Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1765

Search results for: low back pain

1765 Disability and Quality of Life in Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zarina Zahari, Maria Justine, Kamaria Kamaruddin

Abstract:

Low back pain (LBP) is a major musculoskeletal problem in global population. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pain, disability and quality of life in patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). One hundred LBP participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study (mean age = 42.23±11.34 years old). Pain was measured using Numerical Rating Scale (11-point). Disability was assessed using the revised Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (ODQ) and quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using the SF-36 v2. Majority of participants (58%) presented with moderate pain and 49% experienced severe disability. Thus, the pain and disability were found significant with negative correlation (r= -0.712, p<0.05). The pain and QoL also showed significant and positive correlation with both Physical Health Component Summary (PHCS) (r= .840, p<0.05) and Mental Health Component Summary (MHCS) (r= 0.446, p<0.05). Regression analysis indicated that pain emerged as an indicator of both disability and QoL (PHCS and MHCS) accounting for 51%, 71% and 21% of the variances respectively. This indicates that pain is an important factor in predicting disability and QoL in LBP sufferers.

Keywords: disability, low back pain, pain, quality of life

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1764 Immediate Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerves Stimulation on Flexibility and Health Status in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain (A Pilot Study)

Authors: Narupon Kunbootsri, Patpiya Sirasaporn

Abstract:

Low back pain is the most common of chief complaints in chronic pain. Low back pain directly affect to activities daily living and also has high socioeconomic costs. The prevalence of low back pain is high in both genders in all populations. The symptoms of low back pain including, pain at low back area, muscle spasm, tenderness points and stiff back. Trancutanous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is one of modalities mainly use for control pain. There was indicated that TENS is wildly use in low back pain, but no scientific data about the flexibility of muscle after TENS in low back pain. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate immediate effect of TENS on flexibility and health status in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eight chronic nonspecific low back pain patients 1 male and 7 female employed in this study. Participants were diagnosed by a doctor based on history and physical examination. Each participant received treatment at physiotherapy unit. Participants completed Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), numeric rating scale (NRS) and trunk flexibility before treatment. Each participant received low frequency TENS set at asymmetrical, 10 Hz, 20 minutes per point. Immediately after treatment, participants completed RNS, RMDQ and trunk flexibility again. All participants were treated by only one physiotherapist. There was a statistically significant increased in flexibility immediately after low frequency TENS [mean difference -6.37 with 95%CI were (-8.35)-(-4.39)]. There was a statistically significant decreased in numeric rating scale [mean difference 2.13 with 95%CI were 1.08-3.16]. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire showed improvement of health status average 44.8% immediately after treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that immediately effect after low frequency TENS can decrease pain and improve flexibility of back muscle in chronic nonspecific low back pain patients.

Keywords: low back pain, flexibility, TENS, chronic

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1763 Socio-Demographic and Work Related Variables as Predictor of Persistence of Back Pain and Disability among Civil Servants Receiving Physiotherapy in Tertiary Health Institutions in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullah Abdulsalam, Adamu Balami, Olajide Olubanji Olowe, Maryam Abdu Abdulkadir

Abstract:

The development and persistence of low back pain may be influenced by several factors which include lifestyle factors, previous pain symptoms, psychological factors, workplace factors as well as socio-demographic variables. The focus of this study was to determine the socio-demographic and work related variables as a predictor of persistence of back pain and disability among civil servants receiving physiotherapy in tertiary health institutions in Kano, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty nine newly referred low back pain patients for physiotherapy participated in the study. This study was a cross sectional study involving patients that were newly diagnosed of back pain, referred and received physiotherapy. The convenience sampling technique was used to select the patients based on the inclusion criteria. The data obtained was analysed using simple percentage and multiple regression for stated hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings reveal that all the variables are not significant predictor of persistence of back pain and disability. The study recommended that determinants of low back pain recovery by clinician should include other clinical factors not only reduction in pain intensity.

Keywords: socio-demographic, work related variables, Kano state, back pain and disability

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1762 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, joint contact force, kinetic, muscle force

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1761 Comparing Effects of Supervised Exercise Therapy versus Home-Based Exercise Therapy on Low Back Pain Severity, Muscle Strength and Anthropometric Parameters in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Haleh Dadgostar, Faramarz Akbari, Hosien Vahid Tari, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Mohammad Razi

Abstract:

Introduction: There are a number of exercises-protocols have been applied to improve low back pain. We compared the effect of supervised exercise therapy and home-based exercise therapy among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Methods: 70 patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomly (using a random number generator, excel) divided into two groups to compare the effects of two types of exercise therapy. After a common educational session to learn how to live with low back pain as well as to use core training protocols to strengthen the muscles, the subjects were randomly assigned to follow supervised exercise therapy (n = 31) or home-based exercise therapy (n = 34) for 20 weeks. Results: Although both types of exercise programs resulted in reduced pain, this factor decreased more significantly in supervised exercise program. All scores of fitness improved significantly in supervised exercise group. But only knee extensor strength score was increased in the home base exercise group. Conclusion: Comparing between two types of exercise, supervised group exercise showed more effective than the other one. Reduction in low back pain severity and improvement in muscle flexibility and strength can be more achieved by using a 20-week supervised exercise program compared to the home-based exercise program in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.

Keywords: low back pain, anthropometric parameters, supervised exercise therapy, home-based exercise therapy

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1760 The Effects of an Exercise Program Integrated with the Transtheoretical Model on Pain and Trunk Muscle Endurance of Rice Farmers with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Thanakorn Thanawat, Nomjit Nualnetr

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: In Thailand, rice farmers have the most prevalence of low back pain when compared with other manual workers. Exercises have been suggested to be a principal part of treatment programs for low back pain. However, the programs should be tailored to an individual’s readiness to change categorized by a behavioral approach. This study aimed to evaluate a difference between the responses of rice farmers with chronic low back pain who received an exercise program integrated with the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) and those of the comparison group regarding severity of pain and trunk muscle endurance. Materials and Methods: An 8-week exercise program was conducted to rice farmers with chronic low back pain who were randomized to either the TTM (n=62, 52 woman and 10 men, mean age ± SD 45.0±5.4 years) or non-TTM (n=64, 53 woman and 11 men, mean age ± SD 44.7±5.4 years) groups. All participants were tested for their severity of pain and trunk (abdominal and back) muscle endurance at baseline (week 0) and immediately after termination of the program (week 8). Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and student’s t-tests. The results revealed that both TTM and non-TTM groups could decrease their severity of pain and improve trunk muscle endurance after participating in the 8-week exercise program. When compared with the non-TTM group, however, the TTM showed a significantly greater increase in abdominal muscle endurance than did the non-TTM (P=0.004, 95% CI -12.4 to -2.3). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: An exercise program integrated with the TTM could provide benefits to rice farmers with chronic low back pain. Future studies with a longitudinal design and more outcome measures such as physical performance and quality of life are suggested to reveal further benefits of the program.

Keywords: chronic low back pain, transtheoretical model, rice farmers, exercise program

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1759 Low Back Pain-Related Absenteeism among Healthcare Workers in Kibuli Muslim Hospital, Kampala Uganda

Authors: Aremu Abdulmujeeb Babatunde

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain was not only considered to be the most common reason for functional disability worldwide, but also estimated to have affected 90% of the universal population. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, consequences and socio-demographic factors associated with low back pain. Methods; A cross-sectional survey was employed and a total number of 150 self-structured questionnaire was distributed among healthcare workers and this was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain and work related absenteeism. Data was entered using Epi info soft-ware and analyzed using SPSS. Results; An overall response rate of 84% (n = 140) was achieved. The study established that majority (37%) of the respondents were in the age bracket of 20-39 years, 57% female (n=59) and 64% of them were married. the pint prevalence was 84%, 31% of the respondents took leave from work as a result of low back pain. There was high prevalence of sick leave among nursing staff 45.2%, Chi-square test shows that there was a statistically significant association between the respondents occupations and daily time spent during their work (P value 0.011 and 0.042) respectively. Socio-demographic factors like age, marital status and gender were not statistically significant at P<0.05. Conclusions; The medical and socio-professional consequences of low back pain among healthcare workers was as a result of their occupation designations and the daily time spent in carry out this occupations.

Keywords: low back pain, healthcare workers, prevalence, sick leave

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1758 The Effects of Functionality Level on Gait in Subjects with Low Back Pain

Authors: Vedat Kurt, Tansel Koyunoglu, Gamze Kurt, Ozgen Aras

Abstract:

Low back pain is one of the most common health problem in public. Common symptoms that can be associated with low back pain include; pain, functional disability, gait disturbances. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between disability scores and gait parameters in subjects with low back pain. Sixty participants are included in our study, (35 men, 25 women, mean age: 37.65±10.02 years). Demographic characteristics of participants were recorded. Pain (visual analog scale) and disability level (Oswestry Disability Index(ODI)) were evaluated. Gait parameters were measured with Zebris-FDM-2 platform. Independent samples t-test was used to analyse the differences between subjects with under 40 points (n=31, mean age:35.8±11.3) and above 40 points (n=29, mean age:39.6±8.1) of ODI scores. Significant level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. There was no significant difference between the ODI scores and groups’ ages. Statistically significant differences were found in step width between subjects with under 40 points of ODI and above 40 points of ODI score(p < 0.05). But there were non-significant differences with other gait parameters (p > 0.05). The differences between gait parameters and pain scores were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Researchers generally agree that individuals with LBP walk slower and take shorter steps and have asymmetric step lengths when compared with than their age-matched pain-free counterparts. Also perceived general disability may have moderate correlation with walking performance. In the current study, the patients classified as minimal/moderate and severe disability level by using ODI scores. As a result, a patient with LBP who have higher disability level tends to increase support surface. On the other hand, we did not find any relation between pain intensity and gait parameters. It may be caused by the classification system of pain scores. Additional research is needed to investigate the effects of functionality level and pain intensity on gait in subjects with low back pain under different classification types.

Keywords: functionality, low back pain, gait, pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1757 Pain and Lumbar Muscle Activation before and after Functional Task in Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Lídia E. O. Cruz, Adriano P. C. Calvo, Renato J. Soares, Regiane A. Carvalho

Abstract:

Individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain may present altered movement patterns during functional activities. However, muscle behavior before and after performing a functional task with different load conditions is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study is to analyze lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground (with and without load) in individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain. 20 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain and 20 healthy subjects participated in this study. A surface electromyography was performed in the ilio-costal, longissimus and multifidus muscles to evaluate lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground, with and without load. The symptomatic participants had greater lumbar muscle activation compared to the asymptomatic group, more evident in performing the task without load, with statistically significant difference (p = 0,033) between groups for the right multifidus muscle. This study showed that individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain have higher muscle activation before and after performing a functional task compared to healthy participants.

Keywords: chronic low back pain, functional task, lumbar muscles, muscle activity

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1756 Relation between Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain and Hip Rotation

Authors: Mohamed M. Diab, Koura G. Mohamed, A. Balbaa, Radwan Sh. Ahamed

Abstract:

Background: Chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) is the most common complaint of the working-age population. Mechanical low back pain is often a chronic, dull, aching pain of varying intensity that affects the lower spine. In the current proposal the hip rotation-CMLBP relationship is based on that limited hip motion will be compensated by motion in the lumbopelvic region and this increase force translates to the lumbar spine. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there a relationship between chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) and hip medial and lateral rotation (peak torque and Range of motion (ROM) in patients with CMLBP. Methods: Sixty patients with CMLBP diagnosed by an orthopedist participated in the current study after signing a consent form. Their mean of age was (23.76±2.39) years, mean of weight (71.8±12.7) (Kg), mean of height (169.65±7.49) (Cm) and mean of BMI (25.5±3.86) (Kg/m2). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess pain. Fluid Filled Inclinometer was used to measure Hip rotation ROM (medial and lateral). Isokinetic Dynamometer was used to measure peak torque of hip rotators muscles (medial and lateral), concentric peak torque with tow Isokinetic speeds (60ᵒ/sec and 180ᵒ/sec) was selected to measure peak torque. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there is poor relationship between pain and hip external rotation ROM, also there is poor relation between pain and hip internal rotation ROM. There is poor relation between pain and hip internal rotators peak torque and hip external rotators peak torque in both speeds. Conclusion: Depending on the current study it is not recommended to give an importance to hip rotation in treating Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain.

Keywords: hip rotation ROM, hip rotators strength, low back pain, chronic mechanical

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1755 Effect of Magnetic Field in Treatment of Lower Back Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain affects about 60% to 90% of the working-age population in modern industrial society. Myofascial pain syndrome is a condition characterized by muscles shortening with increased tone and associated with trigger points that aggravated with the activity of daily living. Purpose: To examine the effects of magnetic field therapy in patients with lower back myofascial pain syndrome. Methods: Thirty patients were assigned randomly into two groups. Subjects in the experimental group (n=15) with main age of 36.73 (2.52) received traditional physical therapy program (Infrared radiation, ultrasonic, stretching and strengthening exercises for back muscles) as well as magnetic field, and control group (n=15) with main age of 37.27 (2.52) received traditional physical therapy only. The following parameters including pain severity, functional disability and lumbar range of motion (flexion, extension, right side bending, and left side bending) were measured before and after four weeks of treatment. Results: The results showed significant improvement in all parameters in the experimental group compared with those in the control group. Interpretation/Conclusion: By the present date, it is possible to conclude that a magnetic field is effective as a method of treatment for lower back myofascial pain syndrome patients with the parameters used in the present study.

Keywords: magnetic field, lower back pain, myofascial pain syndrome, biological systems engineering

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1754 Perceptions and Attitudes toward Pain in Patients with Chronic Low-Back Pain

Authors: Naomi Sato, Tomonori Sato, Kenji Masui, Rob Stanborough

Abstract:

To date, there are few studies on the subjective experiences of patients with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of CLBP patients’ perceptions and attitudes regarding pain. Individual, semi-constructed interviews were conducted with 7 Japanese and 10 Americans who had been diagnosed with CLBP. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on a content analysis approach. The study proposal was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the first author’s affiliate university. All participants provided written consent. Participants’ ages ranged from 48 to 82. Five main categories were emerged, namely, 'There are no reasons for long-term chronic pain,' 'Just will not worsen,' 'Have something to help me cope,' 'Pain restricts my life,' and 'Have something to relieve me.' Participants lived with CLBP, which could sometimes be avoided as a result of the coping strategies that they employed, and due to which they sometimes felt helpless, despite their efforts. As a result, they had mixed feelings, which included resignation, resoluteness, and optimism. However, their perceptions and attitudes toward pain seemed to differ based on their backgrounds, including biological, social, religious, and cultural status. There is a need for the development of a scale in future studies, to enable quantitative measurement of individuals’ perceptions of and attitudes toward pain. There is also a need for an investigation of factors influencing perceptions and attitudes toward pain.

Keywords: attitude, chronic low-back pain, perception, qualitative study

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1753 Pain Intensity, Functional Disability and Physical Activity among Elderly Individuals with Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

Authors: Adesola Odole, Nse Odunaiya, Samuel Adewale

Abstract:

Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain (CMLBP) is prevalent in the aging population; some studies have documented the association among pain intensity, functional disability and physical activity in the general population but very few studies in the elderly. This study was designed to investigate the association among pain intensity, functional disability and physical activity of elderly individuals with CMLBP in the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria and also to determine the difference in physical activity, pain intensity and functional disability between males and females. A total of 96 participants diagnosed with CMLBP participated in this cross-sectional survey. They were conveniently sampled from selected units in the UCH, Ibadan, Nigeria. Data on sex, marital status, occupation and duration of onset of pain of participants were obtained from the participants. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire were used to measure the physical activity, pain intensity and functional disability of the participants respectively. Data was analysed using Spearman correlation, independent t-test; and α was set at 0.05. Participants (25 males, 71 females) were aged 69.64±7.43 years. The majority (76.0%) of the participants were married, and over half (55.2%) were retirees. Participants’ mean pain intensity score was 5.21±2.03 and mean duration of onset of low back pain was 63.63 ± 90.01 months. The majority (67.6%) of the participants reported severe to crippled functional disability. Their mean functional disability was 46.91 ± 13.99. Participants’ mean physical activity score was 97.47 ± 82.55. There was significant association between physical activity and pain intensity (r = -0.21, p = 0.04). There was significant association between physical activity and functional disability (r = -0.47, p = 0.00). Male (87.26 ± 79.94) and female (101.07 ± 83.71) participants did not differ significantly in physical activity (t = 0.00, p = 0.48). In addition, male (5.48 ± 2.06) and female (5.11 ± 2.02) participants’ pain intensity were comparable (t = 0.26, p = 0.44). There was also no significant difference in functional disability (t = 0.05, p = 0.07) between male (42.56 ±13.85) and female (48.45 ± 13.81) participants. It can be concluded from this study that majority of the elderly individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain had a severe to crippled functional disability. Those who reported increased physical activity had reduced pain intensity and functional disability. Male and female elderly individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain are comparable in their pain intensity, functional disability, and physical activity. Elderly individuals with CMLBP should be educated on the importance of participating in physical activity which could reduce their pain symptoms and improve functional disability.

Keywords: elderly, functional disability, mechanical low back pain, pain intensity, physical activity

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1752 The Effect of Reverse Trendelenburg Position on the Back Pain after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

Authors: Pramote Thangkratok

Abstract:

The aims of this experimental study were to investigate the effect of Reverse Trendelenburg Position on the Back Pain after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. In addition, to compare bleeding and hematoma occurrences at the Access site between experimental and control groups. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in 70 patients who underwent Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions via the femoral artery and received post procedural care at the intermediate cardiac care unit, Bangkok Heart Hospital. From December 2015 to February 2016. The control group (35 patients) was to get standard care after the intervention, whereas the experimental group (35 patients) was Reverse Trendelenburg Position 30-45 degrees. The groups were not significantly different in terms of demographic characteristics, Age, Gender, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate. While not significantly different from each other, the intensity of back pain control group had a significantly higher pain score than experimental group. Vascular complications in terms of bleeding and hematoma were not significantly different between the control and experimental groups. The findings show that Reverse Trendelenburg Position after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions would reduce or prevent the back pain without increasing the chance of bleeding and hematoma.

Keywords: reverse trendelenburg position, back pain, cardiovascular angiography, cardiovascular interventions

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1751 Development and Effects of Transtheoretical Model Exercise Program for Elderly Women with Chronic Back Pain

Authors: Hyun-Ju Oh, Soon-Rim Suh, Mihan Kim

Abstract:

The steady and rapid increase of the older population is a global phenomenon. Chronic diseases and disabilities are increased due to aging. In general, exercise has been known to be most effective in preventing and managing chronic back pain. However, it is hard for the older women to initiate and maintain the exercise. Transtheoretical model (TTM) is one of the theories explain behavioral changes such as exercise. The application of the program considering the stage of behavior change is effective for the elderly woman to start and maintain the exercise. The purpose of this study was to develop TTM based exercise program and to examine its effect for elderly women with chronic back-pain. For the program evaluation, the non-equivalent control pre-posttest design was applied. The independent variable of this study is exercise intervention program. The contents of the program were constructed considering the characteristics of the elderly women with chronic low back pain, focusing on the process of change, the stage of change by the previous studies. The developed exercise program was applied to the elderly women with chronic low back pain in the planning stage and the preparation stage. The subjects were 50 older women over 65 years of age with chronic back-pain who did not practice regular exercise. The experimental group (n=25) received the 8weeks TTM based exercise program. The control group received the book which named low back pain management. Data were collected at three times: before the exercise intervention, right after the intervention, and 4weeks after the intervention. The dependent variables were the processes of change, decisional balance, exercise self-efficacy, back-pain, depression and muscle strength. The results of this study were as follows. Processes of change (<.001), pros of decisional balance (<.001), exercise self-efficacy (<.001), back pain (<.001), depression (<.001), muscle strength (<.001) were higher in the experimental group than in the control group right after the program and 4weeks after the programs. The results of this study show that applying the TTM based exercise program increases the use of the change process, increases the exercise self-efficacy, increases the stage of changing the exercise behavior and strengthens the muscular strength by lowering the degree of pain and depression Respectively. The significance of the study was to confirm the effect of continuous exercise by maintaining regular exercise habits by applying exercise program of the transtheoretical model to the chronic low back pain elderly with exercise intention.

Keywords: chronic back pain, elderly, exercise, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1750 The Effect of Loud Working Environment on Incidence of Back Pain

Authors: Marcel Duh, Jadranka Stricevic, David Halozan, Dusan Celan

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Back pain is not only the result of structural or biomechanical abnormalities of the spine but is also associated with cognitive and behavioral aspects of pain and thus represents biopsychosocial problem. Stressors are not only interpersonal conflicts, negative life events, and dangerous situations but also noise. Effects of noise on human beings are psychological (excitement, stress), sensory, and physiological. The harmful effects of noise can be seen in the 40-65 dB range and are manifested as fatigue, irritability, poor sleep and psychological discomfort of the worker. Within 65-90 dB range, body metabolism increases, oxygen consumption is higher, tachycardia and hypertension appear, and the tone of skeletal muscles increases. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the stress caused by noise at the work place increases the incidence of back pain. Measurements of noise levels were carried out in three different wards of social care institution. The measurement on each ward was repeated 3 times (total of 9 measurements) for 8 hours during the morning shift. The device was set up in the room where clients spent most of the day. The staff on the ward replied to the questionnaire consisting of closed type questions about basic demographic information and information about back pain. We find that noise levels as measured in our study had no statistically significant effect on the incidence of back pain (p = 0.90). We also find that health care workers who perceive their work as stressful, have more back pain than those who perceive their job as unstressful, but correlation is statistically insignificant (p = 0.682). With our study, we have proven findings of other authors, that noise level below 65 dB does not have a significant influence on the incidence of back pain.

Keywords: health care workers, musculoskeletal disorder, noise, sick leave

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1749 Burnout Recognition for Call Center Agents by Using Skin Color Detection with Hand Poses

Authors: El Sayed A. Sharara, A. Tsuji, K. Terada

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Call centers have been expanding and they have influence on activation in various markets increasingly. A call center’s work is known as one of the most demanding and stressful jobs. In this paper, we propose the fatigue detection system in order to detect burnout of call center agents in the case of a neck pain and upper back pain. Our proposed system is based on the computer vision technique combined skin color detection with the Viola-Jones object detector. To recognize the gesture of hand poses caused by stress sign, the YCbCr color space is used to detect the skin color region including face and hand poses around the area related to neck ache and upper back pain. A cascade of clarifiers by Viola-Jones is used for face recognition to extract from the skin color region. The detection of hand poses is given by the evaluation of neck pain and upper back pain by using skin color detection and face recognition method. The system performance is evaluated using two groups of dataset created in the laboratory to simulate call center environment. Our call center agent burnout detection system has been implemented by using a web camera and has been processed by MATLAB. From the experimental results, our system achieved 96.3% for upper back pain detection and 94.2% for neck pain detection.

Keywords: call center agents, fatigue, skin color detection, face recognition

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1748 Low Back Pain and Patients Lifting Behaviors among Nurses Working in Al Sadairy Hospital, Aljouf

Authors: Fatma Abdel Moneim Al Tawil

Abstract:

Low back pain (LBP) among nurses has been the subject of research studies worldwide. However, evidence of the influence of patients lifting behaviors and LBP among nurses in Saudi Arabia remains scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between LBP and nurses lifting behaviors. LBP questionnaire was distributed to 100 nurses working in Alsadairy Hospital distributed as Emergency unit(9),Coronary Care unit (9), Intensive Care Unit (7), Dialysis unit (30), Burn unit (5), surgical unit (11), Medical (14) and, X-ray unit (15). The questionnaire included demographic data, attitude scale, Team work scale, Back pain history and Knowledge scale. Regarding to emergency unit, there is appositive significant relation between teamwork scale and Knowledge as r = (0.807) and P =0.05. Regarding to ICU unit, there is a positive significant relation between teamwork scale and attitude scale as r= (0.781) and P =0.05. Regarding to Dialysis unit, there is a positive significant relation between attitude scale and teamwork scale as r=(0.443) and P =0.05. The findings suggest enhanced awareness of occupational safety with safe patient handling practices among nursing students must be emphasized and integrated into their educational curriculum. Moreover, back pain prevention program should incorporate the promotion of an active lifestyle and fitness training the implementation of institutional patient handling policies.

Keywords: low back pain, lifting behaviors, nurses, team work

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1747 Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Self-Reported Physical Disability in Employees with Chronic Low-Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Tobias Stephan Kaeding, Rebecca Schwarz, Momme Kück, Lothar Stein

Abstract:

Introduction: The goal of this randomized and controlled study is to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training is able to reduce self-reported physical disability in office employees with chronic low-back pain. Materials and methods: 41 subjects (68.3% female/mean age 45.5 ± 9.1 years/mean BMI 26.6 ± 5.2) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (INT (n= 21)) or a control group (CON (n=20). The INT participated in WBV training 2.5 times per week for 3 months. The primary outcome was the change in the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ) score over the study period. In addition, secondary outcomes included changes in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: The compliance with the intervention in the INT reached a mean of 81.1% ± 31.2% with no long-lasting unwanted side effects. We found significant positive effects of 3 months of WBV training in the INT compared to the CON regarding the RMQ (p=0.027) and the ODI (p=0.002). Conclusions: WBV training seems to be an effective, safe and suitable intervention for the reduction of the self-reported physical disability in seated working employees with chronic low-back pain.

Keywords: back pain, exercise, occupational health management, vibration training

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1746 Pain Analysis in Musicians Using Digital Pain Drawings

Authors: Cinzia Cruder, Deborah Falla, Francesca Mangili, Laura Azzimonti, Liliana Araujo, Aaron Williamon, Marco Barbero

Abstract:

Background and aims: According to the existing literature, musicians are at risk to experience a range of musculoskeletal painful conditions. Recently, digital technology has been developed to investigate pain location and pain extent. The aim of this study was to describe pain location and pain extent in musicians using a digital method for pain drawing analysis. Additionally, the association between pain drawing (PD) variables and clinical features in musicians with pain were explored. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-eight musicians (90 women and 68 men; age 22.4±3.6 years) were recruited from Swiss and UK conservatoires. Participants were asked to complete a survey including both background musical information and clinical features, the Quick Dash (QD) questionnaire and the digital PDs. Results: Of the 158 participants, 126 musicians (79.7%) reported having pain, with more prevalence in the areas of the neck and shoulders, the lower back and the right arm. The mean of pain extent was 3.1% ±6.5. The mean of QD was larger for musicians showing the presence of pain than for those without pain. Additionally, the results indicated a positive correlation between QD score and pain extent, and there were significant correlations between age and pain intensity, as well as between pain extent and pain intensity. Conclusions: The high prevalence of pain among musicians has been confirmed using a digital PD. In addition, positive correlations between pain extent and upper limb disability has been demonstrated. Our findings highlight the need for effective prevention and treatment strategies for musicians.

Keywords: pain location, pain extent, musicians, pain drawings

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1745 Single Item Presenteeism Question Reliability and Validity of Persian Version in Low Back Pain Patients

Authors: Mohammadreza Khanmohammadi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi

Abstract:

Purpose: Our study aimed to validate single item presenteeism question (SIPQ) into the Persian language for patients with low back pain. Background information: low back pain is a common health problem, and it is one of the most prevalent disorder in working people. There are the different subjective way to evaluate the effect of back pain on work productivity that one of them is by implementing single item presenteeism question. This question has not been validated into the Persian language. Method: Patients were asked to answer SIPQ and pain from 0 to 10 according to numerical rating scale (NRS). The functional rating index was administrated to evaluate construct validity. For test-retest reliability, almost 50 patients re-completed the Persian SIPQ. The construct validity of SIPQ was assessed by analyzing Spearman rank correlation between this question and the Persian version of Functional rating index questionnaire. To analyze test-retest reliability, we assessed intraclass correlation coefficient (agreement) (ICC agreement) (two-way random effects model, single measure). Results: The SIPQ score of two groups of patients (84 males, 16 females, mean age ±SD: 33.85±11.16 years, range: 19-67 years) and healthy subjects (48 male, 2 female ones, mean age ±SD: 24.24 ±8.07 years) was statistically significant. (Mann-Whitney U =198.00, P<.001). The Spearman correlation of data showed that there is a significant correlation between Persian SIPQ score and Persian FRI band (r= .559, P<.001). The ICC was .62. So, the analysis indicated good, test-retest reliability. Conclusion: This study showed that Persian version of SIPQ is reliable and valid when applied to back pain patients.

Keywords: cross cultural adaptation, economic burden, low back pain, Persian language, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
1744 Effectiveness of Office-Based Occupational Therapy for Office Workers with Low Back Pain: A Public Health Approach

Authors: Dina Jalalvand, Joshua A. Cleland

Abstract:

This double-blind, randomized control trial with parallel groups aimed to examine the effectiveness of office-based occupational therapy for office workers with low back pain on the intensity of pain and range of motion. Seventy-two male office workers (age: 20-50 years) with chronic low back pain (more than three months with at least two symptoms of chronic low back pain) satisfied eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in this study. The absence of joint burst following magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) was considered as an important inclusion criterion as well. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group. The experimental group received the modified package of exercise-based occupational therapy, which included 11 simple exercise movements (derived from Williams and McKenzie), and the control group just received the conventional therapy, which included their routine physiotherapy sessions. The subjects completed the exercises three times a week for a duration of six weeks. Each exercise session was 10-15 minutes. Pain intensity and range of motion were the primary outcomes and were measured at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after the end of the intervention using the numerical rating scale (NRS) and goniometer accordingly. Repeated measure ANOVA was used for analyzing data. The results of this study showed that significant decreases in pain intensity (p ≤ 0.05) and an increase in range of motion (p ≤ 0.001) in the experimental group in comparison with the control group after 6 and 12 weeks of intervention (between-group comparisons). In addition, there was a significant decrease in intensity of the pain (p ≤ 0.05) and an increase (p ≤ 0.001) in range of motion in the intervention group in comparison with baseline after 6 and 12 weeks (within-group comparison). This showed a positive effect of exercise-based occupational therapy that could potentially be used with low cost among office workers who suffer from low back pain. In addition, it should be noted that the introduced package of exercise training is easy to do, and there is not a need for a specific introduction.

Keywords: public health, office workers, low back pain, occupational therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1743 Short Term Effects of Mobilization with Movement in a Patient with Fibromyalgia: A Case Report

Authors: S. F. Kanaan, Fatima Al-Kadi, H. Khrais

Abstract:

Background: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition that is characterized by chronic pain that limits physical and functional activities. To our best knowledge, there is currently no key physiotherapy approach recommended to reduce pain and improve function. In addition, there are scarce studies that investigated the effect of manual therapy in the management of Fibromyalgia, and no study investigated the efficacy of Mulligan´s mobilization with movement (MWM) in particular. Methods: A 51-year-old female diagnosed with Fibromyalgia for more than a year. The patient was complaining of generalized pain including neck, lower back, shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees. In addition, the patient reported severe limitation in activities and inability to complete her work as a lawyer. The Intervention provided for the patient consisted of 4 sessions (in two weeks) of MWM for neck, lower back, shoulders, elbows, sacroiliac joint, hips, and knees. The Visual Analogue Scale of pain (VAS), Range of Motion (ROM), 10-minute walk test, Roland Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (DASH) were collected at the baseline and at the end of treatment. Results: Average improvement of ROM in the neck, lower back, shoulder, elbows, hips, and knees was 45%. VAS scale changed from pre-treatment to post-treatment as the following: neck pain (9 to 0), lower back pain (8 to 1), shoulders pain (8 to 2), elbows pain (7 to 1), and knees pain (9 to 0). The patient demonstrated improvement in all functional scale from pre-intervention to post-intervention: 10-meter walk test (9.8 to 4.5 seconds), RMQ (21 to 11/24), and DASH (88.7% to 40.5%). The patient did not report any side effect of using this approach. Conclusion: Fibromyalgia can cause joint 'faulty position' leading to pain and dysfunction, which can be reversed by using MWM. MWM showed to have clinically significant improvement in ROM, pain, and ability to walk and a clinically significant reduction in disability in only 4 sessions. This work can be expanded in a larger sample.

Keywords: mobilization, fibromyalgia, dysfunction, manual therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
1742 Effects of Additional Pelvic Floor Exercise on Sexual Function, Quality of Life and Pain Intensity in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Emel Sonmezer, Hayri Baran Yosmaoglu

Abstract:

The negative impact of chronic pain syndromes on sexual function has been reported in several studies; however, the influences of treatment strategies on sexual dysfunction have not been evaluated widely. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pelvic floor exercise on sexual dysfunction in female patients with chronic low back pain. Forty-two patient with chronic low back pain were enrolled this study. Subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 received conventional physiotherapy consist of heat therapy, ergonomic education, William flexion exercise during 6 weeks. Group 2 received pelvic floor exercises in addition to conventional physiotherapy. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used for the assessment of sexual function. Pain intensity was assessed with Visual Analogue Scale. Quality of life was assessed with World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale. All measurements were taken before and after treatment. In conventional physiotherapy group; there were significant improvement in pain intensity (p= 0,003), physical health (p=0,011), psychological health (p=0,042) subscales of quality of life scale, arousal (p=0,042), lubrication (p=0,028) and pain (p= 0,034) subscales of FSFI. In additional pelvic floor exercise group; there were significant improvement in pain intensity (p= 0,005), physical health (p=0,012) psychological health (p=0,039) subscales of quality of life scale, arousal (p=0,024), lubrication (p=0,011), orgasm (p=0,035) and pain (p= 0,015) subscales and total score (p=0,016) of FSFI. Total FSFI score (p=0,025) and orgasm (p=0,017) subscale of FSFI were significantly higher for the additional pelvic floor exercise group than the conventional physiotherapy group.The outcome of this study suggested that conventional physiotherapy may contribute to improve pain, quality of life and some parameters of the sexual function in patients with low back pain. Although additional pelvic floor exercise did not reveal more treatment effect in terms of quality of life and pain intensity, it caused significant improvement in sexual function. It is recommended that pelvic floor exercise should be added to treatment programs in order to manage sexual dysfunction more effectively in patients with chronic low back pain.

Keywords: physiotherapy, chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, pelvic floor

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
1741 Vertebral Pain Features in Women of Different Age Depending on Body Mass Index

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Tetiana Orlуk, Nataliia Dzerovych

Abstract:

Introduction: Back pain is an extremely common health care problem worldwide. Many studies show a link between an obesity and risk of lower back pain. The aim is to study correlation and peculiarities of vertebral pain in women of different age depending on their anthropometric indicators. Materials: 1886 women aged 25-89 years were examined. The patients were divided into groups according to age (25-44, 45-59, 60-74, 75-89 years old) and body mass index (BMI: to 18.4 kg/m2 (underweight), 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 (normal), 25-30 kg/m2 (overweight) and more than 30.1 kg/m2 (obese). Methods: The presence and intensity of pain was evaluated in the thoracic and lumbar spine using a visual analogue scale (VAS). BMI is calculated by the standard formula based on body weight and height measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric and nonparametric methods. Significant changes were considered as p <0.05. Results: The intensity of pain in the thoracic spine was significantly higher in the underweight women in the age groups of 25-44 years (p = 0.04) and 60-74 years (p=0.005). The intensity of pain in the lumbar spine was significantly higher in the women of 45-59 years (p = 0.001) and 60-74 years (p = 0.0003) with obesity. In the women of 45-74 years BMI was significantly positively correlated with the level of pain in the lumbar spine. Obesity significantly increases the relative risk of pain in the lumbar region (RR=0.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.12; p=0.002)), while underweight significantly increases the risk of pain in the thoracic region (RR=1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46; p=0.05)). Conclusion: In women, vertebral pain syndrome may be related to the anthropometric characteristics (e.g., BMI). Underweight may indirectly influence the development of pain in the thoracic spine and increase the risk of pain in this part by 1.21 times. Obesity influences the development of pain in the lumbar spine increasing the risk by 1.07 times.

Keywords: body mass index, age, pain in thoracic and lumbar spine, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1740 Effect of Therapeutic Exercises with or without Positional Release Technique in Treatment of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain Patients a Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Ghada M. R. Koura, Mohamed N. Mohamed, Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi

Abstract:

Chronic mechanical Low back dysfunction (CMLBD) is the most common problem of the working-age population in modern industrial sociaty; it causes a substantial economic burden due to the wide use of medical services and absence from work. Aim of work: the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of positional release technique on patients with chronic mechanical low back pain. Materials and Methods: Thirty two patients from both sexes were diagnosed with CMLBP, aged 20 to 45 years and were divided randomly into two equal groups; sixteen patients each; group A (control group) received therapeutic exercises that include (Stretch and Strength exercises for back and abdominal muscles). Group B (experimental group) received therapeutic exercises with positional release technique; treatment was applied 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, Lumbar range of motion was measured by Inclinometer and Functional disability was measured by Oswestry disability scale. Measurements were taken at two intervals pre-treatment and post-treatment. Results: Data obtained was analyzed via paired and unpaired t-Test. There were statistical differences between the 2 groups, where the experimental group showed greater improvement than control group. Conclusion: Positional release technique is considered as an effective treatment for reducing pain, functional disability and increasing lumbar range of motion in individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain.

Keywords: chronic mechanical low back pain, traditional physical therapy program, positional release technique, randomized controlled trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
1739 Epidemiology of Low Back Pain among Nurses Working in Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mengestie Mulugeta Belay, Serebe Abay Gebrie, Biruk Lambbiso Wamisho, Amare Worku

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain (LBP) related to nursing profession, is a very common public health problem throughout the world. Various risk factors have been implicated in the etiology and LBP is assumed to be of multi-factorial origin as individual, work-related and psychosocial factors can contribute to its development. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors of LBP among nurses working in Addis Ababa City Public Hospitals, Ethiopia, in the year 2015. Settings: Addis Ababa University, Black-Lion (‘Tikur Anbessa’) Hospital-BLH, is the country’s highest tertiary level referral and teaching Hospital. The three departments in connection with this study: Radiology, Pathology and Orthopedics, run undergraduate and residency programs and receive referred patients from all over the country. Methods: A cross-sectional study with internal comparison was conducted throughout the period October-December, 2015. Sample was chosen by simple random sampling technique by taken the lists of nurses from human resource departments as a sampling frame. A well-structured, pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantifiable information. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, back pain features, consequences of back pain, work-related and psychosocial factors. The collected data was entered into EpiInfo version 3.5.4 and was analyzed by SPSS. A probability level of 0.05 or less and 95% confidence level was used to indicate statistical significance. Ethical clearance was obtained from all respected administrative bodies, Hospitals and study participants. Results: The study included 395 nurses and gave a response rate of 91.9%. The mean age was 30.6 (±8.4) years. Majority of the respondents were female (285, 72.2%). Nearly half of the participants (n=181, 45.8% (95% CI (40.8%- 50.6%))) were complained low back pain. There was statistical significant association between low back pain and working shift, physical activities at work; sleep disturbance and felt little pleasure by doing things. Conclusion: A high prevalence of low back pain was found among nurses working in Addis Ababa Public Hospitals. Recognition and preventive measures like providing resting periods should be taken to reduce the risk of low back pain in nurses working in Public hospitals.

Keywords: low back pain, risk factors, nurses, public hospitals

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
1738 Arduino Pressure Sensor Cushion for Tracking and Improving Sitting Posture

Authors: Andrew Hwang

Abstract:

The average American worker sits for thirteen hours a day, often with poor posture and infrequent breaks, which can lead to health issues and back problems. The Smart Cushion was created to alert individuals of their poor postures, and may potentially alleviate back problems and correct poor posture. The Smart Cushion is a portable, rectangular, foam cushion, with five strategically placed pressure sensors, that utilizes an Arduino Uno circuit board and specifically designed software, allowing it to collect data from the five pressure sensors and store the data on an SD card. The data is then compiled into graphs and compared to controlled postures. Before volunteers sat on the cushion, their levels of back pain were recorded on a scale from 1-10. Data was recorded for an hour during sitting, and then a new, corrected posture was suggested. After using the suggested posture for an hour, the volunteers described their level of discomfort on a scale from 1-10. Different patterns of sitting postures were generated that were able to serve as early warnings of potential back problems. By using the Smart Cushion, the areas where different volunteers were applying the most pressure while sitting could be identified, and the sitting postures could be corrected. Further studies regarding the relationships between posture and specific regions of the body are necessary to better understand the origins of back pain; however, the Smart Cushion is sufficient for correcting sitting posture and preventing the development of additional back pain.

Keywords: Arduino Sketch Algorithm, biomedical technology, pressure sensors, Smart Cushion

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
1737 The Effects of High Velocity Low Amplitude Thrust Manipulation versus Low Velocity Low Amplitude Mobilization in Treatment of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda,  Mona H. Gamal Eldein, Ibrahim Magdy Elnaggar

Abstract:

Background: High-velocity low amplitude thrust (HVLAT) manipulation and low-velocity low amplitude (LVLA) mobilization are an effective treatment for low back pain (LBP). Purpose: This study compared the effects of HVLAT versus LVLA on pain, functional deficits and segmental mobility in treatment of chronic mechanical LBP. Methods: Ninety patients suffering from chronic mechanical LBP are classified to three groups; Thirty patients treated by HVLAT (group I), thirty patients treated by LVLA (group II) and thirty patients as control group (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 28.00±2.92, 27.83±2.28 and 28.07±3.05 years and BMI 27.98±2.60, 28.80±2.40 and 28.70±2.53 kg/m2 for group I, II and III respectively. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire and modified schoper test were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted two weeks before and after treatment with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The treatment program group one was two weeks single session per week, and for group II two sessions per week for two weeks. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and Oswestry score compared with group II two weeks after treatment. Moreover, the mobility in modified schoper increased significantly and the pain scores and Oswestry scores decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with control group. Interpretation/Conclusion: HVLAT is preferable to LVLA mobilization, possibly due to a beneficial neurophysiological effect by Stimulating mechanically sensitive neurons in the lumbar facet joint capsule.

Keywords: low back pain, manipulation, mobilization, low velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
1736 Assessment of Transverse Abdominis Activation during Three Different Exercises in Low Back Pain Patients: Measurement with Real-Time Ultrasonography

Authors: Venus Pagare, Amit Kharat, Dhaval K. Thakkar, Tushar J. Palekar

Abstract:

Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major public health problem and is the leading musculoskeletal cause of disability. Altered neuromuscular control of core muscles, particulary transverses abdominis (TrA) is thought to be a contributing factor for the development of CLBP. Therefore, various exercises targeting the TrA are commonly incorporated into the rehabilitation. Objectives: To investigate the effects of 3 different core exercises on activation capacity of TrA muscle in individuals with CLBP as compared with healthy controls. Methodology: Thickness of TrA muscle was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 patients with CLBP and 30 healthy controls. Measurements were taken during 3 different TrA activation exercises i.e Abdominal drawing in maneuver (ADIM), Abdominal drawing in with straight leg raise (ADSLR) and breathe hold at maximum expiration (ME). Thickness of the muscle at rest (at the end of normal tidal expiration) was taken as a baseline measure. Results: There was a significant difference between the healthy subjects and patients with low back pain with regard to the thickness of TrA at rest and thickness during contraction. ADIM produced a significant increase in the thickness of TrA compared to ADSLR and ME (p<0.001). Also, increase in thickness of TrA was more in the control group than patients with low back pain. Conclusion: CLBP patients exhibited atrophy of TrA muscle with delayed activation. Also, of the various core exercises, ADIM can be an effective method for activation of TrA.

Keywords: LBP, CLBP, ADSLR, ADIM

Procedia PDF Downloads 198