Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 107

Search results for: histopathology

107 Cerebral Toxoplasmosis: A Histopathological Diagnosis

Authors: Prateek Rastogi, Jenash Acharya

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Histopathology examination has been a boon to forensic experts all around the world since its implication in autopsy cases. Whenever a case of sudden death is encountered, forensic experts clandestinely focus on cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal or cranio-cerebral causes. After ruling out poisoning or trauma, they are left with the only option available, histopathology examination. Besides preserving thoracic and abdominal organs, brain tissues are very less frequently subjected for the analysis. Based on provisional diagnosis documented on hospital treatment record files, one hemisphere of grossly unremarkable cerebrum was confirmatively diagnosed by histopathology examination to be a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis.

Keywords: cerebral toxoplasmosis, sudden death, health information, histopathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
106 Histopathological Spectrum of Skin Lesions in the Elderly: Experience from a Tertiary Hospital in Southeast Nigeria

Authors: Ndukwe, Chinedu O.

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Background: There are only a few epidemiological studies published on skin disorders in the elderly within the Nigerian context and none from the Southeast Region of the country. In addition, none of these studies has considered the pattern and frequency of histopathologically diagnosed geriatric skin lesions. Hence, we attempted to determine the frequency as well as the age and gender distributions of histologically diagnosed dermatological diseases in the geriatric population from skin biopsies submitted to the histopathology department of a tertiary care hospital in Southeast Nigeria. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional retrospective hospital-based study involving all skin biopsies of patients 60 years and above, received at the Department of Histopathology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria from January 2004 to December 2019. Results: During the study period, 751 skin biopsies were received in the histopathology department. Of these, 142 were from patients who were older than 60 years. Thus, the overall share of geriatric patients was 18.9%. The mean age at presentation was 71.1 ± 8.6 years. The M: F was 1:1 and most of the patients belonged to the age group of 60–69 years (69 cases, 48.6%). The mean age of the male patients was 72.1±9.5 years. In the female patients, it was 70.1±7.5 years. The commonest disease category was neoplasms (91, 64.1%). Most neoplasms were malignant. There were 67/142 (47.2%) malignant lesions. Commonest was Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (30 cases) which is 21.1% of all geriatric skin biopsies and 44.8% of malignant skin biopsies. This is closely followed by melanoma (29 cases). Conclusion: Malignant neoplasms, benign neoplasms and papulosquamous disorders are the three commonest histologically diagnosed skin lesions in our geriatric population. The commonest skin malignancies in this group of patients are squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.

Keywords: geriatric, skin, Nigeria, histopathology

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105 Parasitic and Fungal Identification Bamboo Lobster Panulirus versicolour and Ornate Lobster P. ornatus Cultures

Authors: Indriyani Nur, Yusnaini

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Lobster cultures have failed because of mortalities associated with parasitic and fungal infections. Monitoring of spawned eggs and larva of bamboo lobsters, Panulirus versicolour, and ornate lobsters, P. ornatus, in a hatchery, was conducted in order to characterize fungal and parasitic diseases of eggs and larva. One species of protozoan parasite (Vorticella sp.) was identified from larvae while two species of fungi (Lagenidium sp. and Haliphthoros sp.) were found on eggs. Furthermore, adult lobsters cultured in floating net cage had burning-like diseases on their pleopod, uropod, and telson. Histopathological samples were collected for parasite and tissue changes. There were two parasites found to infect lobsters on external body and gill which are Octolasmis sp. and Oodinium sp. Histopathology showed tissue changes which are necrosis on hepatopancreas, necrosis in the gills and around the uropods and telson.

Keywords: fungal, histopathology, lobster, parasite, infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
104 Computed Tomography Guided Bone Biopsies: Experience at an Australian Metropolitan Hospital

Authors: K. Hinde, R. Bookun, P. Tran

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Percutaneous CT guided biopsies provide a fast, minimally invasive, cost effective and safe method for obtaining tissue for histopathology and culture. Standards for diagnostic yield vary depending on whether the tissue is being obtained for histopathology or culture. We present a retrospective audit from Western Health in Melbourne Australia over a 12-month period which aimed to determine the diagnostic yield, technical success and complication rate for CT guided bone biopsies and identify factors affecting these results. The digital imaging storage program (Synapse Picture Archiving and Communication System – Fujifilm Australia) was analysed with key word searches from October 2015 to October 2016. Nineteen CT guided bone biopsies were performed during this time. The most common referring unit was oncology, work up imaging included CT, MRI, bone scan and PET scan. The complication rate was 0%, overall diagnostic yield was 74% with a technical success of 95%. When performing biopsies for histologic analysis diagnostic yield was 85% and when performing biopsies for bacterial culture diagnostic yield was 60%. There was no significant relationship identified between size of lesion, distance of lesion to skin, lesion appearance on CT, the number of samples taken or gauge of needle to diagnostic yield or technical success. CT guided bone biopsy at Western Health meets the standard reported at other major clinical centres for technical success and safety. It is a useful investigation in identification of primary malignancy in distal bone metastases.

Keywords: bone biopsy, computed tomography, core biopsy, histopathology

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103 A 3-Year Evaluation Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Corresponding Histology

Authors: Amjad Al Shammari, Ashraf Ibrahim, Laila Seada

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Background and Objectives: Incidence of thyroid carcinoma has been increasing world-wide. In the present study, we evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Fine needle aspiration (FNA) and its efficiency in early detecting neoplastic lesions of thyroid gland over a 3-year period. Methods: Data have been retrieved from pathology files in King Khalid Hospital. For each patient, age, gender, FNA, site & size of nodule and final histopathologic diagnosis were recorded. Results: Study included 490 cases where 419 of them were female and 71 male. Male to female ratio was 1:6. Mean age was 43 years for males and 38 for females. Cases with confirmed histopathology were 131. In 101/131 (77.1%), concordance was found between FNA and histology. In 30/131 (22.9%), there was discrepancy in diagnosis. Total malignant cases were 43, out of which 14 (32.5%) were true positive and 29 (67.44%) were false negative. No false positive cases could be found in our series. Conclusion: FNA could diagnose benign nodules in all cases, however, in malignant cases, ultrasound findings have to be taken into consideration to avoid missing of a microcarcinoma in the contralateral lobe.

Keywords: FNA, hail, histopathology, thyroid

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102 Histopathological Examination of Lung Surgery Camel in Iran

Authors: Ali Chitgar

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Respiratory infections including diseases in camels are important not only because of the threat of animal health but also to reduce their production. Since that deal with respiratory problems and their treatment requires adequate knowledge of the existing respiratory problems, unfortunately, there is limited information about the species of camels. This study aimed to identify lung lesions camels slaughtered in a slaughterhouse more important was performed using histopathology. Respiratory camels (n = 477) was examined after the killing fully and tissue samples were placed in 10% formalin. The samples and histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining and color were evaluated. In this study 79.6 % (236 of 477 samples) of the samples was at least a lung lesion. Rate acute interstitial pneumonia, chronic interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiolitis, an inflammation of the pleura and 52.8 % respectively atelectasis (236 of 477 samples), 5.4 % (24 of 477 samples), 7.8 % (35 of 477 samples), 6.7 % (30 of 477 samples), 3.4 % (15 of 477 samples) and 15.2% (68 of 477 samples). The lung lesions, acute interstitial pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in autumn winter rather than spring and summer (p <0/05) and as a result, this study showed that high rates of lung lesions in the camel population. Waste higher results in cold seasons (fall and winter) shows.

Keywords: camel, surgery, histopathology, breathing organ

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
101 A Case of Apocrine Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma in a Tabby Cat

Authors: Funda Terzi, Elif Dogan, Ayse B. Kapcak

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In this report, clinical, radiological, macroscopic, and histopathological findings of apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma are presented in a 13-year-old male tabby cat. In clinical examination, soft tissue masses were detected in the caudal abdomen and left tuber coxae. On radiological examination, subcutaneous masses with soft tissue contrast appearance were detected, and the masses were surgically removed under general anesthesia. The sizes of the masses were approximately 2x2x3 cm in the caudal abdomen and approximately 1x1x2 cm in the tuber coxae region. The cross-section of the mass was whitish-yellow in color. After the masses were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, a routine histopathology procedure was applied. In histopathological examination, apocrine sweat glands in a cystic structure and extensions from the center of the cyst to the lumen were determined, and anisonucleosis, anisocytosis, and anaplastic cells with giant nuclei were observed in the epithelial cells of the gland facing the lumen. A diagnosis of papillary-cystic type apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma was made with these findings.

Keywords: apocrine sweat gland, carcinoma, cat, histopathology

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100 Acute Toxic Effects of Zn(SO4) on Gill and Liver Tissues of Fresh Water Catfish Clarias batrachus (L.)

Authors: Muneesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Sangeeta Devi

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Heavy metals are a major problem because they are toxic and tend to accumulate in living organisms. This study was carried out with the aims of studying on histopathology of Zn(SO4) toxicity on gill and liver tissues of catfish (Clarias batrachus) within the period of 96 h. Totally, 140 fishes with mean weight 50±10 g were stocked in 12 aquariums with capacity of 200 L water and divided in to 3 trails including control, 4 ppm and 8 ppm of Zn with 3 replicates. Tissue samples were fixed by bouin’s solution and sectioned in 7 μm based on histological regular method and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) method for microscopic study within the period of 96 h. Results showed some damaged such as hyperplasia, telangiectasis and edema, necrosis of second filaments, jerky movement, aneurism, hyperemia and fusion of second filaments in gills; and cell atrophy, necrosis, fatty degeneration, hyperemia and bile stagnation at different treatments in comparison with control. Gill and liver tissue damages were severed with the increase of Zn concentration and days. Therefore, Zn had acute toxicity effects on gill and liver tissues in Catfish at 5 and 10 ppm concentrations.

Keywords: gill, liver, histopathology, zinc, Clarias batrachus

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99 Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer in Ha’il Region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Clinicopathological Study

Authors: Laila Seada, Nouf Al Gharbi, Shaimaa Dawa

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Although skin cancers are prevalent worldwide, it is uncommon in Ha’il region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, mostly non-melanoma sub-type. During a 4-year period from 2014 to 2017, out of a total of 120 cases of skin lesions, 29 non-melanoma cancers were retrieved from histopathology files obtained from King Khalid Hospital. As part of the study, all cases of skin cancer diagnosed during 2014 -2017 have been revised and the clinicopathological data recorded. The results show that Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was the most common neoplasm (36%), followed by cutaneous lymphomas (mostly mycosis fungoides 25%), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (21%) and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) (11%). Only one case of metastatic carcinoma was recorded. BCC nodular type was the most prevalent, with a mean age 57.6 years and mean size 2.73 cm. SCC was mostly grade 2, with mean size 1.9 cm and an older mean age of 72.3 cm. Increased size of lesion positively correlated with older age (p = 0.001). Non-melanoma skin cancer in Ha’il region is not frequently encountered. BCC is the most frequent followed by cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and SCC. The findings in this study were in accordance with other parts of, but much lower than other parts of the world.

Keywords: non melanoma skin cancer, Hail Region, histopathology, BCC

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98 Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/Brush in Cytopathology Diagnosis: A Fifteen-Month Study

Authors: Santosh Tummidi, Pragati Sathe, Kanchan Kothari, Prachi Gholap, Mona Agnihotri, Gwendolyn Fernandes, Leena Naik, Rachana Chaturvedi

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Introduction: EUS-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/Brush (EUS-FNA/Brush) has become increasingly popular for the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal and peri-gastrointestinal lesions. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and spectrum of lesions in gastrointestinal EUS-FNA. Material and Methods: A total of 124 EUS-FNA during the period from Aug 2015-Nov 2016 were studied. Results: Age ranged from 13-80 years with a slight female predominance. CBD was the most common site with 47 cases amongst which were 9 adenocarcinoma, and 7 cases were suspicious for malignancy. Pancreatic EUS-FNA showed 5 adenocarcinoma, 2 SPEN, 1 case each of neuroendocrine tumor, anaplastic carcinoma and NHL. Amongst oesophageal lesions, 3 cases were suspicious for malignancy, and 4 were inflammatory, 4 showed SCC, 1case each adenocarcinoma and leiomyoma. Stomach- 1 case each of adenocarcinoma, granulomatous inflammation, and GIST. Periportal lymph nodes were the commonest nodes, and there were 11 necrotising granulomatous inflammations, 3 metastatic adenocarcinoma, 2 cases of atypical cells and 1 case of NHL. 17 cases were unsatisfactory, 41 cases had histopathology follow up with 85% cases being concordant. Conclusion: EUS-FNA is reliable, sensitive and specific. It can be utilized for better management of intra-abdominal lesions.

Keywords: EUS-FNA, brush, cytology, histopathology

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97 Antigastritic Effect of Starch from Manihot utilissima on Male Wistar Rats Induced Aspirin

Authors: Naela Nabiela, Ahmad Hilmi Fahmi, M. Sukron, Ayu Elita Sari, Yusran, Suparmi

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Aspirin is one of NSAIDs (non-steroid inflammatory drugs), can cause gastric ulcer as an side effect of prolonged consumption. The effort to prevent the increase of gastric HCl level can by treating with amylopectin was reported that can cover the gastric mucose. However, the effect of amylopectin in starch from Manihot utilissima which is believed as traditional treatment gastric ulcer have not been clear yet. This study was conducted to determine the effect of starch formed as syrup to HCl level and gastric histopatology. This experiment post test only control group design used 42 male wistar rats divided into 7 groups. All groups, except first group, were induced by 60 mg/100gBW/day aspirin for 3 days. The following day for 2 days each group was treated by starch syrup at dosed 0.45% w/v, 0.9% w/v, 1.8% w/v, 0% w/v, and sucralfate. Respectively, HCl level were measured by acidi-alkalimetri titration method, while the gastric histopathology were prepared by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The result shows that aspirin induction can increase the HCl level as 0,00767 N. Starch syrup at dose 1.8% w/v was effective to reduce HCl level and the grade of second gastric necrosis. It can be conclude that starch syrup is potention as a treatment to cure gastric ulcer caused by NSAIDs side effect.

Keywords: concentration of HCl stomach, gastric histopathology, gastritis, starch

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96 Role of Direct Immunofluorescence in Diagnosing Vesiculobullous Lesions

Authors: Mitakshara Sharma, Sonal Sharma

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Vesiculobullous diseases are heterogeneous group of dermatological disorders with protean manifestations. The most important technique for the patients with vesiculobullous diseases is conventional histopathology and confirmatory tests like direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). DIF has been used for decades to investigate pathophysiology and in the diagnosis. It detects molecules such as immunoglobulins and complement components. It is done on the perilesional skin. Diagnosis of DIF test depends on features like primary site of the immune deposits, class of immunoglobulin, number of immune deposits and deposition at other sites. The aim of the study is to correlate DIF with clinical and histopathological findings and to analyze the utility of DIF in the diagnosis of these disorders. It is a retrospective descriptive study conducted for 2 years from 2015 to 2017 in Department of Pathology, GTB Hospital on perilesional punch biopsies of vesiculobullous lesions. Biopsies were sent in Michael’s medium. The specimens were washed, frozen and incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) tagged antihuman antibodies IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 & F and were viewed under fluorescent microscope. Out of 401 skin biopsies submitted for DIF, 285 were vesiculobullous diseases, in which the most common was Pemphigus vulgaris (34%) followed by Bullous pemphigoid (21.5%), Dermatitis herpetiformis (16%), Pemphigus foliaceus (11.9%), Linear IgA disease (11.9%), Epidermolysisbullosa (2.39%) and Pemphigus herpetiformis (1.7%). We will be presenting the DIF findings in the all these vesiculobullous diseases. DIF in conjugation with histopathology gives the best diagnostic yield in these lesions. It also helps in the diagnosis whenever there is a clinical and histopathological overlap.

Keywords: antibodies, direct immunofluorescence, pemphigus, vesiculobullous

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95 Gallbladder Amyloidosis Causing Gangrenous Cholecystitis: A Case Report

Authors: Christopher Leung, Guillermo Becerril-Martinez

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Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease where abnormal proteins invade various organs and impede their function. Occasionally, they can manifest in a solidary organ such as the heart, lung, and nervous systems; rarely do they manifest in the gallbladder. Diagnosis often requires biopsy of the affected area and histopathology shows deposition of abnormally folded globular proteins called amyloid proteins. This case presents a 69-year-old male with a 3-month history of RUQ pain, diarrhea and non-specific symptoms of tiredness, etc. On imaging, both his US and CT abdomen showed gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid, which may represent acute cholecystitis with hypodense lesions around the gallbladder, possibly representing liver abscesses. Given his symptoms of abdominal pain and imaging findings, this gentleman eventually had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy showing a gangrenous gallbladder with a mass on the liver bed. On histopathology, it showed amorphous hyaline eosinophilic material, which Congo-stained confirmed amyloidosis. Amyloidosis explained his non-specific symptoms, he avoided further biopsy, and he was commenced immediately on Lenalidomide. Involvement of the gallbladder is extremely rare, with less than 30 cases around the world. Half of the cases are reported as primary amyloidosis. This case adds to the current literature regarding primary gallbladder amyloidosis. Importantly, this case highlights how laparoscopic cholecystectomy can help with the diagnosis of gallbladder amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, cholecystitis, gangrenous cholecystitis, gallbladder, systemic amyloidosis

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94 Assessment of Cell-Rebuilding Efficacy of Selected Food Plants in the Lungs of Wild Rats Living in a Polluted Environment

Authors: Yahaya Tajudeen, Joy Okpuzor, Tolu Ajayi

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The cell-rebuilding efficacy of four food plants eating as vegetables and spices in Nigeria was assessed in the lungs of wild rats (Rattus rattus) living in a polluted environment. The plants are roselle (Hibiscus sabdarrifa), moringa (Moringa oleifera), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ugwu (Telfairia occidentalis). Sixty rats were caught from the vicinity of a cement factory in Sagamu, Southwestern-Nigeria and grouped into 6. The control group was administered distilled water, while the test groups were given ethanolic extracts of roselle, moringa, ginger, ugwu and the mixture of the extracts for 180 days. The histopathology of the rats was conducted before and at the end of 180 days extracts administration. Before administering the extracts, the lungs of the rats showed vascular congestion, severe fibrosis and congested alveolus; all which were also observed in the lungs of control rats at the end of the treatment. However, the lungs of rats that were treated with the extracts of the plants showed moderate, mild or no histological damage compared to the control rats. The extract of the mixture of the plants performed best, followed by ginger, ugwu and roselle, respectively. These findings suggest that the food plants contain phytonutrients and phytochemicals, which repaired damaged cells and tissues in the exposed rats. Consequently, the plants could play a role in ameliorating health effects of environmental pollution.

Keywords: food plants, wild rats, lung, histopathology, fibrosis, cell-rebuilding

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93 Efficacy of Ethanolic Extract of Aerva javanica Aerial Parts in the Amelioration of CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Rats

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari, Adnan J. Al-Rehaily

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We investigated ex vivo and in vivo antioxidative and hepatoprotective effect of Aerva javanica. Total ethanol extract of A. javanica aerial parts was prepared, and tested on DCFH-toxicated HepG2 cell in CCl4-injured Wistar rats. MTT-assay was used to determine cell viability, and serum biochemical markers of liver injury as well as histopathology were performed. In vitro DPPH and β-carotene free-radical scavenging assay and phytochemical screening of the extract was done. Furthermore, A. javanica total extract was standardized and validated by HPTLC method. While DCFH-injured cells were recovered to about 56.7% by 100 microg/ml of the extract, a 200 microg/ml dose resulted in hepatocytes recovery by about 90.2%. Oral administration of the extract (100 and 200 mg/kg.bw/day) significantly normalized the serum SGOT, SGPT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, TG and MDA levels, including tissue NP-SH and TP in CCl4-injured rats. In addition, the histopathology of dissected liver also revealed that A. javanica cured the tissue lesion compared to reference drug, Silymarin. In vitro assays revealed strong free-radical scavenging ability of the extract and presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols and saponins where Rutin, a well-known antioxidant flavonoid was identified. Our finding therefore, suggests the therapeutic potential of A. javanica in various liver diseases. However, isolation of the active principles, their mechanism of action and other therapeutic contribution remain to be addressed.

Keywords: Aerva javanica, antioxidant, hepatoprotection, rutin

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92 Osteochondroma of Clivus: An Unusual Cause of Headache

Authors: Muhammad Faisal Khilji, Rana Shoaib Hamid, Asim Qureshi

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A fifty years old female presented in the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital with complaints of migraine type headache for the last few months. Her last episode of headache was severe, increasing in intensity, associated with nausea but no fever, lasting more than 24 hours and not resolving with analgesics. On examination there was no neurological deficit. CT scan of brain showed a large Pedunculated, non-expansible, non-aggressive bony lesion in the clivus with its sharp fragment impinging into the pons. Findings were further confirmed with MRI brain. Trans-sphenoidal excision biopsy was done and histopathology proved the lesion to be osteochondroma of clivus.

Keywords: osteochondroma, clivus, headache, CT scan

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91 Comparison of β-Cell Regenerative Potentials of Selected Sri Lankan Medicinal Plant Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: A. P. Attanayake, K. A. P. W. Jayatilaka, L. K. B. Mudduwa, C. Pathirana

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Triggering of β-cell regeneration is a recognized therapeutic strategy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. One such approach to foster restoration and regeneration of β-cells is from exogenous natural extracts. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the β-cell regenerative potentials of the extracts of Spondias pinnata (Linn. f.) Kurz, Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt and Gmelina arborea Roxb. in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided in to six groups (n=6); healthy untreated rats, alloxan induced diabetic untreated rats (150 mg/kg, ip), diabetic rats receiving the extracts of S. pinnata (1.0 g/kg), C. grandis (0.75 g/kg), G. arobrea (1.00 g/kg) and diabetic rats receiving glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg) for 30 days. The assessment of selected biochemical parameters, histopathology and immunohistochemistry in the pancreatic tissue were done on the 30th day. The reduction in the percentage of HbA1C was in the decreasing order of C. grandis (35%), G. arborea (31%) and S. pinnata (29%) in alloxan induced diabetic rats (p< 0.05). The concentration of serum fructosamine, insulin and C-peptide were decreased significantly in a decreasing order of C. grandis (30%, 72%, 51%), G. arborea (25%, 44%, 44%) and S. pinnata (27%, 34%, 24%) in alloxan induced diabetic rats (p < 0.05). The extent of β-cell regeneration was in the decreasing order of C. grandis, G. arborea, S. pinnata reflected through the increased percentage of insulin secreting β-cells in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extract of C. grandis produced the highest degree of β-cell regeneration demonstrated through an increase in the number of islets and percentage of the insulin secreting β-cells (75%) in the pancreas of diabetic rats (p < 0.05). Further the C. grandis extract produced a significant increase in mean profile diameter in small (118%), average (10%), and large (13%) islets as compared with diabetic control rats respectively. However, statistically significant increase in the islet profile diameter was shown only in average (2%) and large (5%) islets in the G. arborea extract treated rats and large islets (5%) in S. pinnata extract treated diabetic rats (p < 0.05). The β-cell regeneration potency was in the decreasing order of C. grandis (0.75 g/kg), G. arborea (1.00 g/kg) and S. pinnata (1.00 g/kg) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The three plant extracts may be useful as natural agents of triggering the β-cell regeneration in the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: alloxan-induced diabetic rats, β-cell regeneration, histopathology, immunohistochemistry

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90 Histopathological Characterization of Prostate Cancer in Saudi Patients

Authors: Nadeem A. Kizilbash

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The study aimed to compare the histopathological characterization of prostate cancer using the conventional and 2005 ISUP modified Gleason system. It employed samples from 40 prostate cancer patients employing resection, biopsies and RP. The majority of cases (95%) comprised adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The results showed that there is migration or upgrading of scores to higher values on using the 2005 ISUP modified Gleason system and an increase in a score of 7 in more than 45% of the cases.

Keywords: prostate cancer, conventional gleason grading, 2005 ISUP modified gleason system, histopathology

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89 Isolated Hydatidosis of Spleen: A Rare Entity

Authors: Anshul Raja

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Cystic lesions of the spleen are rare and splenic hydatid cysts account for only 0.5% to 8% of all hydatidosis. Authors hereby report a case where a 50-year-old female presented to our hospital with the complains of heaviness and pain over left upper abdomen over the past 8-10 years. On radiological examination, ultrasonography revealed findings consistent with isolated splenic hydatid cyst and was later on confirmed on Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). No other organ or system involvement was seen. The patient underwent splenectomy and hydatid cyst was confirmed on histopathology. Owing to its rarity, it offers a diagnostic challenge to physicians but can reliably be diagnosed with great confidence employing various imaging modalities like CT and MRI.

Keywords: gastrointestinal radiology, abdominal imaging, hydatid cyst, medical and health sciences

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88 Suture Biomaterials Development from Natural Fibers: Muga Silk (Antheraea assama) and Ramie (Boehmeria nivea)

Authors: Raghuram Kandimalla, Sanjeeb Kalita, Bhaswati Choudhury, Jibon Kotoky

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The quest for developing an ideal suture material prompted our interest to develop a novel suture with advantageous characteristics to market available ones. We developed novel suture biomaterial from muga silk (Antheraea assama) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea) plant fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed the physicochemical properties of the fibers which supports the suitability of fibers for suture fabrication. Tensile properties of the prepared sutures were comparable with market available sutures and it found to be biocompatible towards human erythrocytes and nontoxic to mammalian cells. The prepared sutures completely healed the superficial deep wound incisions within seven days in adult male wister rats leaving no rash and scar. Histopathology studies supports the wound healing ability of sutures, as rapid synthesis of collagen, connective tissue and other skin adnexal structures were observed within seven days of surgery. Further muga suture surface modified by exposing the suture to oxygen plasma which resulted in formation of nanotopography on suture surface. Broad spectrum antibiotic amoxicillin was functionalized on the suture surface to prepare an advanced antimicrobial muga suture. Surface hydrophilicity induced by oxygen plasma results in an increase in drug-impregnation efficiency of modified muga suture by 16.7%. In vitro drug release profiles showed continuous and prolonged release of amoxicillin from suture up to 336 hours. The advanced muga suture proves to be effective against growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, whereas normal muga suture offers no antibacterial activity against both types of bacteria. In vivo histopathology studies and colony-forming unit count data revealed accelerated wound healing activity of advanced suture over normal one through rapid synthesis and proliferation of collagen, hair follicle and connective tissues.

Keywords: sutures, biomaterials, silk, Ramie

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87 Diagnosis of Avian Pathology in the East of Algeria

Authors: Khenenou Tarek, Benzaoui Hassina, Melizi Mohamed

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The diagnosis requires a background of current knowledge in the field and also complementary means in which the laboratory occupies the central place for a better investigation. A correct diagnosis allows to establish the most appropriate treatment as soon as possible and avoids both the economic losses associated with mortality and growth retardation often observed in poultry furthermore it may reduce the high cost of treatment. Epedemiologic survey, hematologic and histopathologic study’s are three aspects of diagnosis heavily used in both human and veterinary pathology and the advanced researches in human medicine would be exploited to be applied in veterinary medicine with given modification .Whereas, the diagnostic methods in the east of Algeria are limited to the clinical signs and necropsy finding. Therefore, the diagnosis is based simply on the success or the failure of the therapeutic methods (therapeutic diagnosis).

Keywords: chicken, diagnosis, hematology, histopathology

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86 Nephroprotective Effect of Asparagus falcatus Leaf Extract on Adriamycin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats: A Dose Response Study

Authors: A. M. S. S. Amarasiri, A. P. Attanayake, K. A. P. W. Jayatilaka, L. K. B. Mudduwa

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Adriamycin (ADR) is an effective anthracyclin antitumor drug, but its clinical use is limited due to renal toxicity. The leaves of Asparagus falcatus (Family: Liliaceae) have been used in the management of renal diseases since antiquity. In the present investigation, the aqueous leaf extract of A. falcatus was evaluated for acute nephroprotective activity in ADR induced nephrotoxic rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in healthy male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of ADR 20 mg/kg. The lyophilized powder of the aqueous refluxed (4h) leaf extract of A. falcatus was administered orally at three selected doses; 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for three consecutive days. Fosinopril sodium (0.09 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. Administration of the plant extract and the standard drug was commenced 24 hours after the induction of nephrotoxicity to rats. The nephroprotective effect was determined by selected biochemical parameters and by the assessment of histopathology on H and E stained kidney sections. The results were compared to a group of control rats with ADR induced nephrotoxicity. A group of rats administered with the equivalent volume of normal saline served as the healthy control. Administration of ADR 20 mg/kg produced a significant increase in the concentrations of serum creatinine (61%) and urine protein (73%) followed by a significant decrease in serum total protein (21%) and albumin (44%) of the plant extract treated animals compared to the healthy control group (p < 0.05). The aqueous extract of Asparagus falcatus at the three doses; 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg and the standard drug were found to decrease the elevation of concentrations of serum creatinine (33%, 51%, 54% and 42%) and urine protein (8%, 63%, 80% and 86%) respectively. The serum concentrations of total protein (12%, 17%, 29% and 12%) and albumin (3%, 17%, 17% and 16%) were significantly increased compared to the nephrotoxic control group respectively. Assessment of histopathology on H and E stained kidney sections demonstrated that ADR induced renal injury, as evidenced by loss of brush border, cytoplasmic vacuolization, pyknosis in renal tubular epithelial cells, haemorrhages, glomerular congestion and presence of hyaline casts. Treatment with the plant extract and the standard drug resulted in attenuation of the morphological destruction in rats. The results of the present study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of A. falcatus possesses significant nephroprotective activity against adriamycin induced acute nephrotoxicity. The improved kidney functions were supported with the results of selected biochemical parameters and histological changes observed on H and E stained sections of the kidney tissues in Wistar rats.

Keywords: adriamycin induced nephrotoxicity, asparagus falcatus, biochemical assessment, histopathological assessment, nephroprotective activity

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85 Development and Characterization of Topical 5-Fluorouracil Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for the Effective Treatment of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

Authors: Sudhir Kumar, V. R. Sinha

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Background: The topical and systemic toxicity associated with present nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment therapy using 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) make it necessary to develop a novel delivery system having lesser toxicity and better control over drug release. Solid lipid nanoparticles offer many advantages like: controlled and localized release of entrapped actives, nontoxicity, and better tolerance. Aim:-To investigate safety and efficacy of 5-FU loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a topical delivery system for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Method: Topical solid lipid nanoparticles of 5-FU were prepared using Compritol 888 ATO (Glyceryl behenate) as lipid component and pluronic F68 (Poloxamer 188), Tween 80 (Polysorbate 80), Tyloxapol (4-(1,1,3,3-Tetramethylbutyl) phenol polymer with formaldehyde and oxirane) as surfactants. The SLNs were prepared with emulsification method. Different formulation parameters viz. type and ratio of surfactant, ratio of lipid and ratio of surfactant:lipid were investigated on particle size and drug entrapment efficiency. Results: Characterization of SLNs like–Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scannig calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Particle size determination, Polydispersity index, Entrapment efficiency, Drug loading, ex vivo skin permeation and skin retention studies, skin irritation and histopathology studies were performed. TEM results showed that shape of SLNs was spherical with size range 200-500nm. Higher encapsulation efficiency was obtained for batches having higher concentration of surfactant and lipid. It was found maximum 64.3% for SLN-6 batch with size of 400.1±9.22 nm and PDI 0.221±0.031. Optimized SLN batches and marketed 5-FU cream were compared for flux across rat skin and skin drug retention. The lesser flux and higher skin retention was obtained for SLN formulation in comparison to topical 5-FU cream, which ensures less systemic toxicity and better control of drug release across skin. Chronic skin irritation studies lacks serious erythema or inflammation and histopathology studies showed no significant change in physiology of epidermal layers of rat skin. So, these studies suggest that the optimized SLN formulation is efficient then marketed cream and safer for long term NMSC treatment regimens. Conclusion: Topical and systemic toxicity associated with long-term use of 5-FU, in the treatment of NMSC, can be minimized with its controlled release with significant drug retention with minimal flux across skin. The study may provide a better alternate for effective NMSC treatment.

Keywords: 5-FU, topical formulation, solid lipid nanoparticles, non melanoma skin cancer

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84 Radioprotective Efficacy of Costus afer against the Radiation-Induced Hematology and Histopathology Damage in Mice

Authors: Idowu R. Akomolafe, Naven Chetty

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Background: The widespread medical application of ionizing radiation has raised public concern about radiation exposure and, thus, associated cancer risk. The production of reactive oxygen species and free radicals as a result of radiation exposure can cause severe damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of cells, thus leading to biological effect. Radiotherapy is an excellent modality in the treatment of cancerous cells, comes with a few challenges. A significant challenge is the exposure of healthy cells surrounding the tumour to radiation. The last few decades have witnessed lots of attention shifted to plants, herbs, and natural product as an alternative to synthetic compound for radioprotection. Thus, the study investigated the radioprotective efficacy of Costus afer against whole-body radiation-induced haematological, histopathological disorder in mice. Materials and Method: Fifty-four mice were randomly divided into nine groups. Animals were pretreated with the extract of Costus afer by oral gavage for six days before irradiation. Control: 6 mice received feed and water only; 6 mice received feed, water, and 3Gy; 6 mice received feed, water, and 6Gy; experimental: 6 mice received 250 mg/kg extract; 6 mice received 500 mg/kg extract; 6 mice received 250 mg/kg extract and 3Gy; 6 mice received 500 mg/kg extract and 3Gy; 6 mice received 250 mg/kg extract and 6Gy; 6 mice received 500 mg/kg extract and 6Gy in addition to feeding and water. The irradiation was done at the Radiotherapy and Oncology Department of Grey's Hospital using linear accelerator (LINAC). Thirty-six mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 48 hours after irradiation, and blood was collected for haematology tests. Also, the liver and kidney of the sacrificed mice were surgically removed for histopathology tests. The remaining eighteen (18) mice were used for mortality and survival studies. Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: Prior administration of Costus afer extract decreased the symptoms of radiation sickness and caused a significant delay in the mortality as demonstrated in the experimental mice. The first mortality was recorded on day-5 post irradiation, and this happened to the group E- that is, mice that received 6Gy but no extract. There was significant protection in the experimental mice, as demonstrated in the blood counts against hematopoietic and gastrointestinal damage when compared with the control. The protection was seen in the increase in blood counts of experimental animals and the number of survivor. The protection offered by Costus afer may be due to its ability to scavenge free radicals and restore gastrointestinal and bone marrow damage produced by radiation. Conclusions: The study has demonstrated that exposure of mice to radiation could cause modifications in the haematological and histopathological parameters of irradiated mice. However, the changes were relieved by the methanol extract of Costus afer, probably through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties.

Keywords: costus afer, hematological, mortality, radioprotection, radiotherapy

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83 Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma in a Developing Country: A Retrospective Study of 10 Years

Authors: Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Qamar Masood, Saadia Sattar, Saira Fatima, Najmul Islam

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Introduction: The most common endocrine tumor is thyroid cancer. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma (FTC) accounts for 5%–10% of all thyroid cancers. Patients with FTC frequently present with more advanced stage diseases and a higher occurrence of distant metastases because of the propensity of vascular invasion. FTC is mainly treated with surgery, while radioactive iodine therapy is the main adjuvant therapy as per ATA guidelines. In many developing countries, surgical facilities and radioactive iodine are in short supply; therefore, understanding follicular thyroid cancer trends may help developing countries plan and use resources more effectively. Methodology: It was a retrospective observational study of FTC patients of age 18 years and above conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2019. Results: There were 404 patients with thyroid carcinoma, out of which forty (10.1%) were FTC. 50% of the patients were in the 41-60 years age group, and the female to male ratio was 1.5: 1. Twenty-four patients (60%) presented with complain of neck swelling followed by metastasis (20%) and compressive symptoms (20%). The most common site of metastasis was bone (87.5%), followed by lung (12.5%). The pre-operative thyroglobulin level was done in six out of eight metastatic patients (75%) in which it was elevated. This emphasizes the importance of checking thyroglobulin level in unusual presentation (bone pain, fractures) of a patient having neck swelling also to help in establishing the primary source of tumor. There was no complete documentation of ultrasound features of the thyroid gland in all the patients, which is an important investigation done in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodule. On FNAC, 50% (20 patients) had Bethesda category III-IV nodules, while 10% ( 4 patients ) had Bethesda category II. In sixteen patients, FNAC was not done as they presented with compressive symptoms or metastasis. Fifty percent had a total thyroidectomy and 50% had subtotal followed by completion thyroidectomy, plus ten patients had lymph node dissection, out of which seven had histopathological lymph node involvement. On histopathology, twenty-three patients (57.5%) had minimally invasive, while seventeen (42.5%) had widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma. The capsular invasion was present in thirty-three patients (82.5%); one patient had no capsular invasion, but there was a vascular invasion. Six patients' histopathology had no record of capsular invasion. In contrast, the lymphovascular invasion was present in twenty-six patients (65%). In this study, 65 % of the patients had clinical stage 1 disease, while 25% had stage 2 and 10% had clinical stage 4. Seventeen patients (42.5%) had received RAI 30-100 mCi, while ten patients (25%) received more than 100 mCi. Conclusion: FTC demographic and clinicopathological presentation are the same in Pakistan as compared to other countries. Surgery followed by RAI is the mainstay of treatment. Thus understanding the trend of FTC and proper planning and utilization of the resources will help the developing countries in effectively treating the FTC.

Keywords: thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, clinicopathological features, developing countries

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82 Influence of Dietary Boron on Gut Absorption of Nutrients, Blood Metabolites and Tissue Pathology

Authors: T. Vijay Bhasker, N. K. S Gowda, P. Krishnamoorthy, D. T. Pal, A. K. Pattanaik, A. K. Verma

Abstract:

Boron (B) is a newer trace element and its biological importance and dietary essentiality is unclear in animals. The available literature suggests its putative role in bone mineralization, antioxidant status and steroid hormone synthesis. A feeding trial was conducted in Wister strain (Rattus norvegicus) albino rats for duration of 90 days. A total of 84 healthy weaned (3-4 weeks) experimental rats were randomly divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of three each) viz., A (Basal diet/ Control), B (Basal diet + 5 ppm B), C (Basal diet + 10 ppm B), D (Basal diet + 20 ppm B), E (Basal diet + 40 ppm B), F (Basal diet-Ca 50%), G (Basal diet-Ca 50% + 40 ppm B). Dietary level of calcium (Ca) was maintained at two levels, 100% and 50% of requirement. Sodium borate was used as source of boron along with other ingredients of basal diet while preparing the pelletized diets. All the rats were kept in proper ventilated laboratory animal house maintained at temperature (23±2º C) and humidity (50 to 70%). At the end of experiment digestibility trial was conducted for 5 days to estimate nutrient digestibility and gut absorption of minerals. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect the vital organs (liver, kidney and spleen) to study histopathology. Blood sample was drawn by heart puncture to determine biochemical profile. The average daily feed intake (g/rat/day), water intake (ml/rat/day) and body weight gain (g/rat/day) were similar among the dietary groups. The digestibility (%) of organic matter and crude fat were significantly improved (P < 0.05) was by B supplementation. The gut absorption (%) Ca was significantly increased (P < 0.01) in B supplemented groups compared to control. However, digestibility of dry matter and crude protein, gut absorption of magnesium and phosphorus showed a non-significant increasing trend with B supplementation. The gut absorption (%) of B (P < 0.01) was significantly lowered (P<0.05) in supplemented groups compared to un-supplemented ones. The serum level of triglycerides (mg/dL), HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) and alanine transaminase (IU/L) were significantly lowered (P < 0.05) in B supplemented groups. While serum level of glucose (mg/dL) and alkaline phosphatase (KA units) showed a non-significant decreasing trend with B supplementation. However the serum levels of total cholesterol (mg/dL) and aspartate transaminase (IU/L) were similar among dietary groups. The histology sections of kidney and spleen revealed no significant changes among the dietary groups and were observed to be normal in anatomical architecture. However, the liver histology revealed cell degenerative changes with vacuolar degeneration and nuclear condensation in Ca deficient groups. But the comparative degenerative changes were mild in 40 ppm B supplemented Ca deficient group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of graded levels of boron in rats had a positive effect on metabolism and health by improving nutrient digestibility and gut absorption of Ca. This indicates the beneficial role of dietary boron supplementation.

Keywords: boron, calcium, nutrient utilization, histopathology

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81 Pilomatrixoma of the Left Infra-Orbital Region in a 9 Year Old

Authors: Zainab Shaikh, Yusuf Miyanji

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Pilomatrixoma is a benign neoplasm of the hair follicle matrix that is not commonly diagnosed in general practice. This is a case report of a 9-year-old boy who presented with a one-year history of a 19mm x 11 mm swelling in the left infra-orbital region. This was previously undiagnosed in Spain, where the patient resided at the time of initial presentation, due to the language barrier the patient’s family encountered. An ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging gave useful information regarding surrounding structures for complete tumor excision and indicated that the risk of facial nerve palsy is low. The lesion was surgically excised and a definitive diagnosis was made after histopathology. Pilomatrixoma, although not rare in its occurrence, is rarely this large at the time of excision due to early presentation. This case highlights the importance of including pilomatrixoma in the differential diagnosis of dermal and subcutaneous lesions in the head and neck region, as it is often misdiagnosed due to the lack of awareness of its clinical presentation.

Keywords: pilomatrixoma, swelling, infra-orbital, facial swelling

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80 Closed Loop Large Bowel Obstruction Due to Appendiceal Signet Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Joshua Teo, Leo Phan

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Signet cell carcinoma of the appendix is the rarest and the most aggressive subtype of appendiceal malignancy, typically with non-specific presentations. We describe a case of a 62-year-old male with large bowel obstruction and CT demonstrating dilated large bowels from caecum to proximal sigmoid colon with pneumoperitoneum. Intra-operatively, closed-loop obstruction caused by dense adherence of sigmoid colon to caecum was noted, which had resulted in caecal perforation. Histopathology study indicated primary appendiceal malignancy of signet cell morphology with intra-peritoneal spread to the sigmoid colon. Large bowel obstruction from appendiceal malignancy has rarely been reported, and a similar presentation has not been described in the existing literature. When left-sided large bowel obstruction is suspected to be caused by a malignant stricture, it is essential to consider transperitoneal spread of appendiceal malignancy as potential aetiology, particularly in the elderly.

Keywords: appendiceal carcinoma, large bowel obstruction, signet ring cell cancer, caecal perforation

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79 Histopathological and Microbiological Studies on Subclinical Endometritis in Repeat Breeder Cow

Authors: Mehmet Akoz

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In this study the clinical, mikrobiological and histopathological diagnoses of subclinic and nonspecific endometritis resulting in repeat breeder. Total of 36 cows, aging between 3-9 years having normal oestrous cycles with no pregnancy following at least 3 unsuccesful inseminations, were used. Biopsy specimens for histopathological and swab for bacteri microbiological cultures were obtanied from endometrium of repeat breeders showing no macroskopic evidence of any defectiveness of genital organs and based on anamneses. Eleven out of 36 cows have positive bacteriological results. While 19 cows have varying degrees of and endometritis, the other 17 cows did not have any pathologic lesions. A total of 19 biopsies in 4 of the I. degree in endometritis, 9 of them II. degree endometritis and 6 were also III. degree endometritis was evaluated. In the majority of cows by the histopathological evaluation results (78.9%) monitored by the second and third-degree endometritis shape, in 83.3% of the isolated microorganisms were identified similar results. Histopathological and microbiological evaluation, along with clinical examination are important for the diagnoses and treatment of repeat breeders, having no resistance with well dissipation to endometrium rifaximina foam formulation was found to be more effective than PGF2α.

Keywords: repeat breeder, dairy cattle, histopathology, PGF2α, rifaximina

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78 Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Curcuma purpurascens BI. Rhizomes in Rats

Authors: Elham Rouhollahi, Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Salma Baig, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Zahurin Mohamed

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This study was designed to assess cutaneous wound healing potential of hexane extract of Curcuma purpurascens rhizomes (HECP). Twenty-four rats were divided into 4 groups: 1. Negative, 2. Low dose, 3. High dose and 4. Treatment, with 6 rats in each group. Full-thickness incisions with a diameter of 2 cm were made on the back of each rat. Rats were topically treated two times a day for 15 days. Group 1-4 were treated with sterile distilled water, 5% and 10% of extract and intrasite gel, respectively. Masson's trichrome and hematoxylin staining techniques are employed for histological analysis revealed strong wound healing potential closer to that of conventional drug intrasite gel. HECP significantly decreased wound area and an increase in hydroxyproline, cellular proliferation, the number of blood vessels and the level of collagen synthesis was observed. Thus, it could be concluded that HECP possesses strong wound healing potential.

Keywords: Curcuma purpurascens, wound healing, histopathology, hematoxylin staining

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