Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Amr A. EL Hanafy

11 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy

Abstract:

The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000°C and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated.The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, magnetic properties

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10 Synthesis of Hard Magnetic Material from Secondary Resources

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy, O. N. Alzeghaibi

Abstract:

Strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19; Sr-ferrite) is one of the well-known materials for permanent magnets. In this study, M-type strontium ferrite was prepared by following the conventional ceramic method from steelmaking by-product. Initial materials; SrCO3 and by-product, were mixed together in the composition of SrFe12O19 in different Sr/Fe ratios. The mixtures of these raw materials were dry-milled for 6h. The blended powder was pre-sintered (i.e. calcination) at 1000°C for different times periods, then cooled down to room temperature. These pre-sintered samples were re-milled in a dry atmosphere for 1h and then fired at different temperatures in atmospheric conditions, and cooled down to room temperature. The produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure. The calculated energy product values for the produced samples ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 MGOe.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, synthesis

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9 Linking Museum Education with School Curriculum: Primary Education Case Study Grade 4

Authors: Marwa Hanafy

Abstract:

The objective of linking the museum with school curriculum is to focus on the values and principles of the educational standards of the fourth grade as "equality, cooperation, allegiance, belonging, participation, peace, tolerance, pride and patriotism, etc." through activities, discussion, exhibits, etc., which can help the students to develop their characters and be useful for their society. For example, there is a lesson in Module 3 assess the role of women as mothers and queens, here this research will focus on the value of women and respect them through statues or images of women which support and affect positively on the students who will apply these Morals to themselves and to the community by dependency. It cannot be denied that the students have to be a part of the museum educational programs which have designed for them, by giving them the opportunity to participate, talk, discuss and express their opinions and hear them in the museums, this may be an effective way to confirm that the interests of children are taken into account.

Keywords: museum education, primary school education, school curriculum, informal learning

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8 Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment

Authors: Amr A. EL Hanafy, Yasir Anwar, Saleh A. Mohamed, Saleh Mohamed Saleh Al-Garni, Jamal S. M. Sabir , Osama A. H. Abu Zinadah, Mohamed Morsi Ahmed

Abstract:

In the vicinity of the red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54 %) and Penicillium commune (48 %) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has the capability of degradation and can be utilized for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.

Keywords: fungal strains, hydrocarbon contaminants, molecular identification, biodegradation, GC-MS

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7 Arabic Light Stemmer for Better Search Accuracy

Authors: Sahar Khedr, Dina Sayed, Ayman Hanafy

Abstract:

Arabic is one of the most ancient and critical languages in the world. It has over than 250 million Arabic native speakers and more than twenty countries having Arabic as one of its official languages. In the past decade, we have witnessed a rapid evolution in smart devices, social network and technology sector which led to the need to provide tools and libraries that properly tackle the Arabic language in different domains. Stemming is one of the most crucial linguistic fundamentals. It is used in many applications especially in information extraction and text mining fields. The motivation behind this work is to enhance the Arabic light stemmer to serve the data mining industry and leverage it in an open source community. The presented implementation works on enhancing the Arabic light stemmer by utilizing and enhancing an algorithm that provides an extension for a new set of rules and patterns accompanied by adjusted procedure. This study has proven a significant enhancement for better search accuracy with an average 10% improvement in comparison with previous works.

Keywords: Arabic data mining, Arabic Information extraction, Arabic Light stemmer, Arabic stemmer

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6 Analysis of Genetic Variations in Camel Breeds (Camelus dromedarius)

Authors: Yasser M. Saad, Amr A. El Hanafy, Saleh A. Alkarim, Hussein A. Almehdar, Elrashdy M. Redwan

Abstract:

Camels are substantial providers of transport, milk, sport, meat, shelter, security and capital in many countries, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Inter simple sequence repeat technique was used to detect the genetic variations among some camel breeds (Majaheim, Safra, Wadah, and Hamara). Actual number of alleles, effective number of alleles, gene diversity, Shannon’s information index and polymorphic bands were calculated for each evaluated camel breed. Neighbor-joining tree that re-constructed for evaluated these camel breeds showed that, Hamara breed is distantly related from the other evaluated camels. In addition, the polymorphic sites, haplotypes and nucleotide diversity were identified for some camelidae cox1 gene sequences (obtained from NCBI). The distance value between C. bactrianus and C. dromedarius (0.072) was relatively low. Analysis of genetic diversity is an important way for conserving Camelus dromedarius genetic resources.

Keywords: camel, genetics, ISSR, neighbor-joining

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5 Influence of Iron Ore Mineralogy on Cluster Formation inside the Shaft Furnace

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. A. Hanafy, S. Lakdawala

Abstract:

Clustering phenomenon of pellets was observed frequently in shaft processes operating at higher temperatures. Clustering is a result of the growth of fibrous iron precipitates (iron whiskers) that become hooked to each other and finally become crystallized during the initial stages of metallization. If the pellet clustering is pronounced, sometimes leads to blocking inside the furnace and forced shutdown takes place. This work clarifies further the relation between metallic iron whisker growth and iron ore mineralogy. Various pellet sizes (6 – 12.0 & +12.0 mm) from three different ores (A, B & C) were (completely and partially) reduced at 985 oC with H2/CO gas mixture using thermos-gravimetric technique. It was found that reducibility increases by decreasing the iron ore pellet’s size. Ore (A) has the highest reducibility than ore (B) and ore (C). Increasing the iron ore pellet’s size leads to increase the probability of metallic iron whisker formation. Ore (A) has the highest tendency for metallic iron whisker formation than ore (B) and ore (C). The reduction reactions for all iron ores A, B and C are mainly controlled by diffusion reaction mechanism.

Keywords: shaft furnace, cluster, metallic iron whisker, mineralogy, ferrous metallurgy

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4 Steel Dust as a Coating Agent for Iron Ore Pellets at Ironmaking

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. Hanafy, H. Al-Tassan

Abstract:

Cluster formation is an essential phenomenon during direct reduction processes at shaft furnaces. Decreasing the reducing temperature to avoid this problem can cause a significant drop in throughput. In order to prevent sticking of pellets, a coating material basically inactive under the reducing conditions prevailing in the shaft furnace, should be applied to cover the outer layer of the pellets. In the present work, steel dust is used as coating material for iron ore pellets to explore dust coating effectiveness and determines the best coating conditions. Steel dust coating is applied for iron ore pellets in various concentrations. Dust slurry concentrations of 5.0-30% were used to have a coated steel dust amount of 1.0-5.0 kg per ton iron ore. Coated pellets with various concentrations were reduced isothermally in weight loss technique with simulated gas mixture to the composition of reducing gases at shaft furnaces. The influences of various coating conditions on the reduction behavior and the morphology were studied. The optimum reduced samples were comparatively applied for sticking index measurement. It was found that the optimized steel dust coating condition that achieve higher reducibility with lower sticking index was 30% steel dust slurry concentration with 3.0 kg steel dust/ton ore.

Keywords: reduction, ironmaking, steel dust, coating

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3 Development and Validation of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Linagliptin in Rat Plasma

Authors: Hoda Mahgoub, Abeer Hanafy

Abstract:

Linagliptin (LNG) belongs to dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class. DPP-4 inhibitors represent a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in adults. The aim of this work was to develop and validate an accurate and reproducible HPLC method for the determination of LNG with high sensitivity in rat plasma. The method involved separation of both LNG and pindolol (internal standard) at ambient temperature on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column and a mobile phase composed of 75% methanol: 25% formic acid 0.1% pH 4.1 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL.min-1. UV detection was performed at 254nm. The method was validated in compliance with ICH guidelines and found to be linear in the range of 5–1000ng.mL-1. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 5ng.mL-1 based on 100µL of plasma. The variations for intra- and inter-assay precision were less than 10%, and the accuracy values were ranged between 93.3% and 102.5%. The extraction recovery (R%) was more than 83%. The method involved a single extraction step of a very small plasma volume (100µL). The assay was successfully applied to an in-vivo pharmacokinetic study of LNG in rats that were administered a single oral dose of 10mg.kg-1 LNG. The maximum concentration (Cmax) was found to be 927.5 ± 23.9ng.mL-1. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-72) was 18285.02 ± 605.76h.ng.mL-1. In conclusion, the good accuracy and low LOQ of the bioanalytical HPLC method were suitable for monitoring the full pharmacokinetic profile of LNG in rats. The main advantages of the method were the sensitivity, small sample volume, single-step extraction procedure and the short time of analysis.

Keywords: HPLC, linagliptin, pharmacokinetic study, rat plasma

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2 DNA Polymorphism Studies of β-Lactoglobulin Gene in Native Saudi Goat Breeds

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Muhammad I. Qureshi, Jamal Sabir, Mohamed Mutawakil, Mohamed M. Ahmed, Hassan El Ashmaoui, Hassan Ramadan, Mohamed Abou-Alsoud, Mahmoud Abdel Sadek

Abstract:

β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) is the dominant non-casein whey protein found in bovine milk and of most ruminants. The amino acid sequence of β-LG along with its 3-dimensional structure illustrates linkage with the lipocalin superfamily. Preliminary studies in goats indicated that milk yield can be influenced by polymorphism in genes coding for whey proteins. The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the incidence of functional polymorphisms in the exonic and intronic portions of β-LG gene in native Saudi goat breeds (Ardi, Habsi, and Harri). Blood samples were collected from 300 animals (100 for each breed) and genomic DNA was extracted using QIAamp DNA extraction Kit. A fragment of the β-LG gene from exon 7 to 3’ flanking region was amplified with pairs of specific primers. Subsequent digestion with Sac II restriction endonuclease revealed two alleles (A and B) and three different banding patterns or genotypes i.e. AA, AB and BB. The statistical analysis showed that β-LG AA genotype had higher milk yield than β-LG AB and β-LG BB genotypes. Nucleotide sequencing of the selected β-LG fragments was done and submitted to GenBank NCBI (Accession No. KJ544248, KJ588275, KJ588276, KJ783455, KJ783456 and KJ874959). Two already established SNPs in exon 7 (+4601 and +4603) and one fresh SNP in the 3’ UTR region were detected in the β-LG fragments with designated AA genotype. The polymorphisms in exon 7 did not produce any amino acid change. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of nucleotide sequences of native Saudi goats indicated evolutional similarity with the GenBank reference sequences of goat, Bubalus bubalis and Bos taurus.

Keywords: β-Lactoglobulin, Saudi goats, PCR-RFLP, functional polymorphism, nucleotide sequencing, phylogenetic analysis

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1 Milk Yield and Fingerprinting of Beta-Casein Precursor (CSN2) Gene in Some Saudi Camel Breeds

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Yasser M. Saad, Saleh A. Alkarim, Hussein A. Almehdar, Elrashdy M. Redwan

Abstract:

Camels are substantial providers of transport, milk, sport, meat, shelter, fuel, security and capital in many countries, particularly Saudi Arabia. Identification of animal breeds has progressed rapidly during the last decade. Advanced molecular techniques are playing a significant role in breeding or strain protection laws. On the other hand, fingerprinting of some molecular markers related to some productive traits in farm animals represents most important studies to our knowledge, which aim to conserve these local genetic resources, and to the genetic improvement of such local breeds by selective programs depending on gene markers. Milk records were taken two days in each week from female camels of Majahem, Safara, Wathaha, and Hamara breeds, respectively from different private farms in northern Jeddah, Riyadh and Alwagh governorates and average weekly yields were calculated. DNA sequencing for CSN2 gene was used for evaluating the genetic variations and calculating the genetic distance values among four Saudi camel populations which are Hamra(R), Safra(Y), Wadha(W) and Majaheim(M). In addition, this marker was analyzed for reconstructing the Neighbor joining tree among evaluating camel breeds. In respect to milk yield during winter season, result indicated that average weekly milk yield of Safara camel breed (30.05 Kg/week) is significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the other 3 breeds which ranged from 39.68 for Hamara to 42.42 Kg/week for Majahem, while there are not significant differences between these three breeds. The Neighbor Joining analysis that re-constructed based on DNA variations showed that samples are clustered into two unique clades. The first clade includes Y (from Y4 to Y18) and M (from M1, to M9). On the other hand, the second cluster is including all R (from R1 to R6) and W (from W1 to W6). The genetic distance values were equal 0.0068 (between the groups M&Y and R&W) and equal 0 (within each group).

Keywords: milk yield, beta-casein precursor (CSN2), Saudi camel, molecular markers

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