Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3449

Search results for: computer aided diagnosis

3449 A Highly Accurate Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD System for Diagnosis of Breast Cancer by Using Thermographic Analysis

Authors: Mahdi Bazarganigilani

Abstract:

Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD systems can play crucial roles in diagnosing crucial diseases such as breast cancer at the earliest. In this paper, a Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD system for the diagnosis of breast cancer was introduced and evaluated. This CAD system was developed by using Spatio-temporal analysis of data on a set of consecutive thermographic images by employing wavelet transformation. By using this analysis, a very accurate machine learning model by using random forest was trained. The final results showed a promising accuracy of 91% in terms of the F1 measure indicator among 200 patients' sample data. The prediction model was further employed to obtain a detailed analysis of the effect of smaller sub-areas of each breast on the occurrence of cancer.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis systems, thermographic analysis, Spatio-temporal analysis, image processing, machine learning

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3448 An Accurate Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD System for Diagnosis of Aortic Enlargement by Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Mahdi Bazarganigilani

Abstract:

Aortic enlargement, also known as an aortic aneurysm, can occur when the walls of the aorta become weak. This disease can become deadly if overlooked and undiagnosed. In this paper, a Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CAD system was introduced to accurately diagnose Aortic enlargement from chest x-ray images. A novel approach by using an optimized Convolutional Neural Networks - CNN was employed. Three main areas, including the left lung, heart, and right lung were extracted from the original images. These three areas were then fed to a CNN. The accuracy of the system was evaluated on 1000 sample images by using 4-fold cross-validation. A promising accuracy of 84% was achieved in terms of the F-measure indicator. This encouraged the author to evaluate this method on a larger dataset and even on different CAD systems for further enhancement of this methodology.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis systems, aortic enlargement, chest X-ray, image processing, convolutional neural networks

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3447 Computer Aided Diagnostic System for Detection and Classification of a Brain Tumor through MRI Using Level Set Based Segmentation Technique and ANN Classifier

Authors: Atanu K Samanta, Asim Ali Khan

Abstract:

Due to the acquisition of huge amounts of brain tumor magnetic resonance images (MRI) in clinics, it is very difficult for radiologists to manually interpret and segment these images within a reasonable span of time. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of radiologists and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. An intelligent computer-aided technique for automatic detection of a brain tumor through MRI is presented in this paper. The technique uses the following computational methods; the Level Set for segmentation of a brain tumor from other brain parts, extraction of features from this segmented tumor portion using gray level co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to classify brain tumor images according to their respective types. The entire work is carried out on 50 images having five types of brain tumor. The overall classification accuracy using this method is found to be 98% which is significantly good.

Keywords: brain tumor, computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), tumor segmentation, level set method

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3446 Computer-Aided Exudate Diagnosis for the Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Shu-Min Tsao, Chung-Ming Lo, Shao-Chun Chen

Abstract:

Most diabetes patients tend to suffer from its complication of retina diseases. Therefore, early detection and early treatment are important. In clinical examinations, using color fundus image was the most convenient and available examination method. According to the exudates appeared in the retinal image, the status of retina can be confirmed. However, the routine screening of diabetic retinopathy by color fundus images would bring time-consuming tasks to physicians. This study thus proposed a computer-aided exudate diagnosis for the screening of diabetic retinopathy. After removing vessels and optic disc in the retinal image, six quantitative features including region number, region area, and gray-scale values etc… were extracted from the remaining regions for classification. As results, all six features were evaluated to be statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). The accuracy of classifying the retinal images into normal and diabetic retinopathy achieved 82%. Based on this system, the clinical workload could be reduced. The examination procedure may also be improved to be more efficient.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis, diabetic retinopathy, exudate, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
3445 Computer Aided Classification of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms Using Texture Features

Authors: Birmohan Singh, V.K.Jain

Abstract:

Computer aided diagnosis systems provide vital opinion to radiologists in the detection of early signs of breast cancer from mammogram images. Masses and microcalcifications, architectural distortions are the major abnormalities. In this paper, a computer aided diagnosis system has been proposed for distinguishing abnormal mammograms with architectural distortion from normal mammogram. Four types of texture features GLCM texture, GLRLM texture, fractal texture and spectral texture features for the regions of suspicion are extracted. Support Vector Machine has been used as classifier in this study. The proposed system yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.47% and accuracy of 96% for the detection of abnormalities with mammogram images collected from Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) database.

Keywords: architecture distortion, mammograms, GLCM texture features, GLRLM texture features, support vector machine classifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
3444 Computer Aided Diagnosis Bringing Changes in Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Devadrita Dey Sarkar

Abstract:

Regardless of the many technologic advances in the past decade, increased training and experience, and the obvious benefits of uniform standards, the false-negative rate in screening mammography remains unacceptably high .A computer aided neural network classification of regions of suspicion (ROS) on digitized mammograms is presented in this abstract which employs features extracted by a new technique based on independent component analysis. CAD is a concept established by taking into account equally the roles of physicians and computers, whereas automated computer diagnosis is a concept based on computer algorithms only. With CAD, the performance by computers does not have to be comparable to or better than that by physicians, but needs to be complementary to that by physicians. In fact, a large number of CAD systems have been employed for assisting physicians in the early detection of breast cancers on mammograms. A CAD scheme that makes use of lateral breast images has the potential to improve the overall performance in the detection of breast lumps. Because breast lumps can be detected reliably by computer on lateral breast mammographs, radiologists’ accuracy in the detection of breast lumps would be improved by the use of CAD, and thus early diagnosis of breast cancer would become possible. In the future, many CAD schemes could be assembled as packages and implemented as a part of PACS. For example, the package for breast CAD may include the computerized detection of breast nodules, as well as the computerized classification of benign and malignant nodules. In order to assist in the differential diagnosis, it would be possible to search for and retrieve images (or lesions) with these CAD systems, which would be reliable and useful method for quantifying the similarity of a pair of images for visual comparison by radiologists.

Keywords: CAD(computer-aided design), lesions, neural network, ROS(region of suspicion)

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3443 Edge Detection and Morphological Image for Estimating Gestational Age Based on Fetus Length Automatically

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Ahmad Chuzaeri, Yogi Ramadhani, A. Haris Budi Widodo

Abstract:

The use of ultrasonography in the medical world has been very popular including the diagnosis of pregnancy. In determining pregnancy, ultrasonography has many roles, such as to check the position of the fetus, abnormal pregnancy, fetal age and others. Unfortunately, all these things still need to analyze the role of the obstetrician in the sense of image raised by ultrasonography. One of the most striking is the determination of gestational age. Usually, it is done by measuring the length of the fetus manually by obstetricians. In this study, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis for the determination of gestational age by measuring the length of the fetus automatically using edge detection method and image morphology. Results showed that the system is sufficiently accurate in determining the gestational age based image processing.

Keywords: computer aided diagnosis, gestational age, and diameter of uterus, length of fetus, edge detection method, morphology image

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3442 A Review of Deep Learning Methods in Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis Systems based on Whole Mammogram and Ultrasound Scan Classification

Authors: Ian Omung'a

Abstract:

Breast cancer remains to be one of the deadliest cancers for women worldwide, with the risk of developing tumors being as high as 50 percent in Sub-Saharan African countries like Kenya. With as many as 42 percent of these cases set to be diagnosed late when cancer has metastasized and or the prognosis has become terminal, Full Field Digital [FFD] Mammography remains an effective screening technique that leads to early detection where in most cases, successful interventions can be made to control or eliminate the tumors altogether. FFD Mammograms have been proven to multiply more effective when used together with Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis [CADe] systems, relying on algorithmic implementations of Deep Learning techniques in Computer Vision to carry out deep pattern recognition that is comparable to the level of a human radiologist and decipher whether specific areas of interest in the mammogram scan image portray abnormalities if any and whether these abnormalities are indicative of a benign or malignant tumor. Within this paper, we review emergent Deep Learning techniques that will prove relevant to the development of State-of-The-Art FFD Mammogram CADe systems. These techniques will span self-supervised learning for context-encoded occlusion, self-supervised learning for pre-processing and labeling automation, as well as the creation of a standardized large-scale mammography dataset as a benchmark for CADe systems' evaluation. Finally, comparisons are drawn between existing practices that pre-date these techniques and how the development of CADe systems that incorporate them will be different.

Keywords: breast cancer diagnosis, computer aided detection and diagnosis, deep learning, whole mammogram classfication, ultrasound classification, computer vision

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3441 The Accuracy of Parkinson's Disease Diagnosis Using [123I]-FP-CIT Brain SPECT Data with Machine Learning Techniques: A Survey

Authors: Lavanya Madhuri Bollipo, K. V. Kadambari

Abstract:

Objective: To discuss key issues in the diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD), To discuss features influencing PD progression, To discuss importance of brain SPECT data in PD diagnosis, and To discuss the essentiality of machine learning techniques in early diagnosis of PD. An accurate and early diagnosis of PD is nowadays a challenge as clinical symptoms in PD arise only when there is more than 60% loss of dopaminergic neurons. So far there are no laboratory tests for the diagnosis of PD, causing a high rate of misdiagnosis especially when the disease is in the early stages. Recent neuroimaging studies with brain SPECT using 123I-Ioflupane (DaTSCAN) as radiotracer shown to be widely used to assist the diagnosis of PD even in its early stages. Machine learning techniques can be used in combination with image analysis procedures to develop computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for PD. This paper addressed recent studies involving diagnosis of PD in its early stages using brain SPECT data with Machine Learning Techniques.

Keywords: Parkinson disease (PD), dopamine transporter, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), support vector machine (SVM)

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3440 Liver and Liver Lesion Segmentation From Abdominal CT Scans

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid

Abstract:

The interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer- aided diagnosis applications. Segmentation of liver and liver lesion is regarded as a major primary step in computer aided diagnosis of liver diseases. Precise liver segmentation in abdominal CT images is one of the most important steps for the computer-aided diagnosis of liver pathology. In this papers, a semi- automated method for medical image data is presented for the liver and liver lesion segmentation data using mathematical morphology. Our algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to determine the region of interest by applying the morphological filters to extract the liver. The second step consists to detect the liver lesion. In this task; we proposed a new method developed for the semi-automatic segmentation of the liver and hepatic lesions. Our proposed method is based on the anatomical information and mathematical morphology tools used in the image processing field. At first, we try to improve the quality of the original image and image gradient by applying the spatial filter followed by the morphological filters. The second step consists to calculate the internal and external markers of the liver and hepatic lesions. Thereafter we proceed to the liver and hepatic lesions segmentation by the watershed transform controlled by markers. The validation of the developed algorithm is done using several images. Obtained results show the good performances of our proposed algorithm

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, hepatic lesion segmentation, Liver segmentation, morphological filter, the watershed algorithm

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3439 Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Polycystic Kidney Disease Using ANN

Authors: G. Anjan Babu, G. Sumana, M. Rajasekhar

Abstract:

Many inherited diseases and non-hereditary disorders are common in the development of renal cystic diseases. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a disorder developed within the kidneys in which grouping of cysts filled with water like fluid. PKD is responsible for 5-10% of end-stage renal failure treated by dialysis or transplantation. New experimental models, application of molecular biology techniques have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of PKD. Researchers are showing keen interest for developing an automated system by applying computer aided techniques for the diagnosis of diseases. In this paper a multi-layered feed forward neural network with one hidden layer is constructed, trained and tested by applying back propagation learning rule for the diagnosis of PKD based on physical symptoms and test results of urinanalysis collected from the individual patients. The data collected from 50 patients are used to train and test the network. Among these samples, 75% of the data used for training and remaining 25% of the data are used for testing purpose. Furthermore, this trained network is used to implement for new samples. The output results in normality and abnormality of the patient.

Keywords: dialysis, hereditary, transplantation, polycystic, pathogenesis

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3438 A Novel Breast Cancer Detection Algorithm Using Point Region Growing Segmentation and Pseudo-Zernike Moments

Authors: Aileen F. Wang

Abstract:

Mammography has been one of the most reliable methods for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, mammography misses about 17% and up to 30% of breast cancers due to the subtle and unstable appearances of breast cancer in their early stages. Recent computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) technology using Zernike moments has improved detection accuracy. However, it has several drawbacks: it uses manual segmentation, Zernike moments are not robust, and it still has a relatively high false negative rate (FNR)–17.6%. This project will focus on the development of a novel breast cancer detection algorithm to automatically segment the breast mass and further reduce FNR. The algorithm consists of automatic segmentation of a single breast mass using Point Region Growing Segmentation, reconstruction of the segmented breast mass using Pseudo-Zernike moments, and classification of the breast mass using the root mean square (RMS). A comparative study among the various algorithms on the segmentation and reconstruction of breast masses was performed on randomly selected mammographic images. The results demonstrated that the newly developed algorithm is the best in terms of accuracy and cost effectiveness. More importantly, the new classifier RMS has the lowest FNR–6%.

Keywords: computer aided diagnosis, mammography, point region growing segmentation, pseudo-zernike moments, root mean square

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
3437 Computer-Aided Diagnosis System Based on Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in the Classification of Brain Tumor

Authors: Chih Jou Hsiao, Chung Ming Lo, Li Chun Hsieh

Abstract:

Brain tumor is not the cancer having high incidence rate, but its high mortality rate and poor prognosis still make it as a big concern. On clinical examination, the grading of brain tumors depends on pathological features. However, there are some weak points of histopathological analysis which can cause misgrading. For example, the interpretations can be various without a well-known definition. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of malignant tumors is a challenge to extract meaningful tissues under surgical biopsy. With the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tumor grading can be accomplished by a noninvasive procedure. To improve the diagnostic accuracy further, this study proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on MRI features to provide suggestions of tumor grading. Gliomas are the most common type of malignant brain tumors (about 70%). This study collected 34 glioblastomas (GBMs) and 73 lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) from The Cancer Imaging Archive. After defining the region-of-interests in MRI images, multiple quantitative morphological features such as region perimeter, region area, compactness, the mean and standard deviation of the normalized radial length, and moment features were extracted from the tumors for classification. As results, two of five morphological features and three of four image moment features achieved p values of <0.001, and the remaining moment feature had p value <0.05. Performance of the CAD system using the combination of all features achieved the accuracy of 83.18% in classifying the gliomas into LGG and GBM. The sensitivity is 70.59% and the specificity is 89.04%. The proposed system can become a second viewer on clinical examinations for radiologists.

Keywords: brain tumor, computer-aided diagnosis, gliomas, magnetic resonance imaging

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3436 Computer-Aided Detection of Simultaneous Abdominal Organ CT Images by Iterative Watershed Transform

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid

Abstract:

Interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer-aided diagnosis applications. Segmentation of liver, spleen and kidneys is regarded as a major primary step in the computer-aided diagnosis of abdominal organ diseases. In this paper, a semi-automated method for medical image data is presented for the abdominal organ segmentation data using mathematical morphology. Our proposed method is based on hierarchical segmentation and watershed algorithm. In our approach, a powerful technique has been designed to suppress over-segmentation based on mosaic image and on the computation of the watershed transform. Our algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to improve the quality of the gradient-mosaic image. In this step, we propose a method for improving the gradient-mosaic image by applying the anisotropic diffusion filter followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter, we proceed to the hierarchical segmentation of the liver, spleen and kidney. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, morphological filter, mosaic image, simultaneous organ segmentation, the watershed algorithm

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3435 Proof of Concept Design and Development of a Computer-Aided Medical Evaluation of Symptoms Web App: An Expert System for Medical Diagnosis in General Practice

Authors: Ananda Perera

Abstract:

Computer-Assisted Medical Evaluation of Symptoms (CAMEOS) is a medical expert system designed to help General Practices (GPs) make an accurate diagnosis. CAMEOS comprises a knowledge base, user input, inference engine, reasoning module, and output statement. The knowledge base was developed by the author. User input is an Html file. The physician user collects data in the consultation. Data is sent to the inference engine at servers. CAMEOS uses set theory to simulate diagnostic reasoning. The program output is a list of differential diagnoses, the most probable diagnosis, and the diagnostic reasoning.

Keywords: CDSS, computerized decision support systems, expert systems, general practice, diagnosis, diagnostic systems, primary care diagnostic system, artificial intelligence in medicine

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3434 Features of Normative and Pathological Realizations of Sibilant Sounds for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Evaluation in Children

Authors: Zuzanna Miodonska, Michal Krecichwost, Pawel Badura

Abstract:

Sigmatism (lisping) is a speech disorder in which sibilant consonants are mispronounced. The diagnosis of this phenomenon is usually based on the auditory assessment. However, the progress in speech analysis techniques creates a possibility of developing computer-aided sigmatism diagnosis tools. The aim of the study is to statistically verify whether specific acoustic features of sibilant sounds may be related to pronunciation correctness. Such knowledge can be of great importance while implementing classifiers and designing novel tools for automatic sibilants pronunciation evaluation. The study covers analysis of various speech signal measures, including features proposed in the literature for the description of normative sibilants realization. Amplitudes and frequencies of three fricative formants (FF) are extracted based on local spectral maxima of the friction noise. Skewness, kurtosis, four normalized spectral moments (SM) and 13 mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) with their 1st and 2nd derivatives (13 Delta and 13 Delta-Delta MFCC) are included in the analysis as well. The resulting feature vector contains 51 measures. The experiments are performed on the speech corpus containing words with selected sibilant sounds (/ʃ, ʒ/) pronounced by 60 preschool children with proper pronunciation or with natural pathologies. In total, 224 /ʃ/ segments and 191 /ʒ/ segments are employed in the study. The Mann-Whitney U test is employed for the analysis of stigmatism and normative pronunciation. Statistically, significant differences are obtained in most of the proposed features in children divided into these two groups at p < 0.05. All spectral moments and fricative formants appear to be distinctive between pathology and proper pronunciation. These metrics describe the friction noise characteristic for sibilants, which makes them particularly promising for the use in sibilants evaluation tools. Correspondences found between phoneme feature values and an expert evaluation of the pronunciation correctness encourage to involve speech analysis tools in diagnosis and therapy of sigmatism. Proposed feature extraction methods could be used in a computer-assisted stigmatism diagnosis or therapy systems.

Keywords: computer-aided pronunciation evaluation, sigmatism diagnosis, speech signal analysis, statistical verification

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3433 Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features

Authors: Nadia Masood Khan, Muhammad Salman Khan, Gul Muhammad Khan

Abstract:

Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.

Keywords: pattern recognition, machine learning, computer aided diagnosis, heart sound classification, and feature extraction

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3432 Malignancy Assessment of Brain Tumors Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Chung-Ming Lo, Kevin Li-Chun Hsieh

Abstract:

The central nervous system in the World Health Organization defines grade 2, 3, 4 gliomas according to the aggressiveness. For brain tumors, using image examination would have a lower risk than biopsy. Besides, it is a challenge to extract relevant tissues from biopsy operation. Observing the whole tumor structure and composition can provide a more objective assessment. This study further proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on a convolutional neural network to quantitatively evaluate a tumor's malignancy from brain magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 30 grade 2, 43 grade 3, and 57 grade 4 gliomas were collected in the experiment. Transferred parameters from AlexNet were fine-tuned to classify the target brain tumors and achieved an accuracy of 98% and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az) of 0.99. Without pre-trained features, only 61% of accuracy was obtained. The proposed convolutional neural network can accurately and efficiently classify grade 2, 3, and 4 gliomas. The promising accuracy can provide diagnostic suggestions to radiologists in the clinic.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, computer-aided diagnosis, glioblastoma, magnetic resonance imaging

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3431 The Use of Computer-Aided Design in Small Contractors in a Local Area of Korea

Authors: Myunghoun Jang

Abstract:

A survey of small-size contractors in Jeju was conducted to investigate college graduate's computer-aided design (CAD) competence. Most of small-size contractors use CAD software to review and update drawings submitted from an architect. This research analyzed the curriculum of the architectural engineering in several national universities. The CAD classes have 4 or 6 hours per week and use AutoCAD primarily. This paper proposes that a CAD class needs 6 hours per week, 2D drawing is the main theme in the curriculum, and exercises to make 3D models are also included in the CAD class. An improved method, for example Internet cafe and real time feedbacks using smartphones, to evaluate the reports and exercise results is necessary.

Keywords: CAD (Computer Aided Design), CAD education, education improvement, small-size contractor

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3430 Ethical Perspectives on Implementation of Computer Aided Design Curriculum in Architecture in Nigeria: A Case Study of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli

Authors: Kelechi Ezeji

Abstract:

The use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) technologies has become pervasive in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. This has led to its inclusion as an important part of the training module in the curriculum for Architecture Schools in Nigeria. This paper examines the ethical questions that arise in the implementation of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Content of the curriculum for Architectural education. Using existing literature, it begins this scrutiny from the propriety of inclusion of CAD into the education of the architect and the obligations of the different stakeholders in the implementation process. It also examines the questions raised by the negative use of computing technologies as well as perceived negative influence of the use of CAD on design creativity. Survey methodology was employed to gather data from the Department of Architecture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli, which has been used as a case study on how the issues raised are being addressed. The paper draws conclusions on what will make for successful ethical implementation.

Keywords: computer aided design, curriculum, education, ethics

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3429 Generative Adversarial Network for Bidirectional Mappings between Retinal Fundus Images and Vessel Segmented Images

Authors: Haoqi Gao, Koichi Ogawara

Abstract:

Retinal vascular segmentation of color fundus is the basis of ophthalmic computer-aided diagnosis and large-scale disease screening systems. Early screening of fundus diseases has great value for clinical medical diagnosis. The traditional methods depend on the experience of the doctor, which is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and inefficient. Furthermore, medical images are scarce and fraught with legal concerns regarding patient privacy. In this paper, we propose a new Generative Adversarial Network based on CycleGAN for retinal fundus images. This method can generate not only synthetic fundus images but also generate corresponding segmentation masks, which has certain application value and challenge in computer vision and computer graphics. In the results, we evaluate our proposed method from both quantitative and qualitative. For generated segmented images, our method achieves dice coefficient of 0.81 and PR of 0.89 on DRIVE dataset. For generated synthetic fundus images, we use ”Toy Experiment” to verify the state-of-the-art performance of our method.

Keywords: retinal vascular segmentations, generative ad-versarial network, cyclegan, fundus images

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3428 Computer Aided Assembly Attributes Retrieval Methods for Automated Assembly Sequence Generation

Authors: M. V. A. Raju Bahubalendruni, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal, B. B. V. L. Deepak

Abstract:

Achieving an appropriate assembly sequence needs deep verification for its physical feasibility. For this purpose, industrial engineers use several assembly predicates; namely, liaison, geometric feasibility, stability and mechanical feasibility. However, testing an assembly sequence for these predicates requires huge assembly information. Extracting such assembly information from an assembled product is a time consuming and highly skillful task with complex reasoning methods. In this paper, computer aided methods are proposed to extract all the necessary assembly information from computer aided design (CAD) environment in order to perform the assembly sequence planning efficiently. These methods use preliminary capabilities of three-dimensional solid modelling and assembly modelling methods used in CAD software considering equilibrium laws of physical bodies.

Keywords: assembly automation, assembly attributes, assembly, CAD

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3427 Development of a Computer Aided Diagnosis Tool for Brain Tumor Extraction and Classification

Authors: Fathi Kallel, Abdulelah Alabd Uljabbar, Abdulrahman Aldukhail, Abdulaziz Alomran

Abstract:

The brain is an important organ in our body since it is responsible about the majority actions such as vision, memory, etc. However, different diseases such as Alzheimer and tumors could affect the brain and conduct to a partial or full disorder. Regular diagnosis are necessary as a preventive measure and could help doctors to early detect a possible trouble and therefore taking the appropriate treatment, especially in the case of brain tumors. Different imaging modalities are proposed for diagnosis of brain tumor. The powerful and most used modality is the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MRI images are analyzed by doctor in order to locate eventual tumor in the brain and describe the appropriate and needed treatment. Diverse image processing methods are also proposed for helping doctors in identifying and analyzing the tumor. In fact, a large Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) tools including developed image processing algorithms are proposed and exploited by doctors as a second opinion to analyze and identify the brain tumors. In this paper, we proposed a new advanced CAD for brain tumor identification, classification and feature extraction. Our proposed CAD includes three main parts. Firstly, we load the brain MRI. Secondly, a robust technique for brain tumor extraction is proposed. This technique is based on both Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). DWT is characterized by its multiresolution analytic property, that’s why it was applied on MRI images with different decomposition levels for feature extraction. Nevertheless, this technique suffers from a main drawback since it necessitates a huge storage and is computationally expensive. To decrease the dimensions of the feature vector and the computing time, PCA technique is considered. In the last stage, according to different extracted features, the brain tumor is classified into either benign or malignant tumor using Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. A CAD tool for brain tumor detection and classification, including all above-mentioned stages, is designed and developed using MATLAB guide user interface.

Keywords: MRI, brain tumor, CAD, feature extraction, DWT, PCA, classification, SVM

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3426 A Study on the Impacts of Computer Aided Design on the Architectural Design Process

Authors: Halleh Nejadriahi, Kamyar Arab

Abstract:

Computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been extensively used by the architects for the several decades. It has evolved from being a simple drafting tool to being an intelligent architectural software and a powerful means of communication for architects. CAD plays an essential role in the profession of architecture and is a basic tool for any architectural firm. It is not possible for an architectural firm to compete without taking the advantage of computer software, due to the high demand and competition in the architectural industry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of CAD on the architectural design process from conceptual level to final product, particularly in architectural practice. It examines the range of benefits of integrating CAD into the industry and discusses the possible defects limiting the architects. Method of this study is qualitatively based on data collected from the professionals’ perspective. The identified benefits and limitations of CAD on the architectural design process will raise the awareness of professionals on the potentials of CAD and proper utilization of that in the industry, which would result in a higher productivity along with a better quality in the architectural offices.

Keywords: architecture, architectural practice, computer aided design (CAD), design process

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
3425 Effects of Computer Aided Instructional Package on Performance and Retention of Genetic Concepts amongst Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad R. Bello, Mamman A. Wasagu, Yahya M. Kamar

Abstract:

The study investigated the effects of computer-aided instructional package (CAIP) on performance and retention of genetic concepts among secondary school students in Niger State. Quasi-experimental research design i.e. pre-test-post-test experimental and control groups were adopted for the study. The population of the study was all senior secondary school three (SS3) students’ offering biology. A sample of 223 students was randomly drawn from six purposively selected secondary schools. The researchers’ developed computer aided instructional package (CAIP) on genetic concepts was used as treatment instrument for the experimental group while the control group was exposed to the conventional lecture method (CLM). The instrument for data collection was a Genetic Performance Test (GEPET) that had 50 multiple-choice questions which were validated by science educators. A Reliability coefficient of 0.92 was obtained for GEPET using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The data collected were analyzed using IBM SPSS Version 20 package for computation of Means, Standard deviation, t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The ANOVA analysis (Fcal (220) = 27.147, P < 0.05) shows that students who received instruction with CAIP outperformed the students who received instruction with CLM and also had higher retention. The findings also revealed no significant difference in performance and retention between male and female students (tcal (103) = -1.429, P > 0.05). It was recommended amongst others that teachers should use computer-aided instructional package in teaching genetic concepts in order to improve students’ performance and retention in biology subject. Keywords: Computer-aided Instructional Package, Performance, Retention and Genetic Concepts.

Keywords: computer aided instructional package, performance, retention, genetic concepts, senior secondary school students

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3424 Computer-Aided Teaching of Transformers for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In the era of technological advancement, use of computer technology has become inevitable. Hence it has become the need of the hour to integrate software methods in engineering curriculum as a part to boost pedagogy techniques. Simulations software is a great help to graduates of disciplines such as electrical engineering. Since electrical engineering deals with high voltages and heavy instruments, extra care must be taken while operating with them. The viable solution would be to have appropriate control. The appropriate control could be well designed if engineers have knowledge of kind of waveforms associated with the system. Though these waveforms can be plotted manually, but it consumes a lot of time. Hence aid of simulation helps to understand steady state of system and resulting in better performance. In this paper computer, aided teaching of transformer is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The test carried out on a transformer includes open circuit test and short circuit respectively. The respective parameters of transformer are then calculated using the values obtained from open circuit and short circuit test respectively using Simulink.

Keywords: computer aided teaching, open circuit test, short circuit test, simulink, transformer

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3423 Marker-Controlled Level-Set for Segmenting Breast Tumor from Thermal Images

Authors: Swathi Gopakumar, Sruthi Krishna, Shivasubramani Krishnamoorthy

Abstract:

Contactless, painless and radiation-free thermal imaging technology is one of the preferred screening modalities for detection of breast cancer. However, poor signal to noise ratio and the inexorable need to preserve edges defining cancer cells and normal cells, make the segmentation process difficult and hence unsuitable for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper presents key findings from a research conducted on the appraisal of two promising techniques, for the detection of breast cancer: (I) marker-controlled, Level-set segmentation of anisotropic diffusion filtered preprocessed image versus (II) Segmentation using marker-controlled level-set on a Gaussian-filtered image. Gaussian-filtering processes the image uniformly, whereas anisotropic filtering processes only in specific areas of a thermographic image. The pre-processed (Gaussian-filtered and anisotropic-filtered) images of breast samples were then applied for segmentation. The segmentation of breast starts with initial level-set function. In this study, marker refers to the position of the image to which initial level-set function is applied. The markers are generally placed on the left and right side of the breast, which may vary with the breast size. The proposed method was carried out on images from an online database with samples collected from women of varying breast characteristics. It was observed that the breast was able to be segmented out from the background by adjustment of the markers. From the results, it was observed that as a pre-processing technique, anisotropic filtering with level-set segmentation, preserved the edges more effectively than Gaussian filtering. Segmented image, by application of anisotropic filtering was found to be more suitable for feature extraction, enabling automated computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, breast, Gaussian, level-set, thermograms

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3422 Diagnosis and Analysis of Automated Liver and Tumor Segmentation on CT

Authors: R. R. Ramsheeja, R. Sreeraj

Abstract:

For view the internal structures of the human body such as liver, brain, kidney etc have a wide range of different modalities for medical images are provided nowadays. Computer Tomography is one of the most significant medical image modalities. In this paper use CT liver images for study the use of automatic computer aided techniques to calculate the volume of the liver tumor. Segmentation method is used for the detection of tumor from the CT scan is proposed. Gaussian filter is used for denoising the liver image and Adaptive Thresholding algorithm is used for segmentation. Multiple Region Of Interest(ROI) based method that may help to characteristic the feature different. It provides a significant impact on classification performance. Due to the characteristic of liver tumor lesion, inherent difficulties appear selective. For a better performance, a novel proposed system is introduced. Multiple ROI based feature selection and classification are performed. In order to obtain of relevant features for Support Vector Machine(SVM) classifier is important for better generalization performance. The proposed system helps to improve the better classification performance, reason in which we can see a significant reduction of features is used. The diagnosis of liver cancer from the computer tomography images is very difficult in nature. Early detection of liver tumor is very helpful to save the human life.

Keywords: computed tomography (CT), multiple region of interest(ROI), feature values, segmentation, SVM classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
3421 Classification of Digital Chest Radiographs Using Image Processing Techniques to Aid in Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: A. J. S. P. Nileema, S. Kulatunga , S. H. Palihawadana

Abstract:

Computer aided detection (CAD) system was developed for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis using digital chest X-rays with MATLAB image processing techniques using a statistical approach. The study comprised of 200 digital chest radiographs collected from the National Hospital for Respiratory Diseases - Welisara, Sri Lanka. Pre-processing was done to remove identification details. Lung fields were segmented and then divided into four quadrants; right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, and left lower quadrant using the image processing techniques in MATLAB. Contrast, correlation, homogeneity, energy, entropy, and maximum probability texture features were extracted using the gray level co-occurrence matrix method. Descriptive statistics and normal distribution analysis were performed using SPSS. Depending on the radiologists’ interpretation, chest radiographs were classified manually into PTB - positive (PTBP) and PTB - negative (PTBN) classes. Features with standard normal distribution were analyzed using an independent sample T-test for PTBP and PTBN chest radiographs. Among the six features tested, contrast, correlation, energy, entropy, and maximum probability features showed a statistically significant difference between the two classes at 95% confidence interval; therefore, could be used in the classification of chest radiograph for PTB diagnosis. With the resulting value ranges of the five texture features with normal distribution, a classification algorithm was then defined to recognize and classify the quadrant images; if the texture feature values of the quadrant image being tested falls within the defined region, it will be identified as a PTBP – abnormal quadrant and will be labeled as ‘Abnormal’ in red color with its border being highlighted in red color whereas if the texture feature values of the quadrant image being tested falls outside of the defined value range, it will be identified as PTBN–normal and labeled as ‘Normal’ in blue color but there will be no changes to the image outline. The developed classification algorithm has shown a high sensitivity of 92% which makes it an efficient CAD system and with a modest specificity of 70%.

Keywords: chest radiographs, computer aided detection, image processing, pulmonary tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
3420 A Design System for Complex Profiles of Machine Members Using a Synthetic Curve

Authors: N. Sateesh, C. S. P. Rao, K. Satyanarayana, C. Rajashekar

Abstract:

This paper proposes a development of a CAD/CAM system for complex profiles of various machine members using a synthetic curve i.e. B-spline. Conventional methods in designing and manufacturing of complex profiles are tedious and time consuming. Even programming those on a computer numerical control (CNC) machine can be a difficult job because of the complexity of the profiles. The system developed provides graphical and numerical representation B-spline profile for any given input. In this paper, the system is applicable to represent a cam profile with B-spline and attempt is made to improve the follower motion.

Keywords: plate-cams, cam profile, b-spline, computer numerical control (CNC), computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), R-D-R-D (rise-dwell-return-dwell)

Procedia PDF Downloads 381