Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Khizar Hayat

34 Controlled Size Synthesis of ZnO and PEG-ZnO NPs and Their Biological Evaluation

Authors: Mahnoor Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Khizar Hayat, Saad Ahmad Khan, Laiba Ahmad, Shumaila Bashir, Abid Ali Khan

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize the smallest possible size of ZnO NPs using a modified wet chemical synthesis method and to prepare core shell using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as shell material. Advanced and sophisticated techniques were used to confirm the synthesis, size, and shape of these NPs. Rounded, clustered NPs of size 5.343 nm were formed. Both the plain and core shell NPs were tested against MDR bacteria (E. cloacae, E. amnigenus, Shigella, S. odorifacae, Citrobacter, and E. coli). Both of the NPs showed excellent antibacterial properties, whereas E. cloacae showed maximum zone of inhibition of 16 mm, 27 mm, and 32 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml, and 1500 μg/ml, respectively for plain ZnO NPs and 18 mm, 28 mm and 35 mm for 500 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml and 1500 μg/ml for core shell NPs. These NPs were also biocompatible on human red blood cells showing little hemolysis of only 4% for 70 μg/ml for plain NPs and 1.5% for 70 μg/ml for core shell NPs. Core shell NPs were highly biocompatible because of the PEG. Their therapeutic effect as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer treatment was also monitored. The cytotoxicity of ZnO and PEG-ZnO was evaluated using MTT assay. Our results demonstrated that these NPs could generate ROS inside tumor cells after irradiation which in turn initiates an apoptotic pathway leading to cell death hence proving to be an effective candidate for PDT.

Keywords: ZnO, hemolysis, cytotoxiciy assay, photodynamic therapy, antibacterial

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33 Effect of Species and Slaughtering Age on Quality Characteristics of Different Meat Cuts of Humped Cattle and Water Buffalo Bulls

Authors: Muhammad Kashif Yar, Muhammad Hayat Jaspal, Muawuz Ijaz, Zafar Hayat, Iftikhar Hussain Badar, Jamal Nasir

Abstract:

Meat quality characteristics such as ultimate pH (pHu), color, cooking loss and shear force of eight wholesale meat cuts of humped cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls at two age groups were evaluated. A total of 48 animals, 24 of each species and within species 12 from each 18 and 26 months age group were slaughtered. After 24h post-slaughter, eight meat cuts, i.e., tenderloin, sirloin, rump, cube roll, round, topside, silverside and blade were cut from the carcass. The pHu of tenderloin (5.65 vs 5.55), sirloin (5.67 vs 5.60), cube roll (5.68 vs 5.62) and blade (5.88 vs 5.72) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in buffalo than cattle. The tenderloin showed significantly higher (44.63 vs 42.23) and sirloin showed lower (P<0.05) mean L* value (42.28 vs 44.47) in cattle than buffalo whilst the mean L* value of the only tenderloin was affected by animal age. Species had a significant (P<0.05) effect on mean a*, b*, C, and h values of all meat cuts. The shear force of the majority of meat cuts, within species and age groups, varied considerably. The mean shear values of tenderloin, sirloin, cube roll and blade were higher (P<0.05) in buffalo than cattle. The shear values of rump, round, topside and silverside increased significantly (P<0.05) with animal age. In conclusion, primal cuts of cattle showed better meat quality especially tenderness than buffalo. Furthermore, calves should be raised at least up to 26 months of age to maximize profitability by providing better quality meat.

Keywords: buffalo, cattle, meat color, meat quality, slaughtering age, tenderness

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32 Artiodactyl Fossil Remains from Middle Miocene Locality of Lava, District Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Khizar Samiullah, Khurram Faroz, Riffat Yasin, Mehwish Iftekhar, Saleem Akhtar

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The fossil site Lava is highly fossiliferous locality in the Chinji Formation, Lower Siwalik Hills of Pakistan. The studied mammalian fossil fauna from this locality consists of Suids, Giraffids and Bovids. The presence of these groups indicates that this Miocene locality has age of approximately 14-11 Ma. Sedimentologically this site is characterized by sandstone and reddish shale which also represents Chinji Formation of the Siwaliks, it consists of shales, siltstones, sandstones and there sediments show large variations in their degree of cementation. Few scientists worked at this locality, as it was first time discovered in 2011. The outcrops of lava locality were selected to explore in detail and comparison with European mammalian assemblages. The main focus was on artiodactyl’s mammalian fauna and four different species have been recovered during field work, in which Giraffokeryx punjabiensis is dominant. Different aspect like biogeographic distribution, evolution and taxonomy of discovered fossils fauna has been discussed in detail in this research work.

Keywords: fossil remains, lava, Chinji Formation, Pakistan

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31 Comparative Acaricidal Efficacy of Fluralaner vs Oral Ivermectin Against Tick Infestation in Dogs

Authors: Tayyaba Zahra, Shehla Gul Bokhari, Asim Khalid Mahmood, Raheela Akhtar, Khizar Matloob

Abstract:

In Pakistan, dogs are commonly infested with ticks, especially in summers, causing not only dermatological issues but also systemic problems. Persistence of tick infestation often leads to heavy losses. Different acaricides are locally available with variable efficacy; however, recurrence of infestation is commonly reported. The present study was thus designed to compare the efficacy of a novel drug Fluralaner and conventionally used Ivermectin against tick infestation. Dogs positive for tick infestation were randomly divided into 2 groups viz, Groups A and B having 8 dogs each. Ticks were enumerated manually from the whole body of dogs at day 0 before the administration of drugs Dogs in Group A were treated with Fluralaner at day 0, and dogs in Group B were treated with Ivermectin. Post-treatment, ticks were counted again at days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. At day 07 of the study, no tick was found on the dogs treated with Fluralaner, while many ticks were present on the dogs treated with Ivermectin showing an efficacy up to 50%. On the consecutive follow-up evaluations, similar results were found for Fluralaner while the efficacy of Ivermectin was further reduced to less than 50%. Furthermore, Fluralaner treated dogs had better RBC counts, PCV, Hgb concentration, LFTs, RFTs post-treatment than the dogs treated with Ivermectin. Statistically, oral Fluralaner proved a more effective drug (P≤0.05)than oral Ivermectin against tick infestation in dogs.

Keywords: fluralaner, ivermectin, dogs, tick infestations

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30 Artificial Intelligence in Duolingo

Authors: Jwana Khateeb, Lamar Bawazeer, Hayat Sharbatly, Mozoun Alghamdi

Abstract:

This research paper explores the idea of learning new languages through an innovative-mobile based learning technology. Throughout this paper we will discuss and examine a mobile-based application called Duolingo. Duolingo is a college standard application for learning foreign languages such as Spanish and English. It is a smart application where it uses smart adaptive technologies to advance the level of their students at each period of time by offering new tasks. Furthermore, we will discuss the history of the application and the methodology used within it. We have conducted a study in which we surveyed ten people about their experience using Duolingo. The results are examined and analyzed in which it indicates the effectiveness on Duolingo students who are seeking to learn new languages. Thus, the research paper will furthermore discuss the diverse methods and approaches in learning new languages through this mobile-based application.

Keywords: Duolingo, AI, personalized, customized

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
29 Systems Integrated Approach to Improve the Design and Construction of Green Buildings

Authors: Saleh Hayat

Abstract:

Efficiency, productivity and sustainability are important factors for structure and the application of processes in green building. Various previous studies have addressed efficiency, productivity and sustainability separately. This research study aims to investigate the implications of these three factors taking together. Frequency analysis and the ranking techniques are carried out to explore the connection between these factors. The interconnection matrix has been developed and functional grouping is made based upon data from expert opinion and field professionals. The existence of a relationship, the type of relationship and the scaled impact have been drawn. Additionally, a system diagram has been developed to show the variable correlation. The results of expert opinion show that efficiency, productivity and sustainability have a stronger impact on green buildings.

Keywords: efficiency, green building, productivity, sustainability

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28 Sustainable Opportunities of Educational Facilities Provided to the Imprisoned Women's Children in Karachi's Central Jail

Authors: Waqar Un Nisa Faizi, Anila Fatima Shakil, Wilayat Bibi, Sajjad Hayat Akhtar

Abstract:

This study will discuss the sustainable opportunities regarding educational facilities provided to the children of imprisoned women in the different jails of Pakistan particularly in Central Jail of Karachi. It will also discuss the importance of educational facilities which are required for the mental and personal growth of the children as education has the capability to enhance the general knowledge and the personality of any individual. Education is extremely important for the children whether they live in a society or in prison, because they are the future of any country. Therefore, the point of discussion in this paper will be the provision of educational facilities and sustainable opportunities regarding these facilities to the children of imprisoned women in Karachi and other countries of the world.

Keywords: imprisoned, educational facilities, criminal activities, positive atmosphere

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27 Usability Evaluation in Practice: Selecting the Appropriate Method

Authors: Hanan Hayat, Russell Lock

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The importance of usability in ensuring software quality has been well established in literature and widely accepted by software development practitioners. Consequently, numerous usability evaluation methods have been developed. However, the availability of large variety of evaluation methods alongside insufficient studies that critically analyse them resulted in an ambiguous process of selection amongst non-usability-expert practitioners. This study investigates the factors affecting the selection of usability evaluation methods within a project by interviewing a software development team. The results of the data gathered are then analysed and integrated in developing a framework. The framework developed poses a solution to the selection processes of usability evaluation methods by adjusting to individual projects resources and goals. It has the potential to be further evaluated to verify its applicability and usability within the domain of this study.

Keywords: usability evaluation, evaluating usability in non-user entered designs, usability evaluation methods (UEM), usability evaluation in projects

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26 Mutagenic in vitro Activity and Genotoxic Effect of Zygophyllum Cornutun Methanolic Extract

Authors: Awatif Boumaza, Abderraouf Hilali, Hayat Talbi, Houda Sbayou

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The methanolic extract of Zygophyllum cornutun coss, an Algerian medicinal plant, was screened to the presence of mutagenic activity and genotoxic effect using the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome) and the micronucleus assay respectively. Positive results were obtained with both tests. The Ames test showed mutagenic activity in the presence of microsomal activation, while negative result was observed without microsomal activation. In the micronucleus test, two parameters were evaluated: the frequency of the micronucleus that increased in a dose dependent way and the proliferation index that decreased according to the micronucleus frequency. Even that further studies must be carried out, the mutagenic activity and the genotoxic effect of Zygophyllum cornutum should be taken in consideration when used as therapeutic plant.

Keywords: ames test, micronucleus test, mutagenic activity, genotoxicity, Zygophyllum cornutum

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25 β-Lactamase Inhibitory Effects of Anchusa azurea Extracts

Authors: Naoual Boussoualim, Hayat Trabsa, Iman Krache, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani

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Resistance to antibiotics has emerged following their widespread use; the important mechanism of beta-lactam resistance in bacteria is the production of beta-lactamase. In order to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated the inhibition effect of the extracts of Anchusa azurea (AA) on a beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus. The extracts exerted inhibitory effects on beta-lactamase in a dose-dependent manner, the results showed that the crude extract (BrE) and the ethyl acetate extract (AcE) of Anchusa azurea showed a very high inhibitory activity at a concentration of 10 mg, the percentage of inhibition was between 58% and 68%. Not all extracts were as potent as the original inhibitors such as clavulanic acid, the isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents in these extracts will provide useful means in the development of beta -lactamase inhibitors.

Keywords: Anchusa azurea, natural product, resistance, antibiotics, beta-lactamase, inhibitors

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24 Some Remains of Fossil Artiodactyla: Evolutionary Status, Taxonomy and Biogeographical Distribution in Late Miocene of Pakistan

Authors: Khizar Samiullah Samiullah, Riffat Yasin, Khurrum Feroz, Omer Draz, Memmona Nazish

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New fossil remains of artiodactyl have been recovered from three Late Miocene localities, Lava, Dhok Bun Ameer Khatoon and Hasnoot. These localities belong to lower and middle Siwalik Hills of Pakistan, the Chinji and Dhok Pathan Formation respectively and are remarkably rich in fossils of artiodactyl. The fauna mainly comprises various families of order Artiodactyla; Cervidae, Equidea, Proboscidea, Giraffidea, Rhinocerotidae, Tragulidea, Suidae and Primates. In Chinji Formation Lava and Dhok Bun Ameer Khatoon are located in district Chakwal while in Upper Dhok Pathan Formation the best fossils exposure site is Hasnoot which is located in District Jhelum, Punjab, Pakistan. Specimens described and discussed here include right and left maxilla, isolated upper premolars and molars which have been collected during extensive fieldwork. After morphological and comparative analysis the collection is attributed to Giraffokeryx, Giraffa, Listriodon, Dorcatherium, Selenoportax and Pachyportax. In this study evolutionary status, taxonomy and biogeographical distribution as well as the relationship of different Artiodactyls have been discussed comprehensively. The Palaeoenvironmental studies reveal the persistence of mosaics of diverse habitats ranging from tropical evergreen forest to subtropical ones, closed seasonal woodlands to wooded savannas during the deposition of these outcrops.

Keywords: Artiodactyla, fossil dentition, late Miocene, lower and middle Siwaliks

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23 E-Government Websites Accessibility for People with Disabilities (PWD): In Depth Evaluation of Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: Reem AlKabbi, Hayat Ali, Mariam Yasser

Abstract:

Nowadays, eGovernment websites are becoming indispensable for public, business, personal efficiency or even improvement of livelihoods. Using these websites, citizens undertake number of tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. However, many of these websites are not accessible to all people' types including People with Disabilities (PWDs). Through Web Accessibility Guidelines, Web developers can develop Web applications that are accessible to PWDs. This research is to investigate the Accessibility of eGovernment websites in Kingdom of Bahrain. The accessibility was measured using Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and section 508. For the evaluation purpose, some automatic tools were used. Samples of 43 eGovernment websites were selected. The accessibility of the websites was analyzed by using several automatic evaluation tools such as Total Validator and Functional Accessibility Evaluator (FAE). The evaluation process revealed several errors according to the accessibility guidelines. This research provides few recommendations for further improvement of accessibility features of eGovernment websites based on the highlighted issues and key findings reported in this research.

Keywords: website accessibility, W3C, PWD, e-government

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22 Evaluation of Flange Effects on the Lateral In-Plane Response of Brick Masonry Walls

Authors: Hizb Ullah Sajid, Muhammad Ashraf, Naveed Ahmad Qaisar Ali, Sikandar Hayat Sajid

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This research study investigates experimentally the effects of flanges (transverse walls) on the lateral in-plane response of brick masonry walls. The experimental work included lateral in-plane quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale walls (both with & without flanges). The flanges were introduced at both ends of the in-plane wall. In particular the damage mechanism, lateral in-plane stiffness & strength, deformability and energy dissipation of the two classes of walls are compared and the differences are quantified to help understand the effects of flanges on the in-plane response of masonry walls. The available analytical models for the in-plane shear strength & deformation evaluation of masonry walls are critically analyzed. Recommendations are made for the lateral in-plane capacity assessment of brick masonry walls including the contribution of transverse walls.

Keywords: brick masonry, damage mechanism, flanges effects, in-plane response

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21 Surfactant Improved Heavy Oil Recovery in Sandstone Reservoirs by Wettability Alteration

Authors: Rabia Hunky, Hayat Kalifa, Bai

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The wettability of carbonate reservoirs has been widely recognized as an important parameter in oil recovery by flooding technology. Many surfactants have been studied for this application. However, the importance of wettability alteration in sandstone reservoirs by surfactant has been poorly studied. In this paper, our recent study of the relationship between rock surface wettability and cumulative oil recovery for sandstone cores is reported. In our research, it has been found there is a good agreement between the wettability and oil recovery. Nonionic surfactants, Tomadol® 25-12 and Tomadol® 45-13, are very effective in wettability alteration of sandstone core surface from highly oil-wet conditions to water-wet conditions. By spontaneous imbibition test, Interfacial tension, and contact angle measurement these two surfactants exhibit the highest recovery of the synthetic oil made with heavy oil. Based on these experimental results, we can further conclude that the contact angle measurement and imbibition test can be used as rapid screening tools to identify better EOR surfactants to increase heavy oil recovery from sandstone reservoirs.

Keywords: EOR, oil gas, IOR, WC, IF, oil and gas

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20 Web 2.0 in Higher Education: The Instructors’ Acceptance in Higher Educational Institutes in Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: Amal M. Alrayes, Hayat M. Ali

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Since the beginning of distance education with the rapid evolution of technology, the social network plays a vital role in the educational process to enforce the interaction been the learners and teachers. There are many Web 2.0 technologies, services and tools designed for educational purposes. This research aims to investigate instructors’ acceptance towards web-based learning systems in higher educational institutes in Kingdom of Bahrain. Questionnaire is used to investigate the instructors’ usage of Web 2.0 and the factors affecting their acceptance. The results confirm that instructors had high accessibility to such technologies. However, patterns of use were complex. Whilst most expressed interest in using online technologies to support learning activities, learners seemed cautious about other values associated with web-based system, such as the shared construction of knowledge in a public format. The research concludes that there are main factors that affect instructors’ adoption which are security, performance expectation, perceived benefits, subjective norm, and perceived usefulness.

Keywords: Web 2.0, higher education, acceptance, students' perception

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19 Effect of the Alloying Elements on Mechanical Properties of TWIP Steel

Authors: Yuksel Akinay, Fatih Hayat

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The influence of the alloying element on mechanical properties and micro structures of the Fe-22Mn-0.6C-0,6Si twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel were investigated at different temperatures. This composition was fabricated by a vacuum induction melting method. This steel was homogenized at 1200◦C for 8h. After heat treatment it was hot-rolled at 1100◦C to 6 mm thickness. The hot rolled plates were cold rolled to 3 mm and annealed at 700 800 and 900 °C for 60 and 150 minute and then air-cooled. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), optic microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), hardness and tensile tests were used to analyse the relationship between mechanical properties and micro structure after annealing process. The results show that, the excellent mechanical properties were obtained after heat treatment process. The tensile strength of material was decreased and the ductility of material was improved with increasing annealing temperature. Ni element were increased the mechanical resistance of specimens and because of carbide precipitation the hardness of specimen annealed at 700 C is higher than others.

Keywords: high manganese, heat treatment, SEM, XRD, cold-rolling

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18 Development of Folding Based Aptasensor for Ochratoxin a Using Different Pulse Voltammetry

Authors: Rupesh K. Mishra, Gaëlle Catanante, Akhtar Hayat, Jean-Louis Marty

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Ochratoxins (OTA) are secondary metabolites present in a wide variety of food stuff. They are dangerous by-products mainly produced by several species of storage fungi including the Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. OTA is known to have nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. Thus, needs a special attention for a highly sensitive and selective detection system that can quantify these organic toxins in various matrices such as cocoa beans. This work presents a folding based aptasensors by employing an aptamer conjugated redox probe (methylene blue) specifically designed for OTA. The aptamers were covalently attached to the screen printed carbon electrodes using diazonium grafting. Upon sensing the OTA, it binds with the immobilized aptamer on the electrode surface, which induces the conformational changes of the aptamer, consequently increased in the signal. This conformational change of the aptamer before and after biosensing of target OTA could produce the distinguishable electrochemical signal. The obtained limit of detection was 0.01 ng/ml for OTA samples with recovery of up to 88% in contaminated cocoa samples.

Keywords: ochratoxin A, cocoa, DNA aptamer, labelled probe

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17 A Multimodal Measurement Approach Using Narratives and Eye Tracking to Investigate Visual Behaviour in Perceiving Naturalistic and Urban Environments

Authors: Khizar Z. Choudhrya, Richard Coles, Salman Qureshi, Robert Ashford, Salim Khan, Rabia R. Mir

Abstract:

Abstract: The majority of existing landscape research has been derived by conducting heuristic evaluations, without having empirical insight of real participant visual response. In this research, a modern multimodal measurement approach (using narratives and eye tracking) was applied to investigate visual behaviour in perceiving naturalistic and urban environments. This research is unique in exploring gaze behaviour on environmental images possessing different levels of saliency. Eye behaviour is predominantly attracted by salient locations. The concept of methodology of this research on naturalistic and urban environments is drawn from the approaches in market research. Borrowing methodologies from market research that examine visual responses and qualities provided a critical and hitherto unexplored approach. This research has been conducted by using mixed methodological quantitative and qualitative approaches. On the whole, the results of this research corroborated existing landscape research findings, but they also identified potential refinements. The research contributes both methodologically and empirically to human-environment interaction (HEI). This study focused on initial impressions of environmental images with the help of eye tracking. Taking under consideration the importance of the image, this study explored the factors that influence initial fixations in relation to expectations and preferences. In terms of key findings of this research it is noticed that each participant has his own unique navigation style while surfing through different elements of landscape images. This individual navigation style is given the name of ‘visual signature’. This study adds the necessary clarity that would complete the picture and bring an insight for future landscape researchers.

Keywords: human-environment interaction (HEI), multimodal measurement, narratives, eye tracking

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16 Study of the Effect of Extraction Solvent on the Content of Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoids and the Antioxidant Activity of an Endemic Medicinal Plant Growing in Morocco

Authors: Aghoutane Basma, Naama Amal, Talbi Hayat, El Manfalouti Hanae, Kartah Badreddine

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Aromatic and medicinal plants are used by man for different needs, including food and medicinal needs for their biological properties attributed mainly to phenolic compounds and for their antioxidant capacity. In our study, the aim is to compare three extraction solvents by evaluating the contents of phenolic compounds, the contents of flavonoids, and the antioxidant activities of extracts from different methods of extracting the aerial part of an endemic medicinal plant from Morocco. This activity was also confirmed by three methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), antioxidant reducing power of iron (FRAP), and total antioxidant capacity (CAT)). The results showed that this plant is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, as well as it has a very important antioxidant capacity in whatever the solvent or the extraction method. This suggests the importance of using extracts from this plant as a new natural source of food additives and potent antioxidants in the food industry.

Keywords: endemic plant of Morocco, phenolic compound, solvent, extraction technique, antioxidant activity

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15 Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Flow of Cu-Water Nanofluid Due to a Rotating Disk with Partial Slip

Authors: Tasawar Hayat, Madiha Rashid, Maria Imtiaz, Ahmed Alsaedi

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This problem is about the study of flow of viscous fluid due to rotating disk in nanofluid. Effects of magnetic field, slip boundary conditions and thermal radiations are encountered. An incompressible fluid soaked the porous medium. In this model, nanoparticles of Cu is considered with water as the base fluid. For Copper-water nanofluid, graphical results are presented to describe the influences of nanoparticles volume fraction (φ) on velocity and temperature fields for the slip boundary conditions. The governing differential equations are transformed to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by suitable transformations. Convergent solution of the nonlinear system is developed. The obtained results are analyzed through graphical illustrations for different parameters. Moreover, the features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed. It is found that the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate at the surface are highest in copper-water nanofluid.

Keywords: MHD nanofluid, porous medium, rotating disk, slip effect

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14 Using Businesses for Governance and Creating Sustainable Cities

Authors: Parisa Toloue Hayat Azar

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Businesses have been playing an important role in the economic growth and social welfare of cities; however, they generally have negative reputations regarding their impact on environmental issues regarding sustainability. However, some believe that by incorporating strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities, businesses will be able to solve problems in society, including environmental ones. Besides economic, social and environmental aspects, governance is another essential pillar for creating sustainable communities and cities. Governance plays a key role in the success of sustainable projects or creating long lasting legacies; an example of this can be creating circular supply chain with collaboration between different businesses, which in the end results in positive economic, social and environmental outcomes for everyone. Governance is a very important parameter in creating the legacy of low carbon and environmentally friendly city due to the fact that, besides building energy efficient buildings and infrastructure, citizens who are also part of the success of this system should know about how to behave and collaborate with others to make the system work. By deploying the philosophy of cultural historical activity theory, this paper explains how influential businesses have been and can be still used as a mediating tool for governance purposes, and succeed in creating shared value and lasting legacy within society.

Keywords: business, governance, CSR, sustainability

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13 The Influence of Ni Elements on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP)

Authors: Yuksel Akinay, Fatih Hayat

Abstract:

The influence of Ni elements on mechanical properties and microstructure of twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steels were investigated in this study. TWIP 1 (0,6C, 24Mn) and TWIP 2 (0,6C, 24Mn, 1Ni) high Mn TWIP (Twinning Induced Plasticity) steels were fabricated, and were annealed at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for 150 minute and then air-cooled. The microstructures and mechanical properties of specimens were analysed to investigate influence of Ni element on TWIP steel. The carbide precipitations have seen in microstructure of TWIP 1 and TWIP 2 specimen annealed at 700 °C. However, the microstructures of TWIP 1 annealed at 800°C and 900°C are fully austenite and some grains are including annealing twins. However twining did not occur at TWIP 2 specimens annealed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C. TWIP 2 steel contains also Ni element differently from TWIP 1 steel. It can conclude that, Nickel (Ni) was restrained formation of twinning. The reversion of the tensile strength occurred between 700°C and 800°C because of the carbide precipitation hardening. Beside that, hardness value has decreased between 800 °C and 900 °C, which show a good agreement with the equilibrium dissolution temperature of M3C carbides. However, the results show that, carbide precipitations also are as strong barriers for the formation of twining. For this reason, twinning was not obtained at 700 °C.

Keywords: high manganese, heat treatment, SEM, TWIP steel, cold rolling, nickel

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12 Cloud Support for Scientific Workflow Execution: Prototyping Solutions for Remote Sensing Applications

Authors: Sofiane Bendoukha, Daniel Moldt, Hayat Bendoukha

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Workflow concepts are essential for the development of remote sensing applications. They can help users to manage and process satellite data and execute scientific experiments on distributed resources. The objective of this paper is to introduce an approach for the specification and the execution of complex scientific workflows in Cloud-like environments. The approach strives to support scientists during the modeling, the deployment and the monitoring of their workflows. This work takes advantage from Petri nets and more pointedly the so-called reference nets formalism, which provides a robust modeling/implementation technique. RENEWGRASS is a tool that we implemented and integrated into the Petri nets editor and simulator RENEW. It provides an easy way to support not experienced scientists during the specification of their workflows. It allows both modeling and enactment of image processing workflows from the remote sensing domain. Our case study is related to the implementation of vegetation indecies. We have implemented the Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI) workflow. Additionally, we explore the integration possibilities of the Cloud technology as a supplementary layer for the deployment of the current implementation. For this purpose, we discuss migration patterns of data and applications and propose an architecture.

Keywords: cloud computing, scientific workflows, petri nets, RENEWGRASS

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11 Interactive Effects of Challenge-Hindrance Stressors and Core Self-Evaluations on In-Role and Extra-Role Performance

Authors: Khansa Hayat

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Organizational stress is one of the vital phenomena which is having its roots deep down in has deep roots in management, psychology, and organizational behavior research. In the meanwhile, keeping its focus on the positive strength of humans rather than the traditional negativity oriented research, positive psychology has emerged as a separate branch of organizational behavior. The current study investigates the interactive effects of Challenge and hindrance stressors and core Self Evaluations (CSE’s) of the individual on job performances including the in-role performance and extra role performances. The study also aims to investigate the supporting/buffering role of the human dispositions (i.e., self esteem, self efficacy, locus of control and emotional stability). The results show that Challenge stressors have a significant positive effect on in role performance and extra role performance of the individual. The findings of the study indicate that Core Self evaluations strengthen the relationship between challenge stressors and in role performance of the individual. In case of Hindrance Stressors the Core self Evaluations lessen the negative impact of Hindrance stressors and they let the individual perform at a better and normal position even when the Hindrance stressors are high. The relationship and implication of conservation of resource theory are also discussed. The limitations, future research directions and implications of the study are also discussed.

Keywords: challenge-hindrance stressors, core self evaluations, in-role performance, extra-role performance

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10 The Liminal Performances of Female-Led (Sufi) Rituals: An Anthropological in Pakistan

Authors: Sana Iqbal

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The female voice in Sufi poetry has been studied as a symbol of humility and devotion. Throughout the centuries, the Sufi shrines have also sheltered women and have served as a source of emotional strength in times of difficulty. Although women have been central to Sufi Islam, female-led rituals and performances (of veneration) are rarely studied as acts of empowerment and symbols of healing. This is especially true for rituals performed in informal spaces, which require going beyond the shrine practices. The rituals and meanings associated with Khizr Khwaja (or Sindhi Hindu god Jhelelal) among women in Punjab can serve as a useful case study to unpack some of these meanings. The paper aims to shed light on female-led rituals among women from Punjab associated with the folkloric traditions associated with Khizar Khwaja, Zinda Pir, Jhulelal or river god in the South Asian region to protect mariners from possible risks (since trade was primarily dependent on water channels) or for inducing timely rain date back to the 10th century in Sindh. However, these meanings and associations have evolved and the paper thus aims to establish a relationship between this figure and the women in Punjab by analysing the findings from an ethnographic study. It traces the historical meanings and significance attached to the divine figure and the wells (informal spaces) associated with him since the rituals performed by women is now infused solely with seeking fertility or to be blessed with a successful pregnancy, as opposed to him being celebrated for other reasons in older times. These associations beg the question of what women gain out of these rituals and making offerings to the mysterious figure of Khizr. Anecdotal evidence in the form of interviews conducted in Bhakar and Talwandi (Punjab) during the summer of 2015 helped to explore the stories related to this legend while also allowing us to witness some of the female-led ritual practices. It can be said that the symbols adopted in the ritual practices invoke liminality for women, which is a blend of opposites. The paper argues that this liminality/journey has been used as a vehicle to transcend all worldly structures of power and it symbolically emphasises the richness of feminine love/devotion and grants healing to female devotees.

Keywords: transgression, gender, liminality, ritual

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9 Socio-Economic Impact of Education on Urban Women in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Ali Khan

Abstract:

Education is a word has been derived from Latin word "Educare", means to train. Therefore, the harmonious growth of the potentialities for achieving the qualities desirable and useful in the human society is called education. It is claimed that by educating women we can develop our economy, family health and decrease population growth. To explore the socio-economic impact of education on urban women. A prospective study design was used. Over a period of six months 50 respondents were randomly selected from Hayat Abad, an urban city in the North West of Pakistan. A questionnaire was used to explore marital, educational, occupational, social, economical and political status of urban women. Of the total, 50% (25) were employed, where 56% were married and 44% unmarried. Of the employed participants, 56% were teachers fallowed by social worker 16%. Monthly income was significantly high (p=001) of women with master degree. Understanding between wife and husband was also very significant in women with masters. . 78% of employed women replied that Parda (Hija) should be on choice not imposed. 52% of educated women replied participation in social activates, such as parties, shopping etc. Education has a high impact on urban women because it is directly related to employment, decision of power, economy and social life. Urban women with high education have significant political awareness and empowerment. Improving women educational level in rural areas of Pakistan is the key for economic growth and political empowerment

Keywords: women, urban, Pakistan, socio economic

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8 Evaluating Health-Related Quality of Life of Lost to Follow-Up Tuberculosis Patients in Yemen

Authors: Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber, Amer Hayat Khan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as a major disease that affects daily activities and impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The impact of TB on HRQoL can affect treatment outcome and may lead to treatment defaulting. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the HRQoL of TB treatment lost to follow-up during and after treatment in Yemen. For this aim, this prospective study enrolled a total of 399 TB lost to follow-up patients between January 2011 and December 2015. By applying HRQoL criteria, only 136 fill the survey during treatment. Moreover, 96 were traced and fill out the HRQoL survey. All eight HRQol domains were categorized into the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS), which were calculated using QM scoring software. Results show that all lost to follow-up TB patients reported a score less than 47 for all eight domains, except general health (67.3) during their treatment period. Low scores of 27.9 and 29.8 were reported for emotional role limitation (RE) and mental health (MH), respectively. Moreover, the mental component score (MCS) was found to be only 28.9. The trace lost follow-up shows a significant improvement in all eight domains and a mental component score of 43.1. The low scores of 27.9 and 29.8 for role emotion and mental health, respectively, in addition to the MCS score of 28.9, show that severe emotional condition and reflect the higher depression during treatment period that can result to lost to follow-up. The low MH, RE, and MCS can be used as a clue for predicting future TB treatment lost to follow-up.

Keywords: Yemen, tuberculosis, health-related quality of life, Khat

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7 Kinetics of Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase by Lycium Arabicum and Its Protective Effect against Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemia and Renal Dysfunction in Mice

Authors: Naouel Boussoualim, Hayat Trabsa, Imane Krache, Seddik Khennouf, Noureddine Charef, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani

Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate the in-vitro inhibition of xanthine oxidase (purified from bovine milk) by extracts of Lycium arabicum, as well as it is in vivo hypouricemic and renal protective effects. Methods: Four extracts of Lycium arabicum, methanol (CrE), chloroform (ChE), ethyl acetate (EaE) and aqueous (AqE) extracts, were screened for their total phenolics and potential inhibitory effects on purified bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) activity by measuring the formation of uric acid or superoxide radical. The mode of inhibition was investigated and compared with the standard drugs, allopurinol, quercitin, and catechin. To evaluate their hypouricemic effect, the extracts were administered to potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Results: The results showed that EaE had the highest content of phenolic compounds and was the most potent inhibitor of uric acid formation (IC50 = 0.017 ± 0.001 mg/mL) and formation of superoxide (IC50 = 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/ml). Lineweaver-Burk analysis showed that CrE and EaE inhibited XO competitively, whereas the inhibitory activities exerted by ChE and AqE were of a mixed type. Intraperetoneal injection of L. arabicum extracts (50 mg/kg) elicited hypouricemic actions in hyperuricemic mice. Hyperuricemic mice presented a serum uric acid concentration of 4.71 ± 0.29 mg/L but this was reduced to 1.78 ± 0.11 mg/L by EaE, which was the most potent hyporuricemic extract. Conclusion: L. arabicum fractions have a strong inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase and and also have a significantly lowering effect on serum and liver creatinine and urea levels in hyperuricemic mice.

Keywords: lycium arabicum, uric acid, creatinine, superoxide, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, hyperuricemia

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6 Analyzing the Politico-Religious Order of The 'Islamic State'

Authors: Galit Truman Zinman

Abstract:

The 'Islamic State' (IS) is one of the most successful jihadist groups in the modern history. The 'Islamic State' strives to realize the idea of erasing the borders between Muslim countries and establishing a wide Islamic caliphate. The 'Islamic State' is based on religious unity and opposition to existing political order. In this paper, the main argument is that the 'Islamic State' is characterized by two significant tendencies of state-building: preservation and change. The methodology of this study is based on the process tracing method and the analysis of primary sources: decisions, announcements and speeches of religious leaders of the Islamic State, slogans, rituals and symbols, audio and video clips produced by the Al-Hayat Media Center, films distributed on YouTube, as well as the content analysis of Dabiq`s articles (IS official Journal) and nasheeds (jihadi songs). The major findings of this study indicate that in practice the 'Islamic State' uses the same socio-political functions typical to the modern state (preservation), but introduces a different religious-ideological content (change). On the one hand, there is a preservation of the principles of existing modern state. Even with the rejection of secularization, globalization, and nationalism, there is an establishment of typical modern nation-state patterns. It is still a state entity, which has an ideological infrastructure, territory, population, governance and a monopoly on the use of violence, security services, justice system, tax collection, etc. All these functions characterize the modern state, and despite the desire of the 'Islamic State' to create a new kind of state, it reminds patterns of the typical modern nation-state. As for the religious-ideological content of the new state, here we can see a tendency of great change. The 'Islamic State' aims to create an Islamic caliphate which would allow the establishment of religious law and order, under a big commitment to return civilization to a seventh-century environment. The 'Islamic State' favors the fight against Western culture and its liberal ideology. It supports the struggle for global jihad against the unbelievers. Today, despite the territorial 'contraction' and the undermining of the organization's governance in Iraq and Syria, the 'Islamic State' continues to maintain its brand among jihadist activists around the world.

Keywords: Islamic State, Islamic caliphate, modern nation-state, religious law and order

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5 The Markers -mm and dämmo in Amharic: Developmental Approach

Authors: Hayat Omar

Abstract:

Languages provide speakers with a wide range of linguistic units to organize and deliver information. There are several ways to verbally express the mental representations of events. According to the linguistic tools they have acquired, speakers select the one that brings out the most communicative effect to convey their message. Our study focuses on two markers, -mm and dämmo, in Amharic (Ethiopian Semitic language). Our aim is to examine, from a developmental perspective, how they are used by speakers. We seek to distinguish the communicative and pragmatic functions indicated by means of these markers. To do so, we created a corpus of sixty narrative productions of children from 5-6, 7-8 to 10-12 years old and adult Amharic speakers. The experimental material we used to collect our data is a series of pictures without text 'Frog, Where are you?'. Although -mm and dämmo are each used in specific contexts, they are sometimes analyzed as being interchangeable. The suffix -mm is complex and multifunctional. It marks the end of the negative verbal structure, it is found in the relative structure of the imperfect, it creates new words such as adverbials or pronouns, it also serves to coordinate words, sentences and to mark the link between macro-propositions within a larger textual unit. -mm was analyzed as marker of insistence, topic shift marker, element of concatenation, contrastive focus marker, 'bisyndetic' coordinator. On the other hand, dämmo has limited function and did not attract the attention of many authors. The only approach we could find analyzes it in terms of 'monosyndetic' coordinator. The paralleling of these two elements made it possible to understand their distinctive functions and refine their description. When it comes to marking a referent, the choice of -mm or dämmo is not neutral, depending on whether the tagged argument is newly introduced, maintained, promoted or reintroduced. The presence of these morphemes explains the inter-phrastic link. The information is seized by anaphora or presupposition: -mm goes upstream while dämmo arrows downstream, the latter requires new information. The speaker uses -mm or dämmo according to what he assumes to be known to his interlocutors. The results show that -mm and dämmo, although all the speakers use them both, do not always have the same scope according to the speaker and vary according to the age. dämmo is mainly used to mark a contrastive topic to signal the concomitance of events. It is more commonly used in young children’s narratives (F(3,56) = 3,82, p < .01). Some values of -mm (additive) are acquired very early while others are rather late and increase with age (F(3,56) = 3,2, p < .03). The difficulty is due not only because of its synthetic structure but primarily because it is multi-purpose and requires a memory work. It highlights the constituent on which it operates to clarify how the message should be interpreted.

Keywords: acquisition, cohesion, connection, contrastive topic, contrastive focus, discourse marker, pragmatics

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