Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1019

Search results for: Muhammad Asif Idrees

1019 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.

Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathology

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1018 Antiprotozoal Activity of Peganum harmala against Babesiosis in Cattle

Authors: Muhammad Mustafa Jafar, Syed Ashar Mahfooz, Muhammad Ejaz Saleem, Muhammad Asif Raza, Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq

Abstract:

The Babesia gradually attained resistance against the synthetic medicines. To overcome the drug resistance, herbal therapy has gained more attention as compared to allopathic therapy. Peganumharmala (harmal) is a plant which has shown effective results against various protozoal diseases. Therefore, the present study was planned to monitor the efficacy of Peganumharmala (aqueous extract) against Babesiosis in cattle. For this purpose, a total of forty (n=40) infected animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was treated with aqueous extract of Peganum harmala at 7.5 mg/kg, group B at 10 mg/kg and group C at 12.5 mg/kg of body weight. Group D served as a control group (normal). It was observed that there was a stabilization in hematological parameters (white and red blood cells, hemoglobin and Packed cell volume) in infected animals treated with Peganum harmala at different doses. Results of this study hence indicated that Peganum harmala extract at 12.5mg/kg BW is more effective against Babesiosis than lower doses.

Keywords: Babesiosis, cattle, control, Peganum harmala

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1017 Differential Diagnosis of Malaria and Dengue Fever on the Basis of Clinical Findings and Laboratory Investigations

Authors: Aman Ullah Khan, Muhammad Younus, Aqil Ijaz, Muti-Ur-Rehman Khan, Sayyed Aun Muhammad, Asif Idrees, Sanan Raza, Amar Nasir

Abstract:

Dengue fever and malaria are important vector-borne diseases of public health significance affecting millions of people around the globe. Dengue fever is caused by Dengue virus while malaria is caused by plasmodium protozoan. Generally, the consequences of Malaria are less severe compared to dengue fever. This study was designed to differentiate dengue fever and malaria on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and to compare the changes in both diseases having different causative agents transmitted by the common vector. A total of 200 patients of dengue viral infection (120 males, 80 females) were included in this prospective descriptive study. The blood samples of the individuals were first screened for malaria by blood smear examination and then the negative samples were tested by anti-dengue IgM strip. The strip positive cases were further screened by IgM capture ELISA and their complete blood count including hemoglobin estimation (Hb), total and differential leukocyte counts (TLC and DLC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and platelet counts were performed. On the basis of the severity of signs and symptoms, dengue virus infected patients were subdivided into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) comprising 70 and 100 confirmed patients, respectively. On the other hand, 30 patients were found infected with Malaria while overall 120 patients showed thrombocytopenia. The patients of DHF were found to have more leucopenia, raised hemoglobin level and thrombocytopenia < 50,000/µl compared to the patients belonging to DF and malaria. On the basis of the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that patients affected by DF were at a lower risk of undergoing haematological disturbance than suffering from DHF. While, the patients infected by Malaria were found to have no significant change in their blood components.

Keywords: dengue fever, blood, serum, malaria, ELISA

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1016 Evaluating Effects of Health and Physical Maintenance on Academic Competencies of University Teachers in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Badar Habib, Muhammad Shakir, Asif Ali, Muhammad Zia ul Haq

Abstract:

Purpose of the research is to examine the university teachers’ health and physical activities regarding their academic competencies. Major objectives of this piece research were (a) to identify health problems of teachers at university level that affects academic competencies of university teachers and (b) to evaluate educational betterment through physical balance. This research is descriptive in nature and questionnaire was used as source of collecting data. Population of the present research comprises teachers, professors and professionals teaching in the universities of Pakistan. 580 university teachers were selected as a population of the study. Random sampling technique was used to identify recipients. Data was feed and filter in Ms-Excel. In the light of the analysis of the study following findings were drawn out. This study found that the university teachers in Pakistan do not adopt proper physical exercise program. They were less interested to burn their extra calories and face diseases such as cramping, contraction of the muscles, diabetics and stomach diseases. This study recommends that seminars/workshops may be held by University establishment; to develop overall awareness among the teachers.

Keywords: evaluating effects of health and physical maintenance, academic competencies, university teachers, Pakistan

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1015 Eating Behaviours in Islam and Mental Health: A Preventative Approach

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

Abstract:

A growing number of research focuses on healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors and their impact on health. It was intended to study the Islamic point of view on eating behavior, its impact on mental health and preventative strategies in the light of the Quran and Sunnah. Different articles and Islamic sayings related to eating behaviors and mental health were reviewed in detail. It was also revealed scientifically and through Islamic point of view that appropriate quantity, quality and timings of food have positive effects on mental health. Therefore, a 3Rs model of eating behaviors has been proposed.

Keywords: food intake, mental health, quality of food, quantity of food

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1014 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf

Abstract:

Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis, body size, condition factor

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1013 Continuous Differential Evolution Based Parameter Estimation Framework for Signal Models

Authors: Ammara Mehmood, Aneela Zameer, Muhammad Asif Zahoor Raja, Muhammad Faisal Fateh

Abstract:

In this work, the strength of bio-inspired computational intelligence based technique is exploited for parameter estimation for the periodic signals using Continuous Differential Evolution (CDE) by defining an error function in the mean square sense. Multidimensional and nonlinear nature of the problem emerging in sinusoidal signal models along with noise makes it a challenging optimization task, which is dealt with robustness and effectiveness of CDE to ensure convergence and avoid trapping in local minima. In the proposed scheme of Continuous Differential Evolution based Signal Parameter Estimation (CDESPE), unknown adjustable weights of the signal system identification model are optimized utilizing CDE algorithm. The performance of CDESPE model is validated through statistics based various performance indices on a sufficiently large number of runs in terms of estimation error, mean squared error and Thiel’s inequality coefficient. Efficacy of CDESPE is examined by comparison with the actual parameters of the system, Genetic Algorithm based outcomes and from various deterministic approaches at different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels.

Keywords: parameter estimation, bio-inspired computing, continuous differential evolution (CDE), periodic signals

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1012 Implementation of Risk Management System to Improve the Quality of Higher Education Institutes

Authors: Muhammad Wasif, Asif Ahmed Shaikh, Sarosh Hashmat Lodi, Muhammad Aslam Bhutto, Riazuddin

Abstract:

Risk Management System is quite popular in profit- based organizations, health and safety and project management fields since the last few decades. But due to rapidly changing environment and requirement of ISO 9001:2015 standards, public-sector institution, especially higher education institutes are also performing risk assessment to monitor the performance of the institution and aligning it with the latest benchmark. In this context, NED University of Engineering and Technology performed research and developed a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for the risk assessment, its monitoring and control. In this research, risks are broken into the four sources, namely; Internal Academics Risks, External Academics Risks, Internal Non-academic Risks, External Non-academic Risks. Risks are identified by the management at all levels. Severity and likelihood of the risks are assigned based on the previous audit results and the customer complains. Risk Ratings are calculated to orderly arrange the risk according to the Risk Rating, and controls for the risks are designed, which are assigned to the responsible person. At the end of the article, result and analysis on the different sources of risk are discussed in details and the conclusion is drawn. Discussion on few sample risks are presented in this article. Hence it is presented in the research that the Risk Management System can be applied in a Higher Education Institute to effectively control the risks which might affect the scope and Quality Management System of an organization.

Keywords: higher education, quality management system, risk assessment, risk management

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1011 Biosafety Study of Genetically Modified CEMB Sugarcane on Animals for Glyphosate Tolerance

Authors: Aminah Salim, Idrees Ahmed Nasir, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sohail Anjum, Ayesha Hameed, Bushra Tabassum, Anwar Khan, Arfan Ali, Mariyam Zameer, Tayyab Husnain

Abstract:

Risk assessment of transgenic herbicide tolerant sugarcane having CEMB codon optimized cp4EPSPS gene was done in present study. Fifteen days old chicks taken from K&Ns Company were randomly assorted into four groups with eight chicks in each group namely control chicken group fed with commercial diet, non-transgenic group fed with non-experimental sugarcane and transgenic group fed with transgenic sugarcane with minimum and maximum level. Body weights, biochemical analysis for Urea, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, creatinine and bilirubin determination and histological examination of chicks fed with four types of feed was taken at fifteen days interval and no significant difference was observed in body weight biochemical and histological studies of all four groups. Protein isolated from the serum sample was analyzed through dipstick and SDS-PAGE, showing the absence of transgene protein in the serum sample of control and experimental groups. Moreover the amplification of cp4EPSPS gene with gene specific primers of DNA isolated from chicks blood and also from commercial diet was done to determine the presence and mobility of any nucleotide fragment of the transgene in/from feed and no amplification was obtained in feed as well as in blood extracted DNA of any group. Also no mRNA expression of cp4EPSPS gene was obtained in any tissue of four groups of chicks. From the results it is clear that there is no deleterious or harmful effect of the CEMB codon optimized transgenic cp4EPSPS sugarcane on the chicks health.

Keywords: chicks, cp4EPSPS, glyphosate, sugarcane

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1010 A New Genus Longicheles (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae) for Pakistan Fauna from Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

Abstract:

Macrochelid mites are poorly studied from the planes of Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted as a part of PhD thesis research partially funded by the Royal Society of Entomology, UK. The genus Longicheles was first time reported from the Pakistan. Samples were collected on the monthly basis from different districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. The genus Longicheles was frequently found from five districts (Faisalabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Jhung, Layyah, and Rajanpur) of Punjab province. Taxonomic studies were performed in Acarology Lab., Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad with slide deposition. Taxonomic work was performed by using Phase contrast microscope and adobe illustrator (drawings) for finishing of picture. The detail descriptions of two (Longicheles mandibularis and Longicheles hortorum) females are given along with diagrams and key.

Keywords: macrochelidae, longicheles, new records, Punjab

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1009 Role of Judiciary in Developing Countries

Authors: Amir Shafiq, Asif Shahzad, Shabbar Mehmood, Muhammad Saeed, Hamid Mustafa

Abstract:

Administration of justice in a society is evolutionary process. In pre-modern societies vital organs that we consider separate today i.e. legislation, implementation and adjudication were controlled by a King, the sovereign authority. Whereas now it is recognized that Development of a country revolves in seven arenas i.e. Civil Society, Political Society, Economic Society, Legislature, Judiciary, Executive & Bureaucracy. Each society whether developing or developed, has need of institutions and structures that can resolve difference of opinions of private or public nature between contending parties. Administration of justice has a key-role in the development of the society. Through this paper, it is to highlight that an independent judiciary having the support of public opinion therefore is inevitable to wriggle out from such problems in order to restore and protect the fundamental rights, constitution and democratic political system in third world countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: role of judiciary, developing countries, judicial activism, present scenario

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1008 Consequences of Youth Bulge in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Idrees

Abstract:

The present study has been designed to explore the causes and effects of Youth Bulge in Pakistan. However, youth bulge is a part of population segment which create problem for the whole society. The youth bulge is a common phenomenon in many developing countries, and in particular, in the least developed countries. It is often due to a stage of development where a country achieves success in reducing infant mortality but mothers still have a high fertility rate. The result is that a large share of the population is comprised of children and young adults, and today’s children are tomorrow’s young adults. Youth often play a prominent role in political violence and the existence of a “youth bulge” has been associated with times of political crisis. The population pyramid of Pakistan represents a large youth proportion and our government did not use that youth in positive way and did not provide them opportunity for development, this situation creates frustration in youth that leads them towards conflict, unrest and violence. This study will be focus on the opportunity and motives of the youth bulge situation in Pakistan in the lens of youth bulge theory. Moreover, it will give some suggestions to utilize youth in the development activities and avoid youth bulge situation in Pakistan. The present research was conducted in the metropolitan entities of Punjab, Pakistan. A sample of 300 respondents was taken from three randomly selected metropolitan entities (Faisalabad, Lahore and Rawalpindi) of Punjab Province of Pakistan. Information regarding demography, household, locality and other socio-cultural variables related to causes and effects of youth bulge in the state was collected through a well structured interview schedule. Mean, Standard Deviation and frequency distribution were used to check the measure of central tendency. Multiple linear regression was also applied to measure the influence of various independent variables on the response variable.

Keywords: youth bulge, violence, conflict, social unrest, crime, metropolitan entities, mean, standard deviation, multiple linear regression

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1007 Anticoccidial Activity of Vitis venifera Extract on Oocysts of Different Eimeria Species of Chicken

Authors: Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Asif Raza, Kashif Hussain

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In the current experiment, in vitro anticoccidial potential of Vitis venifera (grape seed) extract was evaluated. For this purpose, an in vitro sporulation inhibition assay was used. Collected oocysts of different Eimeria species of chicken were exposed to six different concentrations (w/v) of Vitis venifera extract (TAE) in 10% dimethylsulphoxide solution (DMSO). Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and potassium dichromate solution (K₂Cr₂O₇) served as control groups. Results of the study revealed that Vitis venifera extract (TAE) showed an inhibitory effect on sporulation (%) and damage (%) of Eimeria oocysts in a dose-dependent manner as compared to both control groups. Vitis venifera extract also damaged the morphology of oocysts in terms of shape, size, and number of sporocysts.

Keywords: Vitis venifera, in vitro, Eimeria, oocysts

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1006 Online Community Suitable for e-Masjid ?

Authors: Norlizam Md Sukiban, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Hidayah bt Rahmalan

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The role that a mosque or masjid have applied during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was magnificent. Masjid managed to gather the community in lots of ways. It was the center of the first Islamic community and nation, with greatest triumphs and tragedies. It was a place to accommodate for the community center, homeless refuge, university and mosque all rolled into one. However, the role of masjid applied today was less than the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was alive. The advanced technology such as the internet has a major impact to the community nowadays. For example, community online has been chosen for lots of people to maintain their relationship and suggest various events among the communities members. This study is to investigate the possibility of the role of e-Masjid in adapting the concept of community online in order to remain the role played as such as role of masjid during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Definition and the characteristic of the online community were listed, along with the benefits of the online community. Later, discussion on the possibility of the online community to be adapted in e-Masjid.

Keywords: e-masjid, online community, virtual community, e-community

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1005 Indoor Temperature, Relative Humidity and CO₂ Level Assessment in a Publically Managed Hospital Building

Authors: Ayesha Asif, Muhammad Zeeshan

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The sensitivity of hospital-microenvironments for all types of pollutants, due to the presence of patients with immune deficiencies, makes them complex indoor spaces. Keeping in view, this study investigated indoor air quality (IAQ) of two most sensitive places, i.e., operation theater (OT) and intensive care unit (ICU), of a publically managed hospital. Taking CO₂ concentration as air quality indicator and temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) as thermal comfort parameters, continuous monitoring of the three variables was carried out. Measurements were recorded at an interval of 1 min for weekdays and weekends, including occupational and non-occupational hours. Outdoor T and RH measurements were also used in the analysis. Results show significant variation (p < 0.05) in CO₂, T and RH values over the day during weekdays while no significant variation (p > 0.05) have been observed during weekends of both the monitored sites. Maximum observed values of CO₂ in OT and ICU were found to be 2430 and 624 ppm, T as 24.7ºC and 28.9ºC and RH as 29.6% and 32.2% respectively.

Keywords: indoor air quality, CO₂ concentration, hospital building, comfort assessment

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1004 Poultry Manure-Inhabiting Mite Fauna from Punjab Province, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

Abstract:

Household poultry, including chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese, are affected by parasitic lice and mites. The dermanyssid mites (Acari: Dermanyssidae) are the most important parasites of poultry because they act as vectors of many pathogens of poultry and workers. Mesostigmatic mite fauna was poorly identified from Pakistan, only one species was reported before in 1971. Surveys were conducted in 2014 - 2015 to investigate the mite fauna from poultry cages in seven locations in Punjab Province, Turkey. A total of seventy-one samples were collected on cardboard and by direct litter collection. Mites were collected directly from the cardboard and 100 g samples of the litter were processed through a Berlese funnel. The collected mites were prepared for identification by using Hoyer’s medium. A total of twenty-two species belonging to the Dermanyssidae, Parasitidae, Cheyletidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae and Uropodidae were identified with two new species.

Keywords: poultry cages, Acari, mesostigmatic mites, Pakistan

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1003 Emotional Labor Strategies and Intentions to Quit among Nurses in Pakistan

Authors: Maham Malik, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Asif

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Current study aims to examine the relationship of emotional labor strategies - deep acting and surface acting - with employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intentions to quit. The study also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment for relationship of emotional labor strategies with intentions to quit. Data were conveniently collected from 307 nurses by using self-administered questionnaire. Linear regression test was applied to find the relationship between the variables. Mediation was checked through Baron and Kenny Model and Sobel test. Results prove the existence of partial mediation of job satisfaction between the emotional labor strategies and quitting intentions. The study recommends that deep acting should be promoted because it is positively associated with quality of work life, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior of employees.

Keywords: emotional labor strategies, intentions to quit, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, nursing

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1002 Wear Behavior of Intermetallic (Ni3Al) Coating at High Temperature

Authors: K. Mehmood, Muhammad Asif Rafiq, A. Nasir Khan, M. Mudassar Rauf

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Air plasma spraying system was utilized to deposit Ni3Al coatings on AISI 321 steel samples. After thermal spraying, the nickel aluminide intermetallic coatings were isothermal heat treated at various temperatures. In this regard, temperatures from 500 °C to 800 °C with 100 °C increments were selected. The coatings were soaked for 10, 30, 60 and 100 hours at the mentioned temperatures. These coatings were then tested by a pin on disk method. It was observed that the coatings exposed at comparatively higher temperature experienced lower wear rate. The decrease in wear rate is due to the formation of NiO phase. Further, the as sprayed and heat treated coatings were characterized by other tools such as Microhardness testing, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction analysis. After isothermal heat treatment, NiO was observed the main phase by X-Ray diffraction technique. Moreover, the surface hardness was also determined higher than cross sectional hardness.

Keywords: air plasma spraying, Ni -20Al, tribometer, intermetallic coating, nickel aluminide

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1001 The Importance of Political Advice in Islam: Hadith Thematical Study

Authors: Nurzarimah Jamil, Mohd Nazaruddin Jamil

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This paper is a preliminary study about The Importance of Political Advice in Islam: Ḥadīth Thematical Study by showing the concept and proper ways to advice to politician based on hadith Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The unique of political advice in Islam that Muslim already have the strong and fulfil example that can be apply in nowadays governance that is the way of political and leadership Prophet Muhammad show in his time. As a political leader, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) established a great state whose capital was Madinah. However, his real political leadership was in the realm of morality and spirituality in which he conducted himself perfectly in situations of weakness as well as strength. His way of dealing in Makkah and Madinah indicates his great political leadership. Based on fact nowadays some of the country not practicing the proper way to advice to rulers or governance that make a lot of madness around them. This paper also aims the concept and the proper way that can be following to all Muslim to advising by the politeness, justice and kindness.

Keywords: Hadith, leadership, political advice, Prophet Muhammad

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1000 Muhammad`s Vision of Interaction with Supernatural Beings According to the Hadith in Comparison to Parallels of Other Cultures

Authors: Vladimir A. Rozov

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Comparative studies of religion and ritual could contribute better understanding of human culture universalities. Belief in supernatural beings seems to be a common feature of the religion. A significant part of the Islamic concepts that concern supernatural beings is based on a tradition based on the Hadiths. They reflect, among other things, his ideas about a proper way to interact with supernatural beings. These ideas to a large extent follow from the pre-Islamic religious experience of the Arabs and had been reflected in a number of ritual actions. Some of those beliefs concern a particular function of clothing. For example, it is known that Muhammad was wrapped in clothes during the revelation of the Quran. The same thing was performed by pre-Islamic soothsayers (kāhin) and by rival opponents of Muhammad during their trances. Muhammad also turned the clothes inside out during religious rituals (prayer for rain). Besides these specific ways of clothing which prove the external similarity of Muhammad with the soothsayers and other people who claimed the connection with supernatural forces, the pre-Islamic soothsayers had another characteristic feature which is physical flaws. In this regard, it is worth to note Muhammad's so-called "Seal the Prophecy" (h̠ ātam an- nubūwwa) -protrusion or outgrowth on his back. Another interesting feature of Muhammad's behavior was his attitude to eating onion and garlic. In particular, the Prophet didn`t eat them and forbade people who had tasted these vegetables to enter mosques, until the smell ceases to be felt. The reason for this ban on eating onion and garlic is caused by a belief that the smell of these products prevents communication with otherworldly forces. The materials of the Hadith also suggest that Muhammad shared faith in the apotropical properties of water. Both of these ideas have parallels in other cultures of the world. Muhammad's actions supposed to provide an interaction with the supernatural beings are not accidental. They have parallels in the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as well as in many past and present world cultures. The latter fact can be explained by the similarity of the universal human beliefs in supernatural beings and how they should be interacted with. Later a number of similar ideas shared by the Prophet Muhammad was legitimized by the Islamic tradition and formed the basis of popular Islamic rituals. Thus, these parallels emphasize the commonality of human notions of supernatural beings and also demonstrate the significance of the pre-Islamic cultural context in analyzing the genesis of Islamic religious beliefs.

Keywords: hadith, Prophet Muhammad, ritual, supernatural beings

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999 Perception of Safety of Workers with Different Job Levels at Construction Sites

Authors: Muhammad Dawood Idrees, Arsalan Ansari

Abstract:

Construction industry is considered as one of the most dangerous industry because workers' safety is always a major concern due to extensive number of accidents, injuries, and casualties at worksites. There are various causes of accidents at construction sites, several factors are influencing on the perception of safety of workers and psychological factors are one of them. Perception of safety varies from region to region and it also varies by demographics of workers, such as gender, age, education, job level, etc. However, research on different level of workers, such as labor and managerial staff to evaluate the impact of psychological factor is limited. Objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of psychological factors with different job level of workers. An extensive literature review was conducted to find the casual relationship between psychological factors and perception of safety, and a hypothetical structure model was developed based upon literature review. A survey instrument based upon psychological factors was developed and data was obtained from several construction sites. Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) technique was adopted in order to examine the effect of psychological factors on the perception of safety of workers with different job levels of workers. The results of this analysis reveal that job security and organizational relationships are most affecting factors in labor staff, therefore job satisfaction, mental stress, and workload are dominant in managerial staff.

Keywords: accidents, job level of workers, perception of safety, structural equation modeling

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998 The Occurrence of Depression with Chronic Liver Disease

Authors: Roop Kiran, Muhammad Shoaib Zafar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

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Depression is known to be the second most frequently occurring comorbid mental illness among patients suffering from chronic physical conditions. Around the world, depression is associated with chronic liver diseases as one of the dominant symptoms. This evidence brings attention to the research about various predictors for short life expectancy and poor quality of life in patients suffering from comorbid depression and CLD. Following are the objectives of this study i) measure the occurrence rate of comorbid depression among patients with CLD and ii) find the frequency of risk factors between patients with and without depression comorbid with CLD. This is a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design. The research data was collected through a measure called Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) with a demographic Performa from 100 patients who visited the Department of Psychiatry for consultation at Mayo Hospital Lahore with a diagnosed CLD from the last four years. There were (42%) patients with CLD who had comorbid depression. Among depressed and non-depressed patients, significant differences were found (p<0.05) for unemployment in 25 (59.5%) males and 20 (34.5%) female patients, for co-morbidity in 25 (59.5%) males and 18 (31.0%) female patients, for illiteracy in 18 (42.9%) males and 13 (22.4%) female patients, for the history of CLD for more than the last 2years in 41 (97.6%) males and 47 (81.0%) female patients, for severity of CLD in 26 (61.9%) males and 20 (34.5%) female patients. This concludes that depression frequently occurs among patients with CLD. This study recommends considerable attention to plan preventative measures in the future and develop such intervention protocols that consider the management of risk factors that significantly influence comorbid depression with CLD.

Keywords: psychiatry, comorbid, health, quality of life

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997 Efficacy of Plant and Mushroom Based Bio-Products against the Red Poultry Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae)

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

Abstract:

Poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer) are economically deleterious parasite of hens in poultry industry in all over the world. Due to lack of proper control managements and result of poor application of commercial products, D. gallinae get resistance and severe infestation in poultry birds. Laboratory experiment was planned for the control of D. gallinae by using different mushroom and plant extracts. We used control treatment (100 ml distilled water) and nine treatments (10 gr Lentinula adobas, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus aryngii with 100 ml methanol, 1% and 2% Neemazal, 1.5% Gamma-T-ol, Echinacea Leaf , 1.5% Fungatol with neem spray and Methanol) with five replication having five mites each. Data collected after 12 and 24 hours every day till mites found dead in every treatment. The significant differences among the mean values were compared with the DUNCAN multiple range test. The efficacy (%) of each treatment was determined with the Abbott formula. All statistical analyses were conducted with the SPSS Version 12 program. Lentinula edodes (80%), Ganoderma lucidum (76%) and Fungatol+Neem spray (1.5%) (80%) were significant against D. gallinae within 3 days.

Keywords: mushroom extracts, plant extracts, D. gallinae, control

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996 Seersucker Fabrics Development Using Single Warp Beam

Authors: Khubab Shaker, Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Usman Javed, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Maqsood

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Seersucker is a thin and puckered fabric commonly striped or chequered, used to make clothing for spring and woven in such a way that some threads bunch together, giving the fabric a wrinkled appearance in places. Due to use of two warp beams, such fabrics were not possible to weave on conventional weaving machines. Objective of this study was to weave a seersucker fabric on conventional looms using single warp beam. This objective was achieved using two types of yarns, forming stripes in weft: one being 100% cotton yarn and the other core spun elastane yarn with sheath of cotton (95.7% cotton and 4.3% elastane). Stress-strain behaviour of the produced fabric samples were tested and explained.

Keywords: seersucker fabrics, elastane yarns, single warp beam, weaving

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995 Factors Associated with Seroconversion of Oral Polio Vaccine among the Children under 5 Year in District Mirpurkhas, Pakistan 2015

Authors: Muhammad Asif Syed, Mirza Amir Baig

Abstract:

Background: Pakistan is one of the two remaining polio-endemic countries, posing a significant public health challenge for global polio eradication due to failure to interrupt polio transmission. Country specific seroprevalence studies help in the evaluation of immunization program performance, the susceptibility of population against polio virus and identification of existing level of immunity with factors that affect seroconversion of the oral polio vaccine (OPV). The objective of the study was to find out factors associated with seroconversion of the OPV among children 6-59 months in Pakistan. Methods: A Hospital based cross-sectional serosurvey was undertaken in May-June 2015 at District Mirpurkhas, Sindh-Pakistan. Total 180 children aged 6–59 months were selected by using systematic random sampling from Muhammad Medical College Hospital, Mirpurkhas. Demographic, vaccination history and risk factors information were collected from the parents/guardian. Blood sample was collected and tested for the detection of poliovirus IgG antibodies by using ELISA Kit. The IgG titer <10 IU/ml, 50 to <150 IU/ml and >150 IU/ml was defined as negative, weak positive and positive immunity respectively. Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the difference in seroprevalence in univariate analysis. Results: A total of 180 subjects were enrolled mean age was 23 months (7 -59 months). Off these 160 (89%) children were well and 18 (10%) partially protected against polio virus. Two (1.1%) children had no protection against polio virus as they had <10 IU/ml poliovirus IgG antibodies titer. Both negative cases belong from the female gender, age group 12-23 months, urban area and BMI <50 percentile. There was a difference between normal and the wasting children; it did attain statistical significance (χ2= 35.5, p=0.00). The difference in seroconversion was also observed in relation to the gender (χ2=6.23, p=0.04), duration of breast feeding (χ2=18.6, p=0.04), history of diarrheal disease before polio vaccine administration (χ2=7.7, p=0.02), and stunting (χ2= 114, p=0.00). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that near 90% children achieve seroconversion of OPV and well protected against polio virus. There is an urgent need to focus on factors like duration of breast feeding, diarrheal diseases and malnutrition (acute and chronic) among the children as an immunization strategy.

Keywords: seroconversion, oral polio vaccine, Polio, Pakistan

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994 Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strain against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance

Authors: Asif Jamal, Asad Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ali

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The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis, and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as a bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.

Keywords: biological control, Bacillus spp, fungal pathogens, agriculture

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993 Empirical Investigation of Barriers to Industrial Energy Conservation Measures in the Manufacturing Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's) of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Tahir Hassan, Stas Burek, Muhammad Asif, Mohamed Emad

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Industrial sector in Pakistan accounts for 25% of total energy consumption in the country. The performance of this sector has been severely affected due to the adverse effect of current energy crises in the country. Energy conservation potentials of Pakistan’s industrial sectors through energy management can save wasted energy which would ultimately leads to economic and environmental benefits. However due to lack of financial incentives of energy efficiency and absence of energy benchmarking within same industrial sectors are some of the main challenges in the implementation of energy management. In Pakistan, this area has not been adequately explored, and there is a lack of focus on the need for industrial energy efficiency and proper management. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the current energy management performance of Pakistani industrial sector and empirical investigation of the existence of various barriers to industrial energy efficiency. Data was collected from the respondents of 192 small and medium-sized enterprises (SME’s) of Pakistan i.e. foundries, textile, plastic industries, light engineering, auto and spare parts and ceramic manufacturers and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Current energy management performance of manufacturing SME’s in Pakistan has been evaluated by employing two significant indicators, ‘Energy Management Matrix’ and ‘pay-off criteria’, with modified approach. Using the energy management matrix, energy management profiles of overall industry and the individual sectors have been drawn to assess the energy management performance and identify the weak and strong areas as well. Results reveal that, energy management practices in overall surveyed industries are at very low level. Energy management profiles drawn against each sector suggest that performance of textile sector is better among all the surveyed manufacturing SME’s. The empirical barriers to industrial energy efficiency have also been ranked according to the overall responses. The results further reveal that there is a significant relationship exists among the industrial size, sector type and nature of barriers to industrial energy efficiency for the manufacturing SME’s in Pakistan. The findings of this study may help the industries and policy makers in Pakistan to formulate a sustainable energy policy to support industrial energy efficiency keeping in view the actual existing energy efficiency scenario in the industrial sector.

Keywords: barriers, energy conservation, energy management profile, environment, manufacturing SME's of Pakistan

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992 Law and its Implementation and Consequences in Pakistan

Authors: Amir Shafiq, Asif Shahzad, Shabbar Mehmood, Muhammad Saeed, Hamid Mustafa

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Legislation includes the law or the statutes which is being reputable by a sovereign authority and generally can be implemented by the courts of law time to time to accomplish the objectives. Historically speaking upon the emergence of Pakistan in 1947, the intact laws of the British Raj remained effective after ablution by Islamic Ideology. Thus, there was an intention to begin the statutes book afresh for Pakistan's legal history. In consequence thereof, the process of developing detailed plans, procedures and mechanisms to ensure legislative and regulatory requirements are achieved began keeping in view the cultural values and the local customs. This article is an input to the enduring discussion about implementing rule of law in Pakistan whereas; the rule of law requires the harmony of laws which is mostly in the arrangement of codified state laws. Pakistan has legal plural civilizations where completely different and independent systems of law like the Mohammadan law, the state law and the traditional law exist. The prevailing practiced law in Pakistan is actually the traditional law though the said law is not acknowledged by the State. This caused the main problem of the rule of law in the difference between the state laws and the cultural values. These values, customs and so-called traditional laws are the main obstacle to enforce the State law in true letter and spirit which has caused dissatisfaction of the masses and distrust upon the judicial system of the country.

Keywords: consequences, implement, law, Pakistan

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991 Physiological and Biochemical Based Analysis to Assess the Efficacy of Mulch under Partial Root Zone Drying in Wheat

Authors: Salman Ahmad, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Rashid Iqbal, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Muhammad Usman Aslam, Imran Haider, Muhammad Adnan Nazar, Muhammad Ali

Abstract:

Among the various abiotic stresses, drought stress is one of the most challenging for field crops. Wheat is one of the major staple food of the world, which is highly affected by water deficit stress in the current scenario of climate change. In order to ensure food security by depleting water resources, there is an urgent need to adopt technologies which result in sufficient crop yield with less water consumption. Mulching and partial rootzone drying (PRD) are two important management techniques used for water conservation and to mitigate the negative impacts of drought. The experiment was conducted to screen out the best-suited mulch for wheat under PRD system. Two water application techniques (I1= full irrigation I2= PRD irrigation) and four mulch treatments (M0= un-mulched, M1= black plastic mulch, M2= wheat straw mulch and M4= cotton sticks mulch) were conducted in completely randomized design with four replications. The treatment, black plastic mulch was performed the best than other mulch treatments. For irrigation levels, higher values of growth, physiological and water-related parameters were recorded in control treatment while, quality traits and enzymatic activities were higher under partial root zone drying. The current study concluded that adverse effects of drought on wheat can be significantly mitigated by using mulches but black plastic mulch was best suited for partial rootzone drying irrigation system in wheat.

Keywords: antioxidants, leaf water relations, Mulches, osmolytes, partial root zone drying, photosynthesis

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990 Designing and Implementation of MPLS Based VPN

Authors: Muhammad Kamran Asif

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MPLS stands for Multi-Protocol Label Switching. It is the technology which replaces ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and frame relay. In this paper, we have designed a full fledge small scale MPLS based service provider network core network model, which provides communication services (e.g. voice, video and data) to the customer more efficiently using label switching technique. Using MPLS VPN provides security to the customers which are either on LAN or WAN. It protects its single customer sites from being attacked by any intruder from outside world along with the provision of concept of extension of a private network over an internet. In this paper, we tried to implement a service provider network using minimum available resources i.e. five 3800 series CISCO routers comprises of service provider core, provider edge routers and customer edge routers. The customers on the one end of the network (customer side) is capable of sending any kind of data to the customers at the other end using service provider cloud which is MPLS VPN enabled. We have also done simulation and emulation for the model using GNS3 (Graphical Network Simulator-3) and achieved the real time scenarios. We have also deployed a NMS system which monitors our service provider cloud and generates alarm in case of any intrusion or malfunctioning in the network. Moreover, we have also provided a video help desk facility between customers and service provider cloud to resolve the network issues more effectively.

Keywords: MPLS, VPN, NMS, ATM, asynchronous transfer mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 243