. kockiana towards MRSA, to purify and identify the antibacterial compounds, and to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity of B. kockiana flower is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using disc diffusion assay and microbroth dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of extracts. Phytochemical analysis is performed to determine the classes of phytochemicals in the extracts. Bioactivity-guided isolation is performed to purify the antibacterial agents and identified the chemical structures via various spectroscopy methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique is adopted to evaluate the antibacterial mechanism of extract and compounds isolated. B. kockiana flower is found to exhibit fairly strong antibacterial activity towards both strains of MRSA bacteria. Gallic acid and its ester derivatives are purified from ethyl acetate extract and the antibacterial activity is evaluated. SEM has revealed the mechanism of the extracts and compounds isolated.

Keywords: alkyl gallates, Bauhinia kockiana, MRSA, scanning electron microscopy

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409 Study of Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Algerian Medicinal Plant

Authors: Khadri Sihem, Abbaci Nafissa, Zerari Labiba

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In the context of the search for new bioactive natural products, we were interested in evaluating some antibacterial properties of two plant extracts: total phenols and flavonoids of Algerian medicinal plant. Our study occurs in two axes: The first concerns the extraction of phenolic compounds and flavonoids with methanol by liquid-liquid extraction, followed by quantification of the levels of these compounds in the end the analysis of the chemical composition of extracts. In the second axis, we studied the antibacterial power of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, flavonoids, medicinal plants, polyphenols

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408 Effect of Nano-Copper Oxide Synthesized by Solution-Based Chemical Precipitation Method on Antibacterial Polyester Nanocopper Oxide Composite

Authors: Jordy Herfandi, Faris Naufal, Anne Zulfia Syahrial

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Antibacterial materials have become future textile materials due to the escalation of people’s awareness regarding the importance of maintaining health. Textile materials with antibacterial properties are examples in application which has positive results in various aspects. In this research polyester nano-copper oxide composite with nanoparticle is synthesized by solution-based chemical precipitation method from Cu(NO3)2 solution. Parameters such as precursor concentration is varied to determine which composition would result in effective properties of antibacterial composite. The antibacterial property is observed using disk diffusion method and SEM observation is conducted on each specimen. The composites produced are able to inhibit the growth of both positive gram bacteria (i.e. S. aureus) and negative gram bacteria (i.e. E. coli), thus, highly capable of helping to prevent the spread of disease.

Keywords: copper oxide nanoparticle, antibacterial, solution-based chemical precipitation, polyester composite

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407 Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Punica Granatum L. Bark

Authors: H. Kadi, A. Moussaoui, A. Medah, N. Benayahia, Nahal Bouderba

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For thousands of years, Punica granatum L. has been used in traditional medicine all over the world and predate the introduction of antibacterial drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. bark obtained by decoction and maceration. The different extracts of Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) bark have been tested for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stearothermophilus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic macerate extract showed the strong in vitro antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone inhibition of 24.4 mm. However, the results tests by disc diffusion method revealed the effectiveness of ethanolic decoctate against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus stearothermophilus) with diameter zone of inhibition varying with 21.1mm and 23.75 mm respectively.

Keywords: Punica granatum L. bark, antibacterial activity, maceration, decoction

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406 In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Methanol Extracts of Tamus communis L. from Algeria

Authors: F. Belkhiri, A. Baghiani, S. Boumerfeg, N. Charef, S. Khennouf, L. Arrar

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts from roots of Tamus communis L. (TCRE), which is a plant used in traditional medicine in Algeria. The antioxidant potential of pattern was evaluated using tow complementary techniques, inhibition of free radical DPPH and the test of β-Carotene/linoleic acid. The antioxidant test indicates that non-polar fractions of TCRE (chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions) were more active than the polar fractions. Among these fractions, the chloroform extract appear in the DPPH test an IC50 of (18.89 µg/ml) comparable to that of BHT (18.6 µg/ml). This fraction was able to inhibiting the oxidation of β-Carotene with a percentage of inhibition (89.84 %). In antibacterial test, non-polar fractions showed antibacterial activity very important compared with the polar fractions. These fractions have inhibited the growth of four from nine bacterial strains, causing zones of inhibition from 08 to 23 mm of diameter.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, Tamus communis L., polar fractions

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405 Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Papain Hydrolysed Camel Milk Whey and Its Fractions

Authors: M. Abdel-Hamid, P. Saporito, R. V. Mateiu, A. Osman, E. Romeih, H. Jenssen

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Camel milk whey (CMW) was hydrolyzed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of the CMW, Camel milk whey hydrolysate (CMWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SEC-F2 (fraction 2) exhibited antibacterial effectiveness against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 and 0.156 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, SEC-F2 significantly decreased biofilm biomass by 71% and 83 % for MRSA and P. aeruginosa in a crystal violet microplate assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 caused changes in the treated bacterial cells. Additionally, LC/MS analysis was used to characterize the peptides of SEC-F2. Two major peptides were detected in SEC-F2 having masses of 414.05 Da and 456.06 Da. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of CMW with papain generates small and extremely potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm peptides against both MRSA and P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: camel milk, whey proteins, antibacterial peptide, anti-biofilm

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404 Salmonella Spp. and Essential Oil of Laurus nobilis

Authors: Karima Oldyerou, B. Meddah, A. Tirtouil

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The food borne infections have a significant impact on public health. Salmonella is the first bacterial cause, especially because of its general availability in the intestinal tract of poultry, pigs and cattle. This bacteria and essential oil of Laurus nobilis subject in this article. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity shows a sensitivity of Salmonella spp. with a MIC of 2.5 mg.ml -1 in vivo after infection of wistar rats and administered orally this essential oil, microbiological results fecal material shows the antibacterial effect of this oil on Salmonella spp.

Keywords: Laurus nobilis, essential oil, salmonella, antibacterial activity, fecal matte

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403 Zinc (II) Complexes of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Sulfur Coordination Modes: Synthesis, Spectral Studies and Antibacterial Activities

Authors: Ayodele Odularu, Peter Ajibade, Albert Bolhuis

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This study aimed at assessing the antibacterial activities of four zinc (II) complexes. Zinc (II) complexes of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur coordination modes were synthesized using direct substitution reaction. The characterization techniques involved physicochemical properties (molar conductivity) and spectroscopic techniques. The molar conductivity gave the non-electrolytic nature of zinc (II) complexes. The spectral studies of zinc (II) complexes were done using electronic spectra (UV-Vis) and Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Spectral data from the spectroscopic studies confirmed the coordination of the mixed ligands with zinc (II) ion. The antibacterial activities of zinc(II) complexes of were all in supportive of Overtone’s concept and Tweedy’s theory of chelation for bacterial strains of S. aureus MRSA252 and E coli MC4100 because the zones of inhibition were greater than the corresponding ligands. In summary, all zinc (II) complexes of ZEPY, ZE1PH, ZE1PY and ZE135PY all have potentials for antibacterial activities.

Keywords: antibacterial activities, spectral studies, syntheses, zinc(II) complexes

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402 Screening for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Cytotoxic Agents in Three Hard Coral Species from Persian Gulf

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpou, Majid Afkhami, Flora Mohammadizadeh, Amirhoushang Bahri, Rastin Afkhami

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Within the frame of a biodiversity and bioactivity study of marine macro organisms from the Persian Gulf, three hard coral species extracts were investigated for cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities against five human pathogenic microorganisms. All concentrations of extracts from three hard corals showed no antifungal activity towards the tested strains. In antibacterial assays, the hard coral extracts showed significant activity solely against Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 3 to 9 μg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity was found in the aqueous methanol extract of Porites compressa with an inhibition zone of 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus at 18 μg/ml extract concentration. Methanol extracts from Porites harrisoi and Porites compressa exhibited only weak cytotoxic activities. It is important for future research to concentrate on finding the mechanisms employed by corals to defend themselves against invasion, the mechanism of infections and the type of chemical compounds in coral extracts that inhibit antibacterial growth or proliferation in underexplored areas such as the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, hard corals, Persian Gulf

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401 Biosynthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Property

Authors: Prachi Singh

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This paper presents a low-cost, eco-friendly and reproducible microbe mediated biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized using the bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, from titanium as a precursor, were confirmed by TEM analysis. The morphological characteristics state spherical shape, with the size of individual or aggregate nanoparticles, around 30-40 nm. Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. Here, the antibacterial effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on Escherichia coli was investigated, which was confirmed by CFU (Colony-forming unit). Further, growth curve study of E. coli Hb101 in the presence and absence of TiO2 nanoparticles was done. Optical density decrease was observed with the increase in the concentration of TiO2. It could be attributed to the inactivation of cellular enzymes and DNA by binding to electron-donating groups such as carboxylates, amides, indoles, hydroxyls, thiols, etc. which cause little pores in bacterial cell walls, leading to increased permeability and cell death. This justifies that TiO2 nanoparticles have efficient antibacterial effect and have potential to be used as an antibacterial agent for different purposes.

Keywords: antibacterial effect, CFU, Escherichia coli Hb101, growth curve, TEM, TiO2 nanoparticle, Toxicity, UV-Vis

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400 Effect of Iron Fortification on the Antibacterial Activity of Synbiotic Fermented Milk

Authors: Siti Helmyati, Euis Nurdiyawati, Joko Susilo, Endri Yuliati, Siti Fadhilatun Nashriyah, Kurnia Widyastuti

Abstract:

Background: Iron fortification is one of the most effective and sustainable strategies to overcome anemia. It contradictively, has negative effect on gut microbiota balance. Pathogenic bacteria required iron for their growth. The iron source have greatly affect iron absorption in the intestine. Probiotic can inhibit the growth of pathogen. Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, Indonesian local isolate provides many benefits for health while fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) provides selective substrates for probiotics’ growth. Objective: To determine the effect of iron fortification (NaFeEDTA and FeSO4) on antibacterial activity of synbiotic fermented milk. Methods: The antibacterial activity test was performed using the disc diffusion method. Paper discs were soaked in three kinds of synbiotic fermented milk, which are: 1) fortified with NaFeEDTA, 2) FeSO4 and 3) control. Escherichia coli was inoculated on nutrient agar medium. The ability of inhibition was shown by the formation of clear zone around the paper disc and measured in diameter (mm). Results: Synbiotic fermented milk fortified with iron (either NaFeEDTA or FeSO4) had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with diameter of clear zone were 6.53 mm and 12.3 mm, respectively (p<0.05). Compared to control (10.73 mm), synbiotic fermented milk fortified with FeSO4 had similar antibacterial activity (p>0.05). Conclusions: In vitro, synbiotic fermented milk fortified with NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 had different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. Iron fortification compound affected the antibacterial activity of synbiotic fermented milk.

Keywords: lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13, FOS, NaFeEDTA, FeSO4, antibacterial activity

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399 Design, Synthesis and In-Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Some Novel Spiro[Azetidine-2, 3’-Indole]-2, 4(1’H)-Dione

Authors: Ravi J. Shah

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The present study deals with the synthesis of novel spiro[azetidine-2, 3’-indole]-2’, 4(1’H)-dione derivative from the reactions of 3-(phenylimino)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one derivatives with chloracetyl chloride in presence of triethyl amine (TEA). All the compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. They were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Results revealed that, compounds (7a), (7b), (7c), (7d) and (7e) showed very good activity with MIC value of 6.25-12.5 μg/ml against three evaluated bacterial strains and the remaining compounds showed good to moderate activity comparable to standard drugs as antibacterial agents. Compounds (7c) and (7h) displayed equipotent antifungal activity in comparison to standard drugs. Structure-activity relationship study of the compounds showed that the presence of electron withdrawing group substitution at 5’ and 7’ positions of indoline ring and on ortho or para position of phenyl ring increases both antibacterial and antifungal activity of the compound. Henceforth, our findings will have a good impact on chemists and biochemists for further investigations in search of bromine containing spiro fused antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, 2-Azetidinone, indoline

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398 Control of Microbial Pollution Using Biodegradable Polymer

Authors: Mahmoud H. Abu Elella, Riham R. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa

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Introduction: Microbial pollution is global problem threatening the human health. It is resulted by pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and other pathogenic strains. They cause a dangerous effect on human health, so great efforts have been exerted to produce new and effective antimicrobial agents. Nowadays, natural polysaccharides, such as chitosan and its derivatives are used as antimicrobial agents. The aim of our work is to synthesize of a biodegradable polymer such as N-quaternized chitosan (NQC) then Characterization of NQC by using different analysis techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and using it as an antibacterial agent against different pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Synthesis of NQC using dimethylsulphate. Results: FTIR technique exhibited absorption peaks of NQC, SEM images illustrated that surface of NQC was smooth and antibacterial results showed that NQC had a high antibacterial effect. Discussion: NQC was prepared and it was proved by FTIR technique and SEM images antibacterial results exhibited that NQC was an antibacterial agent.

Keywords: antimicrobial agent, N-quaternized chitosan chloride, silver nanocomposites, sodium polyacrylate

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397 Phytochemical and Antibacterial Activity of Chrysanthellum indicum (Linn) Extracts

Authors: I. L. Ibrahim, A. Mann, B. M. Abdullahi

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Infectious diseases are prevalent in developing countries and plant extracts are known to contained bioactive compounds that can be used in the management of these diseases. The entire plant of Chrysanthellum indicum (Linn) was air-dried and pulverized into fine powder and then percolated to give ethanol and aqueous extracts. These extracts were phytochemically screened for metabolites and evaluated antibacterial activity against some pathogenic organisms Klebsilla, pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar dilution method. It was found that crude extracts of C. indicum revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroidal nucleus, cardiac glycosides, and coumarin while flavonoids and anthraquinones were absent. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the active extract of C. indicum shows that the extract could be a potential source of antibacterial agents.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Chrysanthellum indicum, infectious diseases, phytochemical screening

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396 Antibacterial Activity of Northern Algerian Honey

Authors: Messaouda Belaid, Salima Kebbouche-Gana, Djamila Benaziza

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Our study focuses on determining the antibacterial activity of some honeys from northern Algeria. To test this activity, the agar well diffusion methods was employed. The bacterial strains tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeroginosae. The results showed that all the microbes tested were inhibited by all honey used in this study but Those bacteria that appear to be more sensitive to all honey tested are Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosae.

Keywords: honey, antibacterial activity, Northern Algeria, Staphylococcus aureus

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395 Olive Oils from Algeria: Phenolic Compounds Composition and Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Firdaousse Laincer, Rahima Laribi, Abderazak Tamendjari, Rovellini Venturini

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Phenolic compounds present in olive oil have received much attention in recent years due to their beneficial functional and nutritional effects. Phenolic composition, antibacterial activity of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from Algeria were investigated. The analysis of polyphenols was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC. As a result, many phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by using HPLC; derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, flavonoids, and lignans reporting unique and characteristic phenolic profile. These phenolic fractions also differentiate the total antibacterial activity. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and, to a lesser extent, B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg•mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg•mL-1, respectively. The results obtained denote that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of healthy compounds, phenolics compounds, in the diet, suggesting that their consumption could be useful in the prevention of diseases.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, olive oil, phenols, HPLC

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394 Extraction and Antibacterial Studies of Oil from Three Mango Kernel Obtained from Makurdi, Nigeria

Authors: K. Asemave, D. O. Abakpa, T. T. Ligom

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The ability of bacteria to develop resistance to many antibiotics cannot be undermined, given the multifaceted health challenges in the present times. For this reason, a lot of attention is on botanicals and their products in search of new antibacterial agents. On the other hand, mango kernel oils (MKO) can be heavily valorized by taking advantage of the myriads bioactive phytochemicals it contains. Herein, we validated the use of MKO as bioactive agent against bacteria. The MKOs for the study were extracted by soxhlet means with ethanol and hexane for 4 h from 3 different mango kernels, namely; 'local' (sample A), 'julie' (sample B), and 'john' (sample C). Prior to the extraction, ground fine particles of the kernels were obtained from the seed kernels dried in oven at 100 °C for 8 h. Hexane gave higher yield of the oils than ethanol. It was also qualitatively confirmed that the mango kernel oils contain some phytochemicals such as phenol, quinone, saponin, and terpenoid. The results of the antibacterial activities of the MKO against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at different concentrations showed that the oils extracted with ethanol gave better antibacterial properties than those of the hexane. More so, the bioactivities were best with the local mango kernel oil. Indeed this work has completely validated the previous claim that MKOs are effective antibacterial agents. Thus, these oils (especially the ethanol-derived ones) can be used as bacteriostatic and antibacterial agents in say food, cosmetics, and allied industries.

Keywords: bacteria, mango, kernel, oil, phytochemicals

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393 Antibacterial Activities, Chemical Constitutes and Acute Toxicity of Peganum Harmala L. Essential Oil

Authors: Samy Selim

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Natural products are still major sources of innovative therapeutic agents for various conditions, including infectious diseases. Peganum harmala L. oil had wide range uses as traditional medicinal plants. The current study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of P. harmala essential oil. The chemical constitutes and toxicity of these oils was also determined to obtain further information on the correlation between the chemical contents and antibacterial activity. The antibacterial effect of the essential oils of P. harmala oil was studied against some foodborne pathogenic bacteria species. The oil of plant was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The impact of oils administration on the change in rate of weight gain and complete blood picture in hamsters were investigated. P. harmala oil had strong antibacterial effect against bacterial species especially at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than 75.0 μg/ml. From the oil of P. harmala, forty one compounds were identified, and the major constituent was 1-hexyl-2-nitrocyclohexane (9.07%). Acute toxicity test was performed on hamsters and showed complete survival after 14 days, and there were no toxicity symptoms occurred. This study demonstrated that these essential oils seemed to be destitute of toxic effect which could compromise the medicinal use of these plants in folk medicine.

Keywords: analysis mass spectrometry, antibacterial activities, acute toxicity, chemical constitutes, gas chromatography, weight gain, Peganum harmala

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392 Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles along with Sodium Hydroxide on Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Maryam Mohammdi, Loghman Karimi

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In this study, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out along with the hydrolysis of Polyethylene terephthalate using sodium hydroxide to increase the surface activity and enhance the nanoparticles adsorption. The polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ultrasound bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The self-cleaning property of treated polyethylene terephthalate was evaluated through discoloring methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.

Keywords: zinc oxide, polyethylene terephthalate, self-cleaning, antibacterial

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391 Synthesis, Molecular-Docking, and Biological Evaluation of Thiazolopyrimidine Carboxylates as Potential Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Iram Batool, Aamer Saeed, Irfan Zia Qureshi, Ayesha Razzaq, Saima Kalsoom

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Heterocyclic compounds analogues and their derivatives have attracted strong interest in medicinal chemistry due to their biological and pharmacological properties. A series of new thiazolopyrimidine carboxylates were conveniently synthesized by one-pot three-component reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, 2-aminothiazole and benzaldehyde substituted with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups in order to find some more potent antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy. An in vitro antidiabetic effect was evaluated in adult male BALB/c mice and antibacterial activities were tested against Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Escherichia coli. Some of the tested compounds proved to possess good to excellent activities more than the reference drugs. An in silico molecular docking was also performed on synthesized compounds. The current study is expected to provide useful insights into the design of antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs and understanding the mechanism by which such drugs interact with RNA and diabetes target and exert their biochemical action.

Keywords: antidiabetic, antibacterial, MOE docking, thiazolopyrimidine

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390 The Influence of Ligands Molecular Structure on the Antibacterial Activity of Some Metal Complexes

Authors: Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Lidija R. Jevrić, Strahinja Z. Kovačević

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In last decade, metal-organic complexes have captured intensive attention because of their wide range of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancerous, antimicrobial and antiHIV. Therefore, it is of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry to explore the assembly of functional organic ligands with metal ion and to investigate the relationship between the structure and property. In view of our studies, we reasoned that benzimidazoles complexed to metal ions could act as a potent antibacterial agents. Thus, we have bioassayed the inhibitory potency of benzimidazoles and their metal salts (Co or Ni) against Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli. In order to validate our in vitro study, we performed in silico studies using molecular docking software’s. The investigated compounds and their metal complexes (Co, Ni) showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. In silico docking studies of the synthesized compounds suggested that complexed benzimidazoles have a greater binding affinity and enhanced antibacterial activity in comparison with noncomplexed ligands. In view of their enhanced inhibitory properties we propose that the studied complexes can be used as potential pharmaceuticals. This study is financially supported by COST action CM1306 and the project No. 114-451-347/2015-02, financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina.

Keywords: benzimidazoles, complexes, antibacterial, Escherichia coli, metal

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389 Synthesis and in-Vitro Biological Activity of Novel Gallic Acid Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Mostafavi

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A diversity of biological activities and pharmaceutical uses have been attributed to gallic acid derivatives such as antibacterial, anticancer, anti inflammatory. A series of gallic acid derivatives were synthesized, and their structure was confirmed by FT-IR, HNMR, CNMR, elemental analysis. In vitro biological activity of compounds was determined against Proteus vulgaris ATCC 7829, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, as (Gram-negative) bacteria and bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Staphylococus aureus ATCC 6538 as (Gram-positive) bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were done by use of the paper disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar (Merck). Chloramiphenicol, Penicilline, Streptomycin and Tetracycline were standard reference antibiotics. The zone of inhibition against bacteria was measured after 24 hours at 37 °C. Compounds 3, 4, 5 were the main antibacterial compounds against Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive.

Keywords: gallic acid derivatives, antibacterial, antibiotics, inhibition

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388 Antibacterial Activity of Methanol Extract of Punica Granatum Linn. (Punnicaceae) Fruit Peel Against Selected Bacterial Species

Authors: Afzan Mahmad, Santibuana Abd Rahman, Gouri Kumar Dash, Mohd. Syafiq Bin Abdullah

Abstract:

Antibacterial activity of the methanol extract of fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn (Family: Punicaceae) was evaluated against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria. The Gram positive bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Gram negative organisms included Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The culture media used for antibacterial assay was Mueller Hinton agar for the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The media used for the growth of S. pneumoniae was Mueller Hinton blood agar. The antibacterial assay was performed through Disc diffusion technique. The methanol extract was tested at three different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mg/ml). Standard antibiotic discs containing vancomycin (30 μg) for S. pneumoniae, penicillin (10 units) for S. aureus, ceftriaxone (30 μg) for E. coli and ciprofloxacin (5 μg) for P. aeruginosa were used for the activity comparison. The results of the study revealed that the extract possesses antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa at all tested concentrations. The maximum zone of inhibition of 19 mm of the extract at 200 mg/ml was observed against S. pneumoniae. However, no zone of inhibition was observed against E. coli at the tested concentrations of the extract. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be concluded that the fruit peel of P. granatum possess broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against a number bacteria.

Keywords: Punica granatum Linn., methanol extract, antibacterial, zone of inhibition

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387 Comparative Antibacterial Property of Matured Trunk and Stem Bark Extract of Tamarindus indica L., Preformulation, Development and Quality Control of Cream

Authors: A. M. T. Jacinto, M.O. Osi

Abstract:

Tamarind has various medicinal properties among which is its antibacterial property. Its bark contains saponins, alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and tannins. It is rich in phlobapenes which is responsible for antibacterial property. The objective of the study was to determine which bark will produce the highest antibacterial property, develop it into a topical cream and evaluate its quality and characteristics. Powdered barks of Tamarind were extracted by soxhlet method using 70% acetone. Stem bark produced a higher yield than trunk bark (5.85 g vs. 4.73 g). It was found that the trunk bark was more sensitive than stem bark to microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Streptococcus spp. Sensitivity of trunk bark can be attributed to a more developed phytoconstituents. Dermal sensitization test on both sexes of rabbits using the following concentrations: 100%, 40% and 20% of extract showed that Tamarind has no irritating property and therefore safe for formulation into an antibacterial cream. Excipients used for formulation such as methyl paraben, propyl paraben, stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum were compatible with the Tamarind acetone extract through Differential Scanning Calorimetry except sodium lauryl sulfate that exhibited crystallization when subjected at 200˚C. The method of manufacture used in cream is fusion, therefore strict compliance of processing temperature should be observed to prevent polymorphism. Quality control tests of formulated cream based on USP 30 and Philippine Pharmacopeia were satisfactory.

Keywords: antibacterial, differential scanning calorimetry, tannins, dermal sensitization

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
386 Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Substituted Pyrimidine Derivative Containing Thiol Group

Authors: Shradha S. Binani, Pravin S. Bodke, Ravi V. Joat

Abstract:

An efficient method has been described for the synthesis of 6-(substituted aryl)-4-(2'- hydroxy-5'-chlorophenyl)-1, 6-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol, as a beneficial antibacterial and antifungal agents. The diketones of title compounds were synthesized in four steps and subsequently these diketones were further reacted with thiourea in the presence of DMF, which led to the formation of dihydropyrimidine derivatives 5 (a-f). Compounds 5 (a-f) were screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity by agar well method. Compounds 5b, 5c, 5e, and 5f were exhibited significant antimicrobial potential against tested strains at 50ug/ml and 100ug/ml concentrations. Six novel dihydropyrimidine analogues have been synthesized, characterized and found to be promising antibacterial and antifungal agents.

Keywords: diketones, dihyropyrimidine, antimicrobial activity, thiol group

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385 Antimicrobial Activity of Ilex paraguariensis Sub-Fractions after Liquid-Liquid Partitioning

Authors: Sabah El-Sawalhi, Elie Fayad, Roula M. Abdel-Massih

Abstract:

Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate) is a medium to large tree commonly consumed by South Americans. Its leaves and stems are associated with different biological activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Yerba Mate against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and its action against some resistant bacteria with different resistance profiles. Yerba Mate aqueous extracts were prepared at 70°C for 2 hrs, and the microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Gram-positive bacteria exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity (MIC ranged between 0.468 mg/mL and 15 mg/mL) than Gram-negative bacteria. Yerba Mate was also extracted with acetone: water (1:1) and then further sub-fractionated with hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 0.78 to 2.5 mg/ml for the chloroform fraction, from 1.56 to 3.75 mg/ml for the ethyl acetate fraction, and 0.78 to 1.87 mg/ml for the water fraction. The water fraction also exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella species (MIC ranged from 1.56 mg/ml to 3.12 mg/ml). The water fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial activity among all the fractions obtained. More studies are needed to determine the molecule or molecules responsible for this activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, bacterial resistance, minimum inhibitory concentration, yerba mate

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384 Cationic Copolymer-Functionalized Nanodiamonds Stabilizes Silver Nanoparticles with Dual Antibacterial Activity and Lower Cytotoxicity

Authors: Weiwei Cao, Xiaodong Xing

Abstract:

In order to effectively resolve the microbial pollution and contamination, synthetic nano-antibacterial materials are widely used in daily life. Among them, nanodiamonds (NDs) have recently been demonstrated to hold promise as useful materials in biomedical applications due to their high specific surface area and biocompatibility. In this work, the copolymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was applied for the surface functionalization of NDs to produce the quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-functionalized NDs (QNDs). Then, QNDs were used as a substrate for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to produce a [email protected] hybrid. The composition and morphology of the resultant nanostructures were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mass fraction of AgNPs in the nanocomposites was about 35.7%. The antibacterial performances of the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated with Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), inhibition zone testing and time-kill study. As a result, due to the synergistic antibacterial activity of QND and AgNPs, this hybrid showed substantially higher antibacterial activity than QND and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNPs, and the AgNPs on [email protected] were more stable than the Ag NPs on PVP, resulting in long-term antibacterial effects. More importantly, this hybrid showed excellent water solubility and low cytotoxicity, suggesting the great potential application in biomedical applications. The present work provided a simple strategy that successfully turned NDs into nanosized antibiotics with simultaneous superior stability and biocompatibility, which would broaden the applications of NDs and advance the development of novel antibacterial agents.

Keywords: cationic copolymer, nanodiamonds, silver nanoparticles, dual antibacterial activity, lower cytotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 51