Search results for: Shadi M. Munshi
26 Static Relaxation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Pipes
Authors: Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Mohamed K. Hassan, A. F. Mohamed, Shadi M. Munshi, A. M. Hashem
Abstract:Pips made from glass fiber reinforced polymer has competitive role in petroleum industry. The need of evaluating the mechanical behavior of (GRP) pipes is essential objects. Stress relaxation illustrates how polymers relieve stress under constant strain. Static relaxation test is carried out at room temperature. The material gives poor static relaxation strength, two loading cycles have been observed for the tested specimen.
Keywords: GRP, sandwich composite material, static relaxation, stress reliefProcedia PDF Downloads 544
25 Mutual Authentication for Sensor-to-Sensor Communications in IoT Infrastructure
Authors: Shadi Janbabaei, Hossein Gharaee Garakani, Naser Mohammadzadeh
Abstract:Internet of things is a new concept that its emergence has caused ubiquity of sensors in human life, so that at any time, all data are collected, processed and transmitted by these sensors. In order to establish a secure connection, the first challenge is authentication between sensors. However, this challenge also requires some features so that the authentication is done properly. Anonymity, untraceability, and being lightweight are among the issues that need to be considered. In this paper, we have evaluated the authentication protocols and have analyzed the security vulnerabilities found in them. Then an improved light weight authentication protocol for sensor-to-sensor communications is presented which uses the hash function and logical operators. The analysis of protocol shows that security requirements have been met and the protocol is resistant against various attacks. In the end, by decreasing the number of computational cost functions, it is argued that the protocol is lighter than before.
Keywords: anonymity, authentication, Internet of Things, lightweight, un-traceabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 224
24 Probabilistic Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Infinite Slopes
Authors: Assile Abou Diab, Shadi Najjar
Abstract:Fiber-reinforcement is an effective soil improvement technique for applications involving the prevention of shallow failures on the slope face and the repair of existing slope failures. A typical application is the stabilization of cohesionless infinite slopes. The objective of this paper is to present a probabilistic, reliability-based methodology (based on Monte Carlo simulations) for the design of a practical fiber-reinforced cohesionless infinite slope, taking into consideration the impact of various sources of uncertainty. Recommendations are made regarding the required factors of safety that need to be used to achieve a given target reliability level. These factors of safety could differ from the traditional deterministic factor of safety.
Keywords: factor of safety, fiber reinforcement, infinite slope, reliability-based design, uncertaintyProcedia PDF Downloads 289
23 Biosorption of Cu (II) and Zn (II) from Real Wastewater onto Cajanus cajan Husk
Authors: Mallappa A. Devani, John U. Kennedy Oubagaranadin, Basudeb Munshi
Abstract:In this preliminary work, locally available husk of Cajanus cajan (commonly known in India as Tur or Arhar), a bio-waste, has been used in its physically treated and chemically activated form for the removal of binary Cu (II) and Zn(II) ions from the real waste water obtained from an electroplating industry in Bangalore, Karnataka, India and from laboratory prepared binary solutions having almost similar composition of the metal ions, for comparison. The real wastewater after filtration and dilution for five times was used for biosorption studies at the normal pH of the solutions at room temperature. Langmuir's binary model was used to calculate the metal uptake capacities of the biosorbents. It was observed that Cu(II) is more competitive than Zn(II) in biosorption. In individual metal biosorption, Cu(II) uptake was found to be more than that of the Zn(II) and a similar trend was observed in the binary metal biosorption from real wastewater and laboratory prepared solutions. FTIR analysis was carried out to identify the functional groups in the industrial wastewater and EDAX for the elemental analysis of the biosorbents after experiments.
Keywords: biosorption, Cajanus cajan, multi metal remediation, wastewaterProcedia PDF Downloads 329
22 Digital Library in India: Importance and Problem Issues in Present Days: A Conceptual Study
Authors: Mehtab Alam Ansari, Shamim Aktar Munshi
Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to find out the importance of digital libraries in Indian educational system, and also different types of problems faced by the digital library in modern age. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative approaches along with review of related literature. The conceptual and textual information related to the present study were collected from primary and secondary sources of information such as books and National and International journals etc. Websites were also used for collecting information. The study finds out that due to high demand of information resources so many digital libraries are established in India, e.g. IGNCA digital library, Digital Library of India, Archives of Indian Labour, Digital Library of Library and Information Science etc, and also it found that it is very helpful to the modern civilization. The digital library movement in India is rapidly increasing and the traditional libraries are now on their way to digitization in a phased manner. But digital library in India has failed to spread its root in each and every part. So many problems are facing to develop the digital libraries in present days. This study briefly explained the services, impact, and problems of digital libraries in Indian.
Keywords: digital Libraries, India, information technology, educationProcedia PDF Downloads 511
21 Scientometrics Analysis of Food Supply Chain Risk Assessment Literature: Based On Web of Science Record 1996-2014
Authors: Mohsen Shirani, Shadi Asadzandi, Micaela Demichela
Abstract:This paper presents the results of a study to assess crucial aspects and the strength of the scientific basis of a typically interdisciplinary, applied field: food supply chain risk assessment research. Our approach is based on an advanced scientometrics analysis with novel elements to assess the influence and dissemination of research results and to measure interdisciplinary. This paper aims to describe the quantity and quality of the publication trends in food supply chain risk assessment. The population under study was composed of 266 articles from database web of science. The results were analyzed based on date of publication, type of document, language of the documents, source of publications, subject areas, authors and their affiliations, and the countries involved in developing the articles.
Keywords: food supply chain, risk assessment, scientometrics, web of scienceProcedia PDF Downloads 314
20 A Comparative Analysis of Green Buildings Rating Systems
Authors: Shadi Motamedighazvini, Roohollah Taherkhani, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Najme Hashempour
Abstract:Nowadays, green building rating systems are an inevitable necessity for managing environmental considerations to achieve green buildings. The aim of this paper is to deliver a detailed recognition of what has been the focus of green building policymakers around the world; It is important to conduct this study in a way that can provide a context for researchers who intend to establish or upgrade existing rating systems. In this paper, fifteen rating systems including four worldwide well-known plus eleven local rating systems which have been selected based on the answers to the questionnaires were examined. Their similarities and differences in mandatory and prerequisite clauses, highest and lowest scores for each criterion, the most frequent criteria, and most frequent sub-criteria are determined. The research findings indicated that although the criteria of energy, water, indoor quality (except Homestar), site and materials (except GRIHA) were common core criteria for all rating systems, their sub-criteria were different. This research, as a roadmap, eliminates the lack of a comprehensive reference that encompasses the key criteria of different rating systems. It shows the local systems need to be revised to be more comprehensive and adaptable to their own country’s conditions such as climate.
Keywords: environmental assessment, green buildings, green building criteria, green building rating systems, sustainability, rating toolsProcedia PDF Downloads 156
19 Correlation of P53 Gene Expression With Serum Alanine Transaminase Levels and Hepatitis B Viral Load in Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients
Authors: Umme Shahera, Saifullah Munshi, Munira Jahan, Afzalun Nessa, Shahinul Alam, Shahina Tabassum
Abstract:The development of HCC is a multi-stage process. Several extrinsic factors, such as aflatoxin, HBV, nutrition, alcohol, and trace elements are thought to initiate or/and promote the hepatocarcinogenesis. Alteration of p53 status is an important intrinsic factor in this process as p53 is essential for preventing inappropriate cell proliferation and maintaining genome integrity following genotoxic stress. This study was designed to assess the correlation of p53 gene expression with HBV-DNA and serum Alanine transaminase (ALT) in patients with cirrhosis and HCC. The study was conducted among 60 patients. The study population were divided into four groups (15 in each groups)-HBV positive cirrhosis, HBV negative cirrhosis, HBV positive HCC and HBV negative HCC. Expression of p53 gene was observed using real time PCR. P53 gene expressions in the above mentioned groups were correlated with serum ALT level and HBV viral load. p53 gene was significantly higher in HBV-positive patients with HCC than HBV-positive cirrhosis. Similarly, the expression of p53 was significantly higher in HBV-positive HCC than HBV-negative HCC patients. However, the expression of p53 was reduced in HBV-positive cirrhosis in comparison with HBV-negative cirrhosis. P53 gene expression in liver was not correlated with the serum levels of ALT in any of the study groups. HBV- DNA load also did not correlated with p53 gene expression in HBV positive HCC and HBV positive cirrhosis patients. This study shows that there was no significant change with the expression of p53 gene in any of the study groups with ALT level or viral load, though differential expression of p53 gene were observed in cirrhosis and HCC patients.
Keywords: P53, ALT, HBV-DNA, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinomaProcedia PDF Downloads 27
18 Suitability Number of Coarse-Grained Soils and Relationships among Fineness Modulus, Density and Strength Parameters
Authors: Khandaker Fariha Ahmed, Md. Noman Munshi, Tarin Sultana, Md. Zoynul Abedin
Abstract:Suitability number (SN) is perhaps one of the most important parameters of coarse-grained soil in assessing its appropriateness to use as a backfill in retaining structures, sand compaction pile, Vibro compaction, and other similar foundation and ground improvement works. Though determined in an empirical manner, it is imperative to study SN to understand its relation with other aggregate properties like fineness modulus (FM), and strength and density properties of sandy soil. The present paper reports the findings of the study on the examination of the properties of sandy soil, as mentioned. Random numbers were generated to obtain the percent fineness on various sieve sizes, and fineness modulus and suitability numbers were predicted. Sand samples were collected from the field, and test samples were prepared to determine maximum density, minimum density and shear strength parameter φ against particular fineness modulus and corresponding suitability number Five samples of SN value of excellent (0-10) and three samples of SN value fair (20-30) were taken and relevant tests were done. The data obtained from the laboratory tests were statistically analyzed. Results show that with the increase of SN, the value of FM decreases. Within the SN value rated as excellent (0-10), there is a decreasing trend of φ for a higher value of SN. It is found that SN is dependent on various combinations of grain size properties like D10, D30, and D20, D50. Strong linear relationships were obtained between SN and FM (R²=.0.93) and between SN value and φ (R²=.94). Correlation equations are proposed to define relationships among SN, φ, and FM.
Keywords: density, fineness modulus, shear strength parameter, suitability numberProcedia PDF Downloads 47
17 Organisational Effectiveness and Its Implications for Seaports
Authors: Shadi Alghaffari, Hong-Oanh Nguyen, Peggy Chen, Hossein Enshaei
Abstract:The main purpose of this study was to explore the role of organisational effectiveness (OE) in seaports. OE is an important managerial concept, one that is necessary for leaders and directors in any organisation to understand the output of their work. OE has been applied in many organisations; however, it is a vital concept in the port business. This paper examines various approaches and applications of the OE concept to business management, and describes benefits that are important and applicable to seaport management. This research reviews and classifies articles published in relevant journals and books between 1950 and 2016; from the general literature on OE to the narrower field of OE in seaports. Based on the extensive literature review, this study identifies and discusses several issues relevant to both practices and theories of this concept. The review concludes by presenting a gap in the literature, as it found only a limited amount of research that endeavours to clarify OE in the seaport sector. As a result of this gap, seaports suffer from a lack of empirical study and are largely neglected in this subject area. The implementation of OE in this research has led to the maritime sector interfacing with different disciplines in order to acquire the advantage of enhancing managerial knowledge and competing successfully in the international marketplace.
Keywords: literature review, maritime, organisational effectiveness, seaport managementProcedia PDF Downloads 285
16 Forensic Analysis of Signal Messenger on Android
Authors: Ward Bakker, Shadi Alhakimi
Abstract:The amount of people moving towards more privacy focused instant messaging applications has grown significantly. Signal is one of these instant messaging applications, which makes Signal interesting for digital investigators. In this research, we evaluate the artifacts that are generated by the Signal messenger for Android. This evaluation was done by using the features that Signal provides to create artifacts, whereafter, we made an image of the internal storage and the process memory. This image was analysed manually. The manual analysis revealed the content that Signal stores in different locations during its operation. From our research, we were able to identify the artifacts and interpret how they were used. We also examined the source code of Signal. Using our obtain knowledge from the source code, we developed a tool that decrypts some of the artifacts using the key stored in the Android Keystore. In general, we found that most artifacts are encrypted and encoded, even after decrypting some of the artifacts. During data visualization, some artifacts were found, such as that Signal does not use relationships between the data. In this research, two interesting groups of artifacts were identified, those related to the database and those stored in the process memory dump. In the database, we found plaintext private- and group chats, and in the memory dump, we were able to retrieve the plaintext access code to the application. Nevertheless, we conclude that Signal contains a wealth of artifacts that could be very valuable to a digital forensic investigation.
Keywords: forensic, signal, Android, digitalProcedia PDF Downloads 11
15 Capacity Building for Tourism Infrastructure: A Case of Tourism Influenced Regions in Uttar Pradesh, India
Authors: Sayan Munshi, Subrajit Banerjee, Indrani Chakraborty
Abstract:Tourism is a prime sector in the economic development of many countries in particular the Indian sub-continent. Tourism is considered an integral pillar in the Make in India Program under the Government of India. The statistics of tourism in India had evolved from a past with the formation of History. The sector had shown dynamic changes in the statistics since 1980. With the evolving tourism along with destinations, this sector has been converted into the prime industry, as it not only impacts the destination but on the other hand supports the periphery of the destination. Tourism boost revenue and creates varied economic possibilities for the residents. Due to the influx of tourism in the cities, a load on the infrastructure and services can be observed, specifically in the Physical Infrastructure sectors. Due to the floating population in the designated tourism core of the Urban / Peri-Urban area, issues pertaining to Solid waste management and Transportation are highly observed. Thus, a need for capacity building arises for the infrastructure impacted by tourism, which may result in the upgradation of the lifestyle of the city and its permanent users. As tourism of a region has a dependency on the infrastructure, the paper here focuses on the relationship between tourism potential of a region and the infrastructural determinants of the city or region and hence to derive a structural equation supporting the relationship, further determine a coefficient and suggest the domain of in need of upgradation or retrofitting possibilities. The outcome of the paper is to suggest possible recommendations towards the formation of policies on an urban level to support the tourism potential of the region.
Keywords: urban planning, tourism planning, infrastructure, transportation, solid waste managementProcedia PDF Downloads 47
14 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation
Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh
Abstract:The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-the-thickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stress-life (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0˚, saddle, and crown 180˚ positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KT-joint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.
Keywords: tubular KT-joint, fatigue, degree of bending (DoB), axial loading, parametric formulaProcedia PDF Downloads 301
13 Investor Psychology, Housing Prices, and Stock Market Response to Policy Decisions During the Covid-19 Recession in the United States
Authors: Ly Nguyen, Vidit Munshi
Abstract:During the Covid-19 recession, the United States government has implemented several instruments to mitigate the impacts and revitalize the economy. This paper explores the effects of the various government policy decisions on stock returns, housing prices, and investor psychology during the pandemic in the United States. A numerous previous literature studies on this subject, yet very few focus on the context similar to what we are currently experiencing. Our monthly data covering the period from January 2019 through July 2021 were collected from Datastream. Utilizing the VAR model, we document a dynamic relationship between the market and policy actions throughout the period. In particular, the movements of Unemployment, Stock returns, and Housing prices are strongly sensitive to changes in government policies. Our results also indicate that changes in production level, stock returns, and interest rates decisions influence how investors perceived future market risk and expectations. We do not find any significant nexus between monetary and fiscal policy. Our findings imply that information on government policy and stock market performance provide useful feedback to one another in order to make better decisions in the current and future pandemic. Understanding how the market responds to a shift in government practices has important implications for authorities in implementing policy to avoid assets bubbles and market overreactions. The paper also provides useful implications for investors in evaluating the effectiveness of different policies and diversifying portfolios to minimize systematic risk and maximize returns.
Keywords: Covid-19 recession, United States, government policies, investor psychology, housing prices, stock market returnsProcedia PDF Downloads 116
12 Effects of Continuous and Periodic Aerobic Exercises on C Reactive Protein in Overweight Women
Authors: Maesoomeh Khorshidi Mehr, Mohammad Sajadian, Shadi Alipour
Abstract:The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of continuous and periodic aerobic exercises on serum levels of CRP in overweight woman. 36 woman aged between 20 and 35 years from the city of Ahwaz were randomly selected as the sample of the study. This sample was further divided into three groups (n= 12) of continuous aerobic exercise, periodic aerobic exercise, and control. Subjects of the groups of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise participated in 8 weeks of specialized exercises while the control group subjects did not take part in any regular physical activity program. Blood samples were collected from subjects in 24 hours prior to and 48 hours past to the intervention period. Afterwards, the serum level of CRP was measured for each blood sample. Results showed that BMI and serum level of CRP both significantly reduced as a result of aerobic exercises. However, no statistically significant difference was recorded between the extent of effects of the former and latter aerobic exercise types. Eight weeks of aerobic exercise will probably result in reduced inflammation and cardiovascular diseases risk in overweight women. The reason for lack of difference between effects of continuous and periodic aerobic exercise may lie in the similarity of average intensity and length of physical administered activities.
Keywords: heart diseases, aerobic exercise, inflammation, CRP, overweightProcedia PDF Downloads 134
11 Climate Change: Affecting Basic Human Rights in Bangladesh
Authors: Shekh Shadi Rahaman
Abstract:In Bangladesh, basic human rights more specifically right to food and right to shelter are being adversely affected by the consequences of climate change. Over the last two decades, a considerable number of environmental studies revealed that basic human rights, more specifically, the right to food and right to a shelter are going to be seriously affected by climate change. Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries and livestock, which are most sensitive to climate change, are key sources interconnected with food security and the security of shelter. Consequences of climate change affecting these key sources, and with the change of time, climate change is turning into a gigantic challenge towards ensuring basic human rights in Bangladesh. This study was carried out by employing a general review of literature on climate change, focusing on effects of climate change on basic two major human rights in Bangladesh. Upon analysis of existing researches, it is found very few researches focused on correlating climate change and right to food and right to shelter. This study shows how the consequences of climate change affects food production and abode of people of Bangladesh. This study recommends that tree plantation, floating agricultural practice, co-operation with international organization, developing environment friendly institutions, increased use of renewable energy, proper management of wetlands and forests, shelter for climate induced migrated people, encouraging research and public awareness are key issues to be followed for combating climate change and protecting basic human right to food and shelter.
Keywords: achievements, agriculture and forestry, fisheries and livestock, renewable energyProcedia PDF Downloads 58
10 Predicting Intentions of Physical Activity in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control
Authors: Shadi Kanan, Ghada Shahrour, Barbara Broome, Donna Bernert, Muntaha Alibrahim, Dana Hansen
Abstract:Coronary artery disease is responsible for over 7 million deaths a year worldwide. In developing countries, such as Jordan, the incidence of coronary artery disease exceeds that of developed countries. One contributing factor to this disparity is decreased physical activity among the population, for reasons related to specific cultural and religious values. Using the theory of planned behaviour, the purpose of this study was to investigate the intentions of Jordanian patients with coronary artery disease regarding physical activity. A total of 109 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited for this cross-sectional study from King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan. A 15-item questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour was used to assess participants’ attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions towards engagement in physical activity. Perceived behavioural control was found to have the strongest significant relationship with participants’ intentions to engage in physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included lack of time, lack of support from family or friends, and feelings of exhaustion. Lifestyle interventions for patients with coronary artery disease should focus on fostering a sense of control over the environment to encourage patients to engage in physical activity.
Keywords: coronary artery disease, perceived behavioural control, subjective norms, theory of planned behaviourProcedia PDF Downloads 41
9 Identification of Membrane Foulants in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation for the Treatment of Reject Brine
Authors: Shefaa Mansour, Hassan Arafat, Shadi Hasan
Abstract:Management of reverse osmosis (RO) brine has become a major area of research due to the environmental concerns associated with it. This study worked on studying the feasibility of the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system in the treatment of this RO brine. The system displayed great potential in terms of its flux and salt rejection, where different operating conditions such as the feed temperature, feed salinity, feed and permeate flow rates were varied. The highest flux of 16.7 LMH was reported with a salt rejection of 99.5%. Although the DCMD has displayed potential of enhanced water recovery from highly saline solutions, one of the major drawbacks associated with the operation is the fouling of the membranes which impairs the system performance. An operational run of 77 hours for the treatment of RO brine of 56,500 ppm salinity was performed in order to investigate the impact of fouling of the membrane on the overall operation of the system over long time operations. Over this time period, the flux was observed to have reduced by four times its initial flux. The fouled membrane was characterized through different techniques for the identification of the organic and inorganic foulants that have deposited on the membrane surface. The Infrared Spectroscopy method (IR) was used to identify the organic foulants where SEM images displayed the surface characteristics of the membrane. As for the inorganic foulants, they were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The major foulants found on the surface of the membrane were inorganic salts such as sodium chloride and calcium sulfate.
Keywords: brine treatment, membrane distillation, fouling, characterizationProcedia PDF Downloads 380
8 Reliability Based Analysis of Multi-Lane Reinforced Concrete Slab Bridges
Authors: Ali Mahmoud, Shadi Najjar, Mounir Mabsout, Kassim Tarhini
Abstract:Empirical expressions for estimating the wheel load distribution and live-load bending moment are typically specified in highway bridge codes such as the AASHTO procedures. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the reliability levels that are inherent in reinforced concrete slab bridges that are designed based on the simplified empirical live load equations in the AASHTO LRFD procedures. To achieve this objective, bridges with multi-lanes (three and four lanes) and different spans are modeled using finite-element analysis (FEA) subjected to HS20 truck loading, tandem loading, and standard lane loading per AASHTO LRFD procedures. The FEA results are compared with the AASHTO LRFD moments in order to quantify the biases that might result from the simplifying assumptions adopted in AASHTO. A reliability analysis is conducted to quantify the reliability index for bridges designed using AASHTO procedures. To reach a consistent level of safety for three- and four-lane bridges, following a previous study restricted to one- and two-lane bridges, the live load factor in the design equation proposed by AASHTO LRFD will be assessed and revised if needed by alternating the live load factor for these lanes. The results will provide structural engineers with more consistent provisions to design concrete slab bridges or evaluate the load-carrying capacity of existing bridges.
Keywords: reliability analysis of concrete bridges, finite element modeling, reliability analysis, reinforced concrete bridge design, load carrying capacityProcedia PDF Downloads 266
7 Minimally Invasive versus Conventional Sternotomy for Aortic Valve Replacement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Authors: Ahmed Shaboub, Yusuf Jasim Althawadi, Shadi Alaa Abdelaal, Mohamed Hussein Abdalla, Hatem Amr Elzahaby, Mohamed Mohamed, Hazem S. Ghaith, Ahmed Negida
Abstract:Objectives: We aimed to compare the safety and outcomes of the minimally invasive approaches versus conventional sternotomy procedures for aortic valve replacement. Methods: We conducted a PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis. We ran an electronic search of PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, Scopus, and Web of Science to identify the relevant published studies. Data were extracted and pooled as standardized mean difference (SMD) or risk ratio (RR) using StataMP version 17 for macOS. Results: Forty-one studies with a total of 15,065 patients were included in this meta-analysis (minimally invasive approaches n=7231 vs. conventional sternotomy n=7834). The pooled effect size showed that minimally invasive approaches had lower mortality rate (RR 0.76, 95%CI [0.59 to 0.99]), intensive care unit and hospital stays (SMD -0.16 and -0.31, respectively), ventilation time (SMD -0.26, 95%CI [-0.38 to -0.15]), 24-h chest tube drainage (SMD -1.03, 95%CI [-1.53 to -0.53]), RBCs transfusion (RR 0.81, 95%CI [0.70 to 0.93]), wound infection (RR 0.66, 95%CI [0.47 to 0.92]) and acute renal failure (RR 0.65, 95%CI [0.46 to 0.93]). However, minimally invasive approaches had longer operative time, cross-clamp, and bypass times (SMD 0.47, 95%CI [0.22 to 0.72], SMD 0.27, 95%CI [0.07 to 0.48], and SMD 0.37, 95%CI [0.20 to 0.45], respectively). There were no differences between the two groups in blood loss, endocarditis, cardiac tamponade, stroke, arrhythmias, pneumonia, pneumothorax, bleeding reoperation, tracheostomy, hemodialysis, or myocardial infarction (all P>0.05). Conclusion: Current evidence showed higher safety and better operative outcomes with minimally invasive aortic valve replacement compared to the conventional approach. Future RCTs with long-term follow-ups are recommended.
Keywords: aortic replacement, minimally invasive, sternotomy, mini-sternotomy, aortic valve, meta analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 45
6 Impact of Drainage Defect on the Railway Track Surface Deflections; A Numerical Investigation
Authors: Shadi Fathi, Moura Mehravar, Mujib Rahman
Abstract:The railwaytransportation network in the UK is over 100 years old and is known as one of the oldest mass transit systems in the world. This aged track network requires frequent closure for maintenance. One of the main reasons for closure is inadequate drainage due to the leakage in the buried drainage pipes. The leaking water can cause localised subgrade weakness, which subsequently can lead to major ground/substructure failure.Different condition assessment methods are available to assess the railway substructure. However, the existing condition assessment methods are not able to detect any local ground weakness/damageand provide details of the damage (e.g. size and location). To tackle this issue, a hybrid back-analysis technique based on artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) has been developed to predict the substructurelayers’ moduli and identify any soil weaknesses. At first, afinite element (FE) model of a railway track section under Falling Weight Deflection (FWD) testing was developed and validated against field trial. Then a drainage pipe and various scenarios of the local defect/ soil weakness around the buried pipe with various geometriesand physical properties were modelled. The impact of the soil local weaknesson the track surface deflection wasalso studied. The FE simulations results were used to generate a database for ANN training, and then a GA wasemployed as an optimisation tool to optimise and back-calculate layers’ moduli and soil weakness moduli (ANN’s input). The hybrid ANN-GA back-analysis technique is a computationally efficient method with no dependency on seed modulus values. The modelcan estimate substructures’ layer moduli and the presence of any localised foundation weakness.
Keywords: finite element (FE) model, drainage defect, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), hybrid ANN-GAProcedia PDF Downloads 74
5 Thorium Extraction with Cyanex272 Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
Authors: Afshin Shahbazi, Hadi Shadi Naghadeh, Ahmad Khodadadi Darban
Abstract:In the Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. In the present study, Cyanex272 or C272 (bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid) coated magnetic particles are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction of Thorium (IV) from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. Adsorption of Thorium (IV) from aqueous solution onto adsorbent was investigated in a batch system. Adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetic studies of Thorium (IV) onto nanoparticles coated Cyanex272 were carried out in a batch system. The factors influencing Thorium (IV) adsorption were investigated and described in detail, as a function of the parameters such as initial pH value, contact time, adsorbent mass, and initial Thorium (IV) concentration. Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process adsorbent showed best results for the fast adsorption of Th (IV) from aqueous solution at aqueous phase acidity value of 0.5 molar. In addition, more than 80% of Th (IV) was removed within the first 2 hours, and the time required to achieve the adsorption equilibrium was only 140 minutes. Langmuir and Frendlich adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium. Equilibrium data agreed very well with the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 48 mg.g-1. Adsorption kinetics data were tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step.
Keywords: Thorium (IV) adsorption, MACS process, magnetic nanoparticles, Cyanex272Procedia PDF Downloads 250
4 Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Hyaluronic Acid-Polycaprolactone Membrane Containing 0.5 % Atorvastatin Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers as a Nanocomposite Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering
Authors: Mahsa Ahmadi, Mehdi Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, Jaleh Varshosaz, Shadi Farsaei
Abstract:Gelatin and hyaluronic acid are commonly used in skin tissue engineering scaffolds, but because of their low mechanical properties and high biodegradation rate, adding a synthetic polymer such as polycaprolactone could improve the scaffold properties. Therefore, we developed a gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone scaffold, containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for skin tissue engineering. The atorvastatin loaded NLCs solution was prepared by solvent evaporation method and freeze drying process. Synthesized atorvastatin loaded NLCs was added to the gelatin and hyaluronic acid solution, and a membrane was fabricated with solvent evaporation method. Thereafter it was coated by a thin layer of polycaprolactone via spine coating set. The resulting scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Moreover, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation in 7 days period, and in vitro drug release of scaffolds were also evaluated. SEM images showed the uniform distributed NLCs with an average size of 100 nm in the scaffold structure. Mechanical test indicated that the scaffold had a 70.08 Mpa tensile modulus which was twofold of tensile modulus of normal human skin. A Franz-cell diffusion test was performed to investigate the scaffold drug release in phosphate buffered saline (pH=7.4) medium. Results showed that 72% of atorvastatin was released during 5 days. In vitro degradation test demonstrated that the membrane was degradated approximately 97%. In conclusion, suitable physicochemical and biological properties of membrane indicated that the developed gelatin-hyaluronic acid-polycaprolactone nanocomposite scaffold containing 0.5 % atorvastatin loaded NLCs could be used as a good candidate for skin tissue engineering applications.
Keywords: atorvastatin, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, nano lipid carriers (NLCs), polycaprolactone, skin tissue engineering, solvent casting, solvent evaporationProcedia PDF Downloads 195
3 Evaluation of Commercial Back-analysis Package in Condition Assessment of Railways
Authors: Shadi Fathi, Moura Mehravar, Mujib Rahman
Abstract:Over the years,increased demands on railways, the emergence of high-speed trains and heavy axle loads, ageing, and deterioration of the existing tracks, is imposing costly maintenance actions on the railway sector. The need for developing a fast andcost-efficient non-destructive assessment method for the structural evaluation of railway tracksis therefore critically important. The layer modulus is the main parameter used in the structural design and evaluation of the railway track substructure (foundation). Among many recently developed NDTs, Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test, widely used in pavement evaluation, has shown promising results for railway track substructure monitoring. The surface deflection data collected by FWD are used to estimate the modulus of substructure layers through the back-analysis technique. Although there are different commerciallyavailableback-analysis programs are used for pavement applications, there are onlya limited number of research-based techniques have been so far developed for railway track evaluation. In this paper, the suitability, accuracy, and reliability of the BAKFAAsoftware are investigated. The main rationale for selecting BAKFAA as it has a relatively straightforward user interfacethat is freely available and widely used in highway and airport pavement evaluation. As part of the study, a finite element (FE) model of a railway track section near Leominsterstation, Herefordshire, UK subjected to the FWD test, was developed and validated against available field data. Then, a virtual experimental database (including 218 sets of FWD testing data) was generated using theFE model and employed as the measured database for the BAKFAA software. This database was generated considering various layers’ moduli for each layer of track substructure over a predefined range. The BAKFAA predictions were compared against the cone penetration test (CPT) data (available from literature; conducted near to Leominster station same section as the FWD was performed). The results reveal that BAKFAA overestimatesthe layers’ moduli of each substructure layer. To adjust the BAKFA with the CPT data, this study introduces a correlation model to make the BAKFAA applicable in railway applications.
Keywords: back-analysis, bakfaa, railway track substructure, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), cone penetration test (CPT)Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2 A Study of The Factors Predicting Radiation Exposure to Contacts of Saudi Patients Treated With Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine (I-131)
Authors: Khalid A. Salman, Shereen Wagih, Tariq Munshi, Musaed Almalki, Safwan Zatari, Zahid Khan
Abstract:Aim: To measure exposure levels to family members and caregivers of Saudi patients treated with low dose I131 therapy, and household radiation exposure rate to predict different factors that can affect radiation exposure. Patients and methods: All adult self dependent patients with hyperthyroidism or cancer thyroid referred for low dose radioactive I131 therapy on outpatient basis are included. Radiation protection procedures are given to the participant and family members in details. TLD’s were dispensed to each participant in sufficient quantity for his/her family members living in the household. TLD’s are collected at fifth days post-dispense from patients who agreed to have a home visit during which the household is inspected and level of radiation contamination of surfaces was measured. Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the current study, with a mean age of 43.1± 17.1 years Out of them 25 patients (78%) are females. I131 therapy was given in twenty patients (63%) for cancer thyroid of and for toxic goiter in the remaining twelve patients (37%), with an overall mean I131 dose of 24.1 ± 7.5mCi that is relatively higher in the former. The overall number of household family members and helpers of patients are 139, out of them77 are females (55.4%) & 62 are males (44.6%) with a mean age of 29.8± 17.6. The mean period of contact with the patient is 7.6 ±5.6hours. The cumulative radiation exposure shows that radiation exposure to all family members is below the exposure constraint (1mSv), with a range of 109 to 503uSv, and a mean value of 220.9±91 uSv. Numerical data shows a little higher exposure rate for family members of those who receive higher dose of I131 (patients with thyroid cancer) and household members who spent longer time with the patient, yet, the difference is statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Besides, no significant correlation was found between the degree of cumulative exposure of the family members to their gender, age, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors. In the 21 home visits all data from bedrooms, reception areas and kitchens are below hazardous limits (0.5uSv/h) apart from bathrooms that give a slightly higher reading of 0.57±0.39 uSv/h in those with cancer thyroid who receive a higher radiation dose. A statistically significant difference was found between radiation exposure rate in bathrooms used by the patient versus those used by family members only, with a mean value of exposure rate of 0.701±0.21 uSv/h and 0.17±0.82 uSv/h respectively, with a p-value of 0.018 (<0.05). Conclusion: Family members of patients treated with low dose I131 on outpatient basis have a good compliance to radiation protection instruction if given properly with a cumulative radiation exposure rate evidently beyond the radiation exposure constraints of 1 mSv. Given I131 dose, hours spent with the patient, age, gender, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors have no significant correlation with the cumulative radiation exposure. The patient bathroom exhibits more radiation exposure rate, needing more strict instructions for patient bathroom use and health hygiene.
Keywords: family members, radiation exposure, radioactive iodine therapy, radiation safetyProcedia PDF Downloads 212
1 Rebuilding Health Post-Conflict: Case Studies from Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique
Authors: Spencer Rutherford, Shadi Saleh
Abstract:War and conflict negatively impact all facets of a health system; services cease to function, resources become depleted, and any semblance of governance is lost. Following cessation of conflict, the rebuilding process includes a wide array of international and local actors. During this period, stakeholders must contend with various trade-offs, including balancing sustainable outcomes with immediate health needs, introducing health reform measures while also increasing local capacity, and reconciling external assistance with local legitimacy. Compounding these factors are additional challenges, including coordination amongst stakeholders, the re-occurrence of conflict, and ulterior motives from donors and governments, to name a few. Therefore, the present paper evaluated health system development in three post-conflict countries over a 12-year timeline. Specifically, health policies, health inputs (such infrastructure and human resources), and measures of governance, from the post-conflict periods of Afghanistan, Cambodia, and Mozambique, were assessed against health outputs and other measures. All post-conflict countries experienced similar challenges when rebuilding the health sector, including; division and competition between donors, NGOs, and local institutions; urban and rural health inequalities; and the re-occurrence of conflict. However, countries also employed unique and effective mechanisms for reconstructing their health systems, including; government engagement of the NGO and private sector; integration of competing factions into the same workforce; and collaborative planning for health policy. Based on these findings, best-practice development strategies were determined and compiled into a 12-year framework. Briefly, during the initial stage of the post-conflict period, primary stakeholders should work quickly to draft a national health strategy in collaboration with the government, and focus on managing and coordinating NGOs through performance-based partnership agreements. With this scaffolding in place, the development community can then prioritize the reconstruction of primary health care centers, increasing and retaining health workers, and horizontal integration of immunization services. The final stages should then concentrate on transferring ownership of the health system national institutions, implementing sustainable financing mechanisms, and phasing-out NGO services. Overall, these findings contribute post-conflict health system development by evaluating the process holistically and along a timeline and can be of further use by healthcare managers, policy-makers, and other health professionals.
Keywords: Afghanistan, Cambodia, health system development, health system reconstruction, Mozambique, post-conflict, state-buildingProcedia PDF Downloads 85