Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: hemolysis

21 Human Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Effect, in vivo Antioxidant Activity of Globularia alypum L. Extracts

Authors: N. Boussoualim, H. Trabsa, I. Krache, S. Aouachria, S. Boumerfeg, L. Arrar, A. Baghiani


The aim of this study consisted in evaluating the antioxidant in vivo properties, anti-hemolytic and XOR inhibitory effect of Globularia alypum L. (GA) extracts. GA was submitted to extraction and fractionation to give crude (CrE), chloroformique (ChE), ethyle acetate (EAE) and aqueos (AqE) extracts. Total polyphenols contents of GA extracts were determined; EAE is the most rich in polyphenols (157,74±5,27 mg GAE/mg of extract). GA Extracts inhibited XO in a concentration-dependent manner, the EAE showed the highest inhibitory properties on the XOR activity (IC50=0,083±0,001 mg/ml), followed by CrE and ChE. The antioxidant activities of the CrE, EAE, and AqE were tested by an in vivo assay in mice, the plasma ability to inhibit DPPH radical was measured, The CrE was found to exhibit the greatest scavenger activity with 48.41±2.763%, followed by AqE and EAE (40.54±7.51% and 41.79±1.654%, respectively). Total antioxidant capacity of red blood cells was measured, from the kinetics of hemolysis obtained. The calculated HT50 reveal an extension of time for half hemolysis in all treated groups compared with the control group. CrE increase significantly HT50 (112,8±2,427). The hemolysis is lagged, indicating that endogenous antioxidants in the erythrocytes can trap radicals to protect them against free-radical-induced hemolysis. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined by the disc diffusion method. Test microorganisms were; 4 Gram positive, 7 gram negative bacteria, most active extracts were EAE and CrE. We deduce a great relationship between the effect on the extracts antibacterial effect and their contents in flavonoid.

Keywords: Globularia alypum, Xanthine oxidoreductase, in vivo-antioxidant activity, hemolysis, polyphenol

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20 In-Vitro Assessment of Saponin’s Level and Hemolytic Activity of Five Medicinal Plants from Eritrea

Authors: Leah Ghebreberhan, Liya Abraham, John Issac, Atul Kaushik


Medicinal plants are used for various indications in Eritrea according to traditional systems of medicine. Safety concerns, however, are dubious since some medicinal plants have toxic effects indeed. The medicinal plants under study (Commicarpus pedunculosis, Steganotaenia araliaceae, Boscia angustifolia, Solanum incanum, and Calpurnia aurea) are used in the treatment of various diseases. Thus, safety studies must be performed prior to usage since they are rich in phytoconstituents like saponins. Saponns are natural glycosides with several pharmacologic activities including hemolysis. The study was done to assess the level of saponin and toxic effects (hemolysis) of medicinal plants used in folk medicine. The plant extracts were subject to phytochemical analysis, foam test, and hemolytic assay. Regarding the Fh value, Solanam incanum consisted highest Fh value (20mm), whereas Boscia angustifolia showed the lowest Fh value (10mm). The level of hemolysis of all the plant extracts ranged between 9.0 to 20.2 %. All the plant extracts were suitable for treatment with respect to saponin level since they exhibited minimal hemolytic effect against erythrocytes.

Keywords: Boscia angustifolia, Calpurnia aurea, Commicarpus pedunculosis, hemolysis, saponin, Solanum incanum, Steganotaenia araliaceae

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19 Evaluation of the Heating Capability and in vitro Hemolysis of Nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) Ferrites Prepared by Sol-gel Method

Authors: Laura Elena De León Prado, Dora Alicia Cortés Hernández, Javier Sánchez


Among the different cancer treatments that are currently used, hyperthermia has a promising potential due to the multiple benefits that are obtained by this technique. In general terms, hyperthermia is a method that takes advantage of the sensitivity of cancer cells to heat, in order to damage or destroy them. Within the different ways of supplying heat to cancer cells and achieve their destruction or damage, the use of magnetic nanoparticles has attracted attention due to the capability of these particles to generate heat under the influence of an external magnetic field. In addition, these nanoparticles have a high surface area and sizes similar or even lower than biological entities, which allow their approaching and interaction with a specific region of interest. The most used magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment are those based on iron oxides, mainly magnetite and maghemite, due to their biocompatibility, good magnetic properties and chemical stability. However, in order to fulfill more efficiently the requirements that demand the treatment of magnetic hyperthermia, there have been investigations using ferrites that incorporate different metallic ions, such as Mg, Mn, Co, Ca, Ni, Cu, Li, Gd, etc., in their structure. This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) ferrites by sol-gel method and their evaluation in terms of heating capability and in vitro hemolysis to determine the potential use of these nanoparticles as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia. It was possible to obtain ferrites with nanometric sizes, a single crystalline phase with an inverse spinel structure and a behavior near to that of superparamagnetic materials. Additionally, at concentrations of 10 mg of magnetic material per mL of water, it was possible to reach a temperature of approximately 45°C, which is within the range of temperatures used for the treatment of hyperthermia. The results of the in vitro hemolysis assay showed that, at the concentrations tested, these nanoparticles are non-hemolytic, as their percentage of hemolysis is close to zero. Therefore, these materials can be used as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia.

Keywords: ferrites, heating capability, hemolysis, nanoparticles, sol-gel

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18 Controlled Size Synthesis of ZnO and PEG-ZnO NPs and Their Biological Evaluation

Authors: Mahnoor Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Khizar Hayat, Saad Ahmad Khan, Laiba Ahmad, Shumaila Bashir, Abid Ali Khan


The objective of this study was to synthesize the smallest possible size of ZnO NPs using a modified wet chemical synthesis method and to prepare core shell using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as shell material. Advanced and sophisticated techniques were used to confirm the synthesis, size, and shape of these NPs. Rounded, clustered NPs of size 5.343 nm were formed. Both the plain and core shell NPs were tested against MDR bacteria (E. cloacae, E. amnigenus, Shigella, S. odorifacae, Citrobacter, and E. coli). Both of the NPs showed excellent antibacterial properties, whereas E. cloacae showed maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm, 27 mm, and 32 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml, and 1500 μg/ml, respectively for plain ZnO NPs and 18 mm, 28 mm and 35 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml and 1500 μg/ml for core shell NPs. These NPs were also biocompatible on human red blood cells showing little hemolysis of only 4% for 70 μg/ml for plain NPs and 1.5% for 70 μg/ml for core shell NPs. Core shell NPs were highly biocompatible because of the PEG. Their therapeutic effect as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment was also monitored. The cytotoxicity of ZnO and PEG-ZnO was evaluated using MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that these NPs could generate ROS inside tumor cells after irradiation which in turn initiates an apoptotic pathway leading to cell death hence proving to be an effective candidate for PDT.

Keywords: ZnO, hemolysis, cytotoxiciy assay, photodynamic therapy, antibacterial

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17 Saco Sweet Cherry from Fundão Region, Portugal: Chemical Profile and Health-Promoting Properties

Authors: Luís R. Silva, Ana C. Gonçalves, Catarina Bento, Fábio Jesus, Branca M. Silva


Prunus avium Linnaeus, more known as sweet cherry, is one of the most appreciated fruit worldwide. Most of these quantities are produced in Fundão region, being Saco the cultivar most produced. Saco is very rich in bioactive compounds, especially phenolics, and presents great antioxidant capacity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the chemical profile and biological potential, concerning antioxidant, anti-diabetic activity and protective effects towards erythrocytes by Saco sweet cherry collected from Fundão region (Portugal). The hydroethanolic extracts were prepared and passed through a C18 solid-phase extraction column. The phenolic profile analyzed by LC-DAD method allowed to the identification of 22 phenolic compounds, being 16 non-phenolics and 6 anthocyanins. In respect to non-coloured phenolics, 3-O-caffeoylquinic and ρ-coumaroylquinic acids were the main ones. Concerning to anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was found in higher amounts. Relatively to biological potential, Saco showed great antioxidant potential, through DPPH and NO radical assays, with IC50 =16.24 ± 0.46 µg/mL and IC50 = 176.69 ± 3.35 µg/mL for DPPH and NO, respectively. These results were similar to those obtained for ascorbic acid control (IC50 = 16.92 ± 0.69 and IC50 = 162.66 ± 1.31 μg/mL for DPPH and NO, respectively). In respect to antidiabetic potential, Saco revealed capacity to inhibit α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.79 ± 0.40 µg/mL), being much active than positive control acarbose (IC50 = 306.66 ± 0.84 μg/mL). Additionally, Saco extracts revealed protective effects against ROO•-mediated toxicity generated by AAPH in human blood erythrocytes, inhibiting hemoglobin oxidation (IC50 = 38.57 ± 0.96 μg/mL) and hemolysis (IC50 = 73.03 ± 1.48 μg/mL), in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Saco extracts were less effective than quercetin control (IC50 = 3.10 μg/mL and IC50 = 0.7 μg/mL for inhibition of hemoglobin oxidation and hemolysis, respectively). The results obtained showed that Saco is an excellent source of phenolic compounds. These ones are natural antioxidant substances, which easily capture reactive species. This work presents new insights regarding sweet cherry antioxidant properties which may be useful for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for preventing or attenuating oxidative-related disorders.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, health benefits, phenolic compounds, saco

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16 Evaluation of Human Amnion Hemocompatibility as a Substitute for Vessels

Authors: Ghasem Yazdanpanah, Mona Kakavand, Hassan Niknejad


Objectives: An important issue in tissue engineering (TE) is hemocompatibility. The current engineered vessels are seriously at risk of thrombus formation and stenosis. Amnion (AM) is the innermost layer of fetal membranes that consists of epithelial and mesenchymal sides. It has the advantages of low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties as well as good mechanical properties. We recently introduced the amnion as a natural biomaterial for tissue engineering. In this study, we have evaluated hemocompatibility of amnion as potential biomaterial for tissue engineering. Materials and Methods: Amnions were derived from placentas of elective caesarean deliveries which were in the gestational ages 36 to 38 weeks. Extracted amnions were washed by cold PBS to remove blood remnants. Blood samples were obtained from healthy adult volunteers who had not previously taken anti-coagulants. The blood samples were maintained in sterile tubes containing sodium citrate. Plasma or platelet rich plasma (PRP) were collected by blood sample centrifuging at 600 g for 10 min. Hemocompatibility of the AM samples (n=7) were evaluated by measuring of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), hemolysis, and platelet aggregation tests. P-selectin was also assessed by ELISA. Both epithelial and mesenchymal sides of amnion were evaluated. Glass slide and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) samples were defined as control. Results: In comparison with glass as control (13.3 ± 0.7 s), prothrombin time was increased significantly while each side of amnion was in contact with plasma (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in PT between epithelial and mesenchymal surfaces (17.4 ± 0.7 s vs. 15.8 ± 0.7 s, respectively). However, aPPT was not significantly changed after incubation of plasma with amnion epithelial and mesenchymal surfaces or glass (28.61 ± 1.39 s, 31.4 ± 2.66 s, glass, 30.76 ± 2.53 s, respectively, p>0.05). Amnion surfaces, ePTFE and glass samples have less hemolysis induction than water considerably (p<0.001), in which no differences were detected. Platelet aggregation measurements showed that platelets were less stimulated by the amnion epithelial and mesenchymal sides, in comparison with ePTFE and glass. In addition, reduction in amount of p-selectin, as platelet activation factor, after incubation of samples with PRP indicated that amnion has less stimulatory effects on platelets than ePTFE and glass. Conclusion: Amnion as a natural biomaterial has the potential to be used in tissue engineering. Our results suggest that amnion has appropriate hemocompatibility to be employed as a vascular substitute.

Keywords: amnion, hemocompatibility, tissue engineering, biomaterial

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15 The Effect of Acute Muscular Exercise and Training Status on Haematological Indices in Adult Males

Authors: Ibrahim Musa, Mohammed Abdul-Aziz Mabrouk, Yusuf Tanko


Introduction: Long term physical training affect the performance of athletes especially the females. Soccer which is a team sport, played in an outdoor field, require adequate oxygen transport system for the maximal aerobic power during exercise in order to complete 90 minutes of competitive play. Suboptimal haematological status has often been recorded in athletes with intensive physical activity. It may be due to the iron depletion caused by hemolysis or haemodilution results from plasma volume expansion. There is lack of data regarding the dynamics of red blood cell variables, in male football players. We hypothesized that, a long competitive season involving frequent matches and intense training could influence red blood cell variables, as a consequence of applying repeated physical loads when compared with sedentary. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried on 40 adult males (20 athletes and 20 non athletes) between 18-25 years of age. The 20 apparently healthy male non athletes were taken as sedentary and 20 male footballers comprise the study group. The university institutional review board (ABUTH/HREC/TRG/36) gave approval for all procedures in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Red blood cell (RBC) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma volume were measured in fasting state and immediately after exercise. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS/ win.20.0 for comparison within and between the groups, using student’s paired and unpaired “t” test respectively. Results: The finding from our study shows that, immediately after termination of exercise, the mean RBC counts and PCV significantly (p<0.005) decreased with significant increased (p<0.005) in plasma volume when compared with pre-exercised values in both group. In addition the post exercise RBC was significantly higher in untrained (261.10±8.5) when compared with trained (255.20±4.5). However, there was no significant differences in the post exercise hematocrit and plasma volume parameters between the sedentary and the footballers. Moreover, beside changes in pre-exercise values among the sedentary and the football players, the resting red blood cell counts and Plasma volume (PV %) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the sedentary group (306.30±10.05 x 104 /mm3; 58.40±0.54%) when compared with football players (293.70±4.65 x 104 /mm3; 55.60±1.18%). On the other hand, the sedentary group exhibited significant (p < 0.05) decrease in PCV (41.60±0.54%) when compared with the football players (44.40±1.18%). Conclusions: It is therefore proposed that the acute football exercise induced reduction in RBC and PCV is entirely due to plasma volume expansion, and not of red blood cell hemolysis. In addition, the training status also influenced haematological indices of male football players differently from the sedentary at rest due to adaptive response. This is novel.

Keywords: Haematological Indices, Performance Status, Sedentary, Male Football Players

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14 Saco Sweet Cherry: Phenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Coloured and Non-Coloured Fractions

Authors: Catarina Bento, Ana Carolina Gonçalves, Fábio Jesus, Luís Rodrigues Silva


Increasing evidence suggests that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables plays important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, among others. Fruits and vegetables gained prominence due their richness in bioactive compounds, being the focus of many studies due to their biological properties acting as health promoters. Prunus avium Linnaeus (L.), commonly known as sweet cherry has been the centre of attention due to its health benefits, and has been highly studied. In Portugal, most of the cherry production comes from the Fundão region. The Saco is one of the most important cultivar produced in this region, attributed with geographical protection. In this work, we prepared 3 extracts through solid-phase extraction (SPE): a whole extract, fraction I (non-coloured phenolics) and fraction II (coloured phenolics). The three extracts were used to determine the phenolic profile of Saco cultivar by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD) technique. This was followed by the evaluation of their biological potential, testing the extracts’ capacity to scavenge free-radicals (DPPH•, nitric oxide (•NO) and superoxide radical (O2●-)) and to inhibit α-glucosidase enzyme of all extracts. Additionally, we evaluated, for the first time, the protective effects against peroxyl radical (ROO•)-induced hemoglobin oxidation and hemolysis in human erythrocytes. A total of 16 non-coloured phenolics were detected, 3-O-caffeoylquinic and ρ-coumaroylquinic acids were the main ones, and 6 anthocyanins were found, among which cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside represented the majority. In respect to antioxidant activity, Saco showed great antioxidant potential in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrated through the DPPH•,•NO and O2●-radicals, and greater ability to inhibit the α-glucosidase enzyme in comparison to the regular drug acarbose used to treat diabetes. Additionally, Saco proved to be effective to protect erythrocytes against oxidative damage in a concentration-dependent manner against hemoglobin oxidation and hemolysis. Our work demonstrated that Saco cultivar is an excellent source of phenolic compounds which are natural antioxidants that easily capture reactive species, such as ROO• before they can attack the erythrocytes’ membrane. In a general way, the whole extract showed the best efficiency, most likely due to a synergetic interaction between the different compounds. Finally, comparing the two separate fractions, the coloured fraction showed the most activity in all the assays, proving to be the biggest contributor of Saco cherries’ biological activity.

Keywords: biological potential, coloured phenolics, non-coloured phenolics, sweet cherry

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13 Magnetic Properties and Cytotoxicity of Ga-Mn Magnetic Ferrites Synthesized by the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Javier Sánchez, Laura Elena De León Prado, Dora Alicia Cortés Hernández


Magnetic spinel ferrites are materials that possess size, magnetic properties and heating ability adequate for their potential use in biomedical applications. The Mn0.5Ga0.5Fe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as chelating agent of metallic precursors. The synthesized samples were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) as an inverse spinel structure with no secondary phases. Saturation magnetization (Ms) of crystalline powders was 45.9 emu/g, which was higher than those corresponding to GaFe2O4 (14.2 emu/g) and MnFe2O4 (40.2 emu/g) synthesized under similar conditions, while the coercivity field (Hc) was 27.9 Oe. The average particle size was 18 ± 7 nm. The heating ability of the MNPs was enough to increase the surrounding temperature up to 43.5 °C in 7 min when a quantity of 4.5 mg of MNPs per mL of liquid medium was tested. Cytotoxic effect (hemolysis assay) of MNPs was determined and the results showed hemolytic values below 1% in all tested cases. According to the results obtained, these synthesized nanoparticles can be potentially used as thermoseeds for hyperthermia therapy.

Keywords: manganese-gallium ferrite, magnetic hyperthermia, heating ability, cytotoxicity

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12 Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Various Isolates from Different Places

Authors: Kiran Fatima, Kashif Ali


Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human as well as animal pathogen that causes a variety of diseases. A total of 70 staphylococci isolates were obtained from soil, water, yogurt, and clinical samples. The likely staphylococci clinical isolates were identified phenotypically by different biochemical tests. Molecular identification was done by PCR using species-specific 16S rRNA primer pairs, and finally, 50 isolates were found to be positive as Staphylococcus aureus, sciuri, xylous and cohnii. Screened isolates were further analyzed by several microbiological diagnostics tests, including gram staining, coagulase, capsule, hemolysis, fermentation of glucose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose tests enzymatic reactions. It was found that 78%, 81%, and 51% of isolates were positive for gelatin hydrolysis, protease, and lipase activities, respectively. Antibiogram analysis of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains with respect to different antimicrobial agents revealed resistance patterns ranging from 57 to 96%. Our study also shows 70% of strains to be MRSA, 54.3% as VRSA, and 54.3% as both MRSA and VRSA. All the identified isolates were subjected to detection of mecA, nuc, and hlb genes, and 70%, 84%, and 40% were found to harbour mecA, nuc, and hlb genes, respectively. The current investigation is highly important and informative for the high-level multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections inclusive also of methicillin and vancomycin.

Keywords: MRSA, VRSA, mecA, MSSA

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11 Deciphering Suitability of Rhamnolipids as Emulsifying Agent for Hydrophobic Pollutants

Authors: Asif Jamal, Samia Sakindar, Ramla Rehman


Biosurfactants are amphiphilic surface active compounds obtained from natural resources such as plants and microorganisms. Because of their diverse physicochemical characteristics biosurfactant are replacing synthetic compounds in various commercial applications. In present study, a strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated from crude oil contaminated soil as efficient biosurfactant producers. The biosurfactant production was analyzed as a function of surface tension reduction, oil spreading capacity, emulsification index and hemolysis assay. This bacterial strain showed excellent emulsion activity of EI24 85%, surface tension reduction up to 28.6 mNm-1 and 7.0 mm oil displacement zone. Physicochemical and biological properties of extracted rhamnolipid were also investigated in current study. The chemical composition of product from strain PSS was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results revealed that extracted biosurfactant was rhamnolipid type in nature having RL-1 and RL-2 homologues. The surface behavior of rhamnolipid in aqueous phase was investigated varying extreme pH, temperature, salt conditions and with various hydrocarbons. The results indicated that biosurfactant produced by strain PSS Which showed stability during high temperature up to 121 C, salt concentrations up to 20% and pH range between (4—14). The emulsification activity with different hydrocarbons was also remarkable. It was concluded that rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by strain PSS has excellent potential as emulsifying/remediation agent for broad range of hydrophobic pollutants.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, bioremediation, rhamnolipid, surfactants

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10 A Comparison of Generation Dependent Brain Targeting Potential of(Poly Propylene Mine) Dendrimers

Authors: Nitin Dwivedi, Jigna Shah


Aim and objective of study: This article indicates a comparison among various generations of dendrimers, a dendrimer is a bioactive material has repetitively branched molecule and used for delivery of various therapeutic active agents. This debut report compares the effect various generations of PPI dendrimers for brain targeting and management of neurodegenerative disorders potential on single platform. This report involves the study of the various mechanism of synthesis ligand anchored various generations PPI dendrimers deliver the drug directly to the CNS, prove their effectiveness in the management of the various neurodegenerative disease. Material and Methods: The Memantine an anti-Alzheimer drug loaded in different generations (3.0G, 4.0G, and 5.0G) of PPI dendrimers which were synthesized were synthesized. The various studies investigate the effect of PPI dendrimers generation on different characteristic parameters i.e. synthesis procedure, drug loading, release behavior, hemolysis profile at different concentration, MRI study for determine the route drug from olfactory transfer, animal model study in vitro, as well as in vivo performance. The outcomes of the investigation indicate drug delivery benefit as well as superior biocompatibility of 4.0G PPI dendrimer over 3.0G and 5.0G dendrimer, respectively. Results and Conclusion: The above study indicate the superiority of in drug delivery system with maximum drug utilization and minimize the drug dose for neurodegenerative disorder over 5.0G PPI dendrimers. So, 4.0G PPI dendrimers are the safe formulations for the symptomatic treatment of the neurodegenerative disorder. The fifth-generation poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) dendrimers, inherent toxicity due to the presence of many peripheral cationic groups is the major issue that limits their applicability.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, generation, memantine, PPI

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9 Improving Biodegradation Behavior of Fabricated WE43 Magnesium Alloy by High-Temperature Oxidation

Authors: Jinge Liu, Shuyuan Min, Bingchuan Liu, Bangzhao Yin, Bo Peng, Peng Wen, Yun Tian


WE43 magnesium alloy can be additively manufactured via laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) for biodegradable applications, but the as-built WE43 exhibits an excessively rapid corrosion rate. High-temperature oxidation (HTO) was performed on the as-built WE43 to improve its biodegradation behavior. A sandwich structure including an oxide layer at the surface, a transition layer in the middle, and the matrix was generated influenced by the oxidation reaction and diffusion of RE atoms when heated at 525 ℃for 8 hours. The oxide layer consisted of Y₂O₃ and Nd₂O₃ oxides with a thickness of 2-3 μm. The transition layer is composed of α-Mg and Y₂O₃ with a thickness of 60-70 μm, while Mg24RE5 could be observed except α-Mg and Y₂O₃. The oxide layer and transition layer appeared to have an effective passivation effect. The as-built WE43 lost 40% weight after the in vitro immersion test for three days and finally broke into debris after seven days of immersion. The high-temperature oxidation samples kept the structural integrity and lost only 6.88 % weight after 28-day immersion. The corrosion rate of HTO samples was significantly controlled, which improved the biocompatibility of the as-built WE43 at the same time. The samples after HTO had better osteogenic capability according to ALP activity. Moreover, as built WE43 performed unqualified in cell adhesion and hemolytic test due to its excessively rapid corrosion rate. While as for HTO samples, cells adhered well, and the hemolysis ratio was only 1.59%.

Keywords: laser powder bed fusion, biodegradable metal, high temperature oxidation, biodegradation behavior, WE43

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8 Studies on Virulence Factors Analysis in Streptococcus agalactiae from the Clinical Isolates

Authors: Natesan Balasubramanian, Palpandi Pounpandi, Venkatraman Thamil Priya, Vellasamy Shanmugaiah, Karubbiah Balakrishnan, Mandayam Anandam Thirunarayan


Streptococcus agalactiae is commonly known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and it is the most common cause of life-threatening bacterial infection. GBS first considered as a veterinary pathogen causing mastitis in cattle later becomes a human pathogen for severe neonatal infections. In this present study, a total of 20 new clinical isolates of S. agalactiae were collected from male (6) and female patient (14) with different age group. The isolates were from Urinary tract infection (UTI), blood, pus and eye ulcer. All the 20 S. agalactiae isolates has clear hemolysis properties on blood agar medium and were identified by serogrouping and MALTI-TOF-MS analysis. Antibiotic susceptibility/resistance test was performed for 20 S. agalactiae isolates, further phenotypic resistance pattern was observed for tetracycline, vancomycin, ampicillin and penicillin. Genotypically we found two antibiotic resistance genes such as Betalactem antibiotic resistance gene (Tem) (70%) and tetracycline resistance gene Tet(O) 15% in our isolates. Six virulence factors encoding genes were performed by PCR in twenty GBS isolates, cfb gene (100%), followed by, cylE(90.47%), lmp(85.7%), bca(71.42%), rib (38%) and low frequency in bac gene (4.76%) were determined. Most of the S. agalactiae isolates produced strong biofilm in the polystyrene surface (hydrophobic), and low-level biofilm formation was found in glass tube (hydrophilic) surface. lytR is secreted protein and localized in bacterial cell wall, extra cellular membrane, and cytoplasm. In silico docking studies were performed for lytR protein with four antibiofilm compounds, including a peptide (PR39) with the docking study showed peptide has strong interaction followed by ellagic acid and interaction length is 2.95, 2.97 and 2.95 A°. In ligand EGCGO10 and O11 two atoms intract with lytR (Leu271), with binding bond affinity length is 3.24 and 3.14. The aminoacid Leu 271 is act as an impartant aminoacid, since ellagic acid and EGCG interact with same aminoacid.

Keywords: antibiotics, biofilms, clinical isolates, S. agalactiae, virulence

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7 Gas Chromatography-Analysis, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anticancer Activities of Some Extracts and Fractions of Linum usitatissimum

Authors: Eman Abdullah Morsi, Hend Okasha, Heba Abdel Hady, Mortada El-Sayed, Mohamed Abbas Shemis


Context: Linum usitatissimum (Linn), known as Flaxseed, is one of the most important medicinal plants traditionally used for various health as nutritional purposes. Objective: Estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluate the antioxidant using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2-2'azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay and investigation of anti-inflammatory by Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anticancer activities of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7) have been applied on hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts and also, fractions of methonal extract (hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol). Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected using spectrophotometric and colorimetric assays. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were estimated in-vitro. Anticancer activity of extracts and fractions of methanolic extract were tested on (HepG2) and (MCF7). Results: Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction contain higher contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In addition, methanolic extract had higher antioxidant activity. Butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions yielded higher percent of inhibition of protein denaturation. Meanwhile, ethyl acetate fraction and methanolic extract had anticancer activity against HepG2 and MCF7 (IC50=60 ± 0.24 and 29.4 ± 0.12µg.mL⁻¹) and (IC50=94.7 ± 0.21 and 227 ± 0.48µg.mL⁻¹), respectively. In Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, methanolic extract has 32 compounds, whereas; ethyl acetate and butanol fractions contain 40 and 36 compounds, respectively. Conclusion: Flaxseed contains totally different biologically active compounds that have been found to possess good variable activities, which can protect human body against several diseases.

Keywords: phenolic content, flavonoid content, HepG2, MCF7, hemolysis-assay, flaxseed

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6 Peach as a Potential Functional Food: Biological Activity and Important Phenolic Compound Source

Authors: Luís R. Silva, Catarina Bento, Ana C. Gonçalves, Fábio Jesus, Branca M. Silva


Nowadays, the general population is more and more concerned about nutrition and the health implications of an unbalanced diet. Current knowledge regarding the health benefits and antioxidant properties of certain foods such as fruits and vegetables has gained the interest of both the general public and scientific community. Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most consumed fruits worldwide, with low sugar contents and a broad range of nutrients essential to the normal functioning of the body. Six different peach cultivars from the Fundão region in Portugal were evaluated regarding their phenolic composition by LC-DAD and biological activity. The prepared extracts’ capacity to scavenge free-radicals was tested through the stable free radical DPPH• and nitric oxide (•NO). Additionally, antidiabetic potential and protective effects against peroxyl radical (ROO•) induced damage to erythrocytes were also tested. LC-DAD analysis allowed the identification of 17 phenolic compounds, among which 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acids are pointed out as the most abundant. Regarding the antioxidant activity, all cultivars displayed concentration-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against both nitrogen species and DPPH•. In respect to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, Royal Magister and Royal Glory presented the highest inhibitory activity (IC50 = 11.7 ± 1.4 and 17.1 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively), nevertheless all six cultivars presented higher activity than the control acarbose. As for the protective effect of Royal Lu extract on the oxidative damage induced in erythrocytes by ROO•, the results were quite promising showing inhibition IC50 values of 110.0 ± 4.5 μg/mL and 83.8 ± 6.5 μg/mL for hemolysis and hemoglobin oxidation, respectively. The demonstrated activity is of course associated to the peaches’ phenolic profile, rich in phenolic acids and flavonoids with high hydrogen donating capacity. These compounds have great industrial interest for the manufacturing of natural products. The following step would naturally be the extraction and isolation from the plant tissues and large-scale production through biotechnology techniques.

Keywords: antioxidants, functional food, phenolic compounds, peach

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5 Prevalence and Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Mastitic Dairy Cattle in Canada

Authors: Satwik Majumder, Dongyun Jung, Jennifer Ronholm, Saji George


Bovine mastitis is the most common infectious disease in dairy cattle, with major economic implications for the dairy industry worldwide. Continuous monitoring for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacterial isolates from dairy farms is vital not only for animal husbandry but also for public health. In this study, the prevalence of AMR in 113 Escherichia coli isolates from cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Canada was investigated. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test with 18 antibiotics and microdilution method with three heavy metals (copper, zinc, and silver) was performed to determine the antibiotic and heavy-metal susceptibility. Resistant strains were assessed for efflux and ß-lactamase activities besides assessing biofilm formation and hemolysis. Whole-genome sequences for each of the isolates were examined to detect the presence of genes corresponding to the observed AMR and virulence factors. Phenotypic analysis revealed that 32 isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, and 107 showed resistance against at least one heavy metal. Quinolones and silver were the most efficient against the tested isolates. Among the AMR isolates, AcrAB-TolC efflux activity and ß-lactamase enzyme activities were detected in 13 and 14 isolates, respectively. All isolates produced biofilm but with different capacities, and 33 isolates showed α-hemolysin activity. A positive correlation (Pearson r = +0.89) between efflux pump activity and quantity of biofilm was observed. Genes associated with aggregation, adhesion, cyclic di-GMP, quorum sensing were detected in the AMR isolates, corroborating phenotype observations. This investigation showed the prevalence of AMR in E. coli isolates from bovine clinical mastitis. The results also suggest the inadequacy of antimicrobials with a single mode of action to curtail AMR bacteria with multiple mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Therefore, it calls for combinatorial therapy for the effective management of AMR infections in dairy farms and combats its potential transmission to the food supply chain through milk and dairy products.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, E. coli, bovine mastitis, antibiotics, heavy-metals, efflux pump, ß-lactamase enzyme, biofilm, whole-genome sequencing

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4 Stems of Prunus avium: An Unexplored By-product with Great Bioactive Potential

Authors: Luís R. Silva, Fábio Jesus, Catarina Bento, Ana C. Gonçalves


Over the last few years, the traditional medicine has gained ground at nutritional and pharmacological level. The natural products and their derivatives have great importance in several drugs used in modern therapeutics. Plant-based systems continue to play an essential role in primary healthcare. Additionally, the utilization of their plant parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers as nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products, can add a high value in the natural products market, not just by the nutritional value due to the significant levels of phytochemicals, but also by to the high benefit for the producers and manufacturers business. Stems of Prunus avium L. are a byproduct resulting from the processing of cherry, and have been consumed over the years as infusions and decoctions due to its bioactive properties, being used as sedative, diuretic and draining, to relief of renal stones, edema and hypertension. In this work, we prepared a hydroethanolic and infusion extracts from stems of P. avium collected in Fundão Region (Portugal), and evaluate the phenolic profile by LC/DAD, antioxidant capacity, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and protection of human erythrocytes against oxidative damage. The LC-DAD analysis allowed to the identification of 19 phenolic compounds, catechin and 3-O-caffolquinic acid were the main ones. In a general way, hydroethanolic extract proved to be more active than infusion. This extract had the best antioxidant activity against DPPH• (IC50=22.37 ± 0.28 µg/mL) and superoxide radical (IC50=13.93 ± 0.30 µg/mL). Furthermore, it was the most active concerning inhibition of hemoglobin oxidation (IC50=13.73 ± 0.67 µg/mL), hemolysis (IC50=1.49 ± 0.18 µg/mL) and lipid peroxidation (IC50=26.20 ± 0.38 µg/mL) on human erythrocytes. On the other hand, infusion revealed to be more efficient towards α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=3.18 ± 0.23 µg/mL) and against nitric oxide radical (IC50=99.99 ± 1.89 µg/mL). The Sweet cherry sector is very important in Fundão Region (Portugal), and taking profit from the great wastes produced during processing of the cherry to produce added-value products, such as food supplements cannot be ignored. Our results demonstrate that P. avium stems possesses remarkable antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. It is therefore, suggest, that P. avium stems can be used as a natural antioxidant with high potential to prevent or slow the progress of human diseases mediated by oxidative stress.

Keywords: stems, Prunus avium, phenolic compounds, biological potential

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3 Leptospira Lipl32-Specific Antibodies: Therapeutic Property, Epitopes Characterization and Molecular Mechanisms of Neutralization

Authors: Santi Maneewatchararangsri, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Patcharin Saengjaruk, Urai Chaisri


Leptospirosis is a globally neglected disease that continues to be a significant public health and veterinary burden, with millions of cases reported each year. Early and accurate differential diagnosis of leptospirosis from other febrile illnesses and the development of a broad spectrum of leptospirosis vaccines are needed. The LipL32 outer membrane lipoprotein is a member of Leptospira adhesive matrices and has been found to exert hemolytic activity to erythrocytes in vitro. Therefore, LipL32 is regarded as a potential target for diagnosis, broad-spectrum leptospirosis vaccines, and for passive immunotherapy. In this study, we established LipL32-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies, mAbLPF1 and mAbLPF2, and their respective mouse- and humanized-engineered single chain variable fragment (ScFv). Their antibodies’ neutralizing activities against Leptospira-mediated hemolysis in vitro, and the therapeutic efficacy of mAbs against heterologous Leptospira infected hamsters were demonstrated. The epitope peptide of mAb LPF1 was mapped to a non-contiguous carboxy-terminal β-turn and amphipathic α-helix of LipL32 structure contributing to phospholipid/host cell adhesion and membrane insertion. We found that the mAbLPF2 epitope was located on the interacting loop of peptide binding groove of the LipL32 molecule responsible for interactions with host constituents. Epitope sequences are highly conserved among Leptospira spp. and are absent from the LipL32 superfamily of other microorganisms. Both epitopes are surface-exposed, readily accessible by mAbs, and immunogenic. However, they are less dominant when revealed by LipL32-specific immunoglobulins from leptospirosis-patient sera and rabbit hyperimmune serum raised by whole Leptospira. Our study also demonstrated an adhesion inhibitory activity of LipL32 protein to host membrane components and cells mediated by mAbs as well as an anti-hemolytic activity of the respective antibodies. The therapeutic antibodies, particularly the humanized-ScFv, have a potential for further development as non-drug therapeutic agent for human leptospirosis, especially in subjects allergic to antibiotics. The epitope peptides recognized by two therapeutic mAbs have potential use as tools for structure-function studies. Finally, protective peptides may be used as a target for epitope-based vaccines for control of leptospirosis.

Keywords: leptospira lipl32-specific antibodies, therapeutic epitopes, epitopes characterization, immunotherapy

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2 Liposomal Antihelmintics in Parasitology

Authors: Nina Ivanova


More than one third of the population and animals are infected with parasitic helminths. It is especially difficult to cure the larval forms of parasites. The larvae of Hymenolepis nana invade the villi of the intestinal mucosa. Toxocara larvae can live in the liver, heart, lungs, brain, eyes, and pancreas. Commercial antiparasitic drugs cannot guarantee a 100% cure after a single course of treatment, because parasite larvae invade the villi of the intestinal mucosa and the anthelmintics do not reach and kill cestode larvae. The aim of this work was to conduct a study of liposomal antihelminthics on the laboratory animals under the certification received from the Committee on Bioethics and Deontology. It has been checked: 1) anthelmintic activity of the liposomal form of fenasal in experimental hymenolepidosis of white mice (larval stage - Hymenolepis nana). 2) anthelmintic activity of the liposomal form of albendazole in experimental toxocariasis of white mice (in the lungs at the stage of larval migration). Since some helminths cause hemolysis of erythrocytes as we used a mixture of polar lipids developed by us with antihemolytic activity to obtain liposomes Fenasal and albendazole were included in the liposome membrane in the ratio of anthelmintic: lipids 1:10. . The average size of liposomes was 180 nm, and the concentration of lipids in liposomes was 1%. The researches were carried out on white male mice who were infected with Hymenolepis Nana invasional eggs in a peroral way with a doze of 100 eggs per animal. On the 5th day after infection, a liposomal fenasal and commercial fenasal were administered orally for comparison. The animals were observed for 15 days. Before the introduction of liposomes and on the 3rd, 5th, 15th day after the administration of the drug, studies were carried out on the presence of helminths in the organs of animals. The liposomal fenasal, when administered orally, had an anthelmintic effect on Hymenolepis Nana cysticercoids at a dose of 25 mg/kg. The percentage of efficiency was 90.06, 91.36 96.85% on days 3, 5, 15, respectively. For comparison, the commercial activity was at a dose of 200 mg/ml, which is 8 times higher than the dose of liposomal fenasal. To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of the liposomal form of albendazole in experimental toxocariasis of white mice (toxascaris in the lungs at the stage of larval migration), studies were also carried out on white mice. The animals were infected with invasive eggs of Toxocara canis, orally, at a dose of 100 eggs per animal. On the 5th day after infection, the liposomal albendazole was administered orally. The efficacy of the study dosage form was determined by counting Larva mirgans larvae in the lungs. The results obtained showed that the liposomal albendazole had the greatest anthelmintic effect on Toxocara larvae at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg, which was 3.75 times less than the therapeutic one. At the same time, the percentage of efficiency was 93.75% on the 3rd day, and 98.66% on the 5th day.

Keywords: hymenolepis, Toxocara, larvae, liposomes

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1 Biosurfactants Produced by Antarctic Bacteria with Hydrocarbon Cleaning Activity

Authors: Claudio Lamilla, Misael Riquelme, Victoria Saez, Fernanda Sepulveda, Monica Pavez, Leticia Barrientos


Biosurfactants are compounds synthesized by microorganisms that show various chemical structures, including glycolipids, lipopeptides, polysaccharide-protein complex, phospholipids, and fatty acids. These molecules have attracted attention in recent years due to the amphipathic nature of these compounds, which allows their application in various activities related to emulsification, foaming, detergency, wetting, dispersion and solubilization of hydrophobic compounds. Microorganisms that produce biosurfactants are ubiquitous, not only present in water, soil, and sediments but in extreme conditions of pH, salinity or temperature such as those present in Antarctic ecosystems. Due to this, it is of interest to study biosurfactants producing bacterial strains isolated from Antarctic environments, with the potential to be used in various biotechnological processes. The objective of this research was to characterize biosurfactants produced by bacterial strains isolated from Antarctic environments, with potential use in biotechnological processes for the cleaning of sites contaminated with hydrocarbons. The samples were collected from soils and sediments in the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, during the Antarctic Research Expedition INACH 2016, from both pristine and human occupied areas (influenced). The bacteria isolation was performed from solid R2A, M1 and LB media. The selection of strains producing biosurfactants was done by hemolysis test on blood agar plates (5%) and blue agar (CTAB). From 280 isolates, it was determined that 10 bacterial strains produced biosurfactants after stimulation with different carbon sources. 16S rDNA taxonomic markers, using the universal primers 27F-1492R, were used to identify these bacterias. Biosurfactants production was carried out in 250 ml flasks using Bushnell Hass liquid culture medium enriched with different carbon sources (olive oil, glucose, glycerol, and hexadecane) during seven days under constant stirring at 20°C. Each cell-free supernatant was characterized by physicochemical parameters including drop collapse, emulsification and oil displacement, as well as stability at different temperatures, salinity, and pH. In addition, the surface tension of each supernatant was quantified using a tensiometer. The strains with the highest activity were selected, and the production of biosurfactants was stimulated in six liters of culture medium. Biosurfactants were extracted from the supernatants with chloroform methanol (2:1). These biosurfactants were tested against crude oil and motor oil, to evaluate their displacement activity (detergency). The characterization by physicochemical properties of 10 supernatants showed that 80% of them produced the drop collapse, 60% had stability at different temperatures, and 90% had detergency activity in motor and olive oil. The biosurfactants obtained from two bacterial strains showed a high activity of dispersion of crude oil and motor oil with halos superior to 10 cm. We can conclude that bacteria isolated from Antarctic soils and sediments provide biological material of high quality for the production of biosurfactants, with potential applications in the biotechnological industry, especially in hydrocarbons -contaminated areas such as petroleum.

Keywords: antarctic, bacteria, biosurfactants, hydrocarbons

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