Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Sarem Sattar

22 Texturing of Tool Insert Using Femtosecond Laser

Authors: Ashfaq Khan, Aftab Khan, Mushtaq Khan, Sarem Sattar, Mohammad A Sheikh, Lin Li

Abstract:

Chip removal processes are one of key processes of the manufacturing industry where chip removal is conducted by tool inserts of exceptionally hard materials. Tungsten carbide has been extensively used as tool insert for machining processes involving chip removal processes. These hard materials are generally fabricated by single step sintering process as further modification after fabrication in these materials cannot be done easily. Advances in tool surface modification have revealed that advantages such as improved tribological properties and extended tool life can be harnessed from the same tool by texturing the tool rake surface. Moreover, it has been observed that the shape and location of the texture also influences the behavior. Although texturing offers plentiful advantages the challenge lies in the generation of textures on the tool surface. Extremely hard material such as diamond is required to process tungsten carbide. Laser is unique processing tool that does not have a physical contact with the material and thus does not wear. In this research the potential of utilizing laser for texturing of tungsten carbide to develop custom features would be studied. A parametric study of texturing of Tungsten Carbide with a femtosecond laser would be conducted to investigate the process parameters and establish the feasible processing window. The effect of fluence, scan speed and number of repetition would be viewed in detail. Moreover, the mechanism for the generation of features would also be reviewed.

Keywords: laser, texturing, femtosecond, tungsten carbide

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21 Cotton Transplantation as a Practice to Escape Infection with Some Soil-Borne Pathogens

Authors: E. M. H. Maggie, M. N. A. Nazmey, M. A. Abdel-Sattar, S. A. Saied

Abstract:

A successful trial of transplanting cotton is reported. Seeds grown in trays for 4-5 weeks in an easily prepared supporting medium such as peat moss or similar plant waste are tried. Careful transplanting of seedlings, with root system as intact as possible, is being made in the permanent field. The practice reduced damping-off incidence rate and allowed full winter crop revenues. Further work is needed to evaluate certain parameters such as growth curve, flowering curve, and yield at economic bases.

Keywords: cotton, transplanting cotton, damping-off diseases, environment sciences

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20 Electrochemical Regeneration of GIC Adsorbent in a Continuous Electrochemical Reactor

Authors: S. N. Hussain, H. M. A. Asghar, H. Sattar, E. P. L. Roberts

Abstract:

Arvia™ introduced a novel technology consisting of adsorption followed by electrochemical regeneration with a graphite intercalation compound adsorbent that takes place in a single unit. The adsorbed species may lead to the formation of intermediate by-products products due to incomplete mineralization during electrochemical regeneration. Therefore, the investigation of breakdown products due to incomplete oxidation is of great concern regarding the commercial applications of this process. In the present paper, the formation of the chlorinated breakdown products during continuous process of adsorption and electrochemical regeneration based on a graphite intercalation compound adsorbent has been investigated.

Keywords: GIC, adsorption, electrochemical regeneration, chlorphenols

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19 Study of Some Aromatic Thiourea Derivatives as Lube Oil Antioxidant

Authors: Rasha S. Kamal, Nehal S. Ahmed, Amal M. Nassar, Nour E. A. Abd El-Sattar

Abstract:

In the present work, some lube oil antioxidants based on ester of some aromatic thiourea derivative were prepared by two steps: the first step is the reaction of succinyl chloride with ammonium thiocyanate in addition to anthranilic acid as three component system to prepare thiourea derivative (A); the second step is esterification of compound (A) by different alcohol (decyl C₁₀, tetradecyl C₁₄, and octadecyl C₁₈) alcohol. The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by infra-red spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and determination of the molecular weights. All the prepared compounds were soluble in lube oil. The efficiency of the prepared compounds as antioxidants lube oil additives was investigated and it was found that these prepared compounds give good result as lube oil antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant lube oil, three component system, aromatic thiourea derivatives, esterification

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18 Controlling Excitons Complexes in Two Dimensional MoS₂ Monolayers

Authors: Arslan Usman, Abdul Sattar, Hamid Latif, Afshan Ashfaq, Muhammad Rafique, Martin Koch

Abstract:

Two-dimensional materials have promising applications in optoelectronic and photonics; MoS₂ is the pioneer 2D material in the family of transition metal dichalcogenides. Its optical, optoelectronic, and structural properties are of practical importance along with its exciton dynamics. Exciton, along with exciton complexes, plays a vital role in realizing quantum devices. MoS₂ monolayers were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique on SiO₂ and hBN substrates. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) was used to identify the monolayer, which also reflects the substrate based peak broadening due to screening effects. In-plane and out of plane characteristic vibrational modes E¹₂g and A₁g, respectively, were detected in a different configuration on the substrate. The B-excitons and trions showed a dominant feature at low temperatures due to electron-phonon coupling effects, whereas their energies are separated by 100 meV.

Keywords: 2D materials, photoluminescence, AFM, excitons

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17 In Vitro Micropropagation of Rosa damascena Mill

Authors: Asghar Ebrahimzadeh, Sattar Malekian, Mohammad Ali Aazami, Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam

Abstract:

Roses are of main ornamental flowers worldwide. Rosa damascena Mill., besides being an ornamental plant, has major pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance applications. Traditional propagation methods of the plant are using suckers, cutting and grafting. In the present experiment, we used the different explants (leaf section, petioles and nodal cutting) for the optimization of this high-valued ornamental from a native clonal plant. Diverse explants were acquired from mature plants during the growing season and were planted on MS medium supplemented with different hormonal combinations. 70% alcohol and sodium hypochloride were utilized for the surface sterilization. For proliferation, BAP and BA (1-5 mg L-1) and NAA (1-2 mg L-1) were tested. The highest proliferation rate was afforded from MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 BA and 5 mg L-1 BAP. Callogenesis from leaf samples and petioles was the best with 1/2 MS medium enriched with 1mg L-1 BAP and 4 mg L-1 2,4-D. Rooting was occurred with the highest frequency in a medium containing 0.1 mg L-1 IBA.

Keywords: Rosa damascene, micropropagation, petiole, IBA, BAP

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16 Augmented Reality Sandbox and Constructivist Approach for Geoscience Teaching and Learning

Authors: Muhammad Nawaz, Sandeep N. Kundu, Farha Sattar

Abstract:

Augmented reality sandbox adds new dimensions to education and learning process. It can be a core component of geoscience teaching and learning to understand the geographic contexts and landform processes. Augmented reality sandbox is a useful tool not only to create an interactive learning environment through spatial visualization but also it can provide an active learning experience to students and enhances the cognition process of learning. Augmented reality sandbox can be used as an interactive learning tool to teach geomorphic and landform processes. This article explains the augmented reality sandbox and the constructivism approach for geoscience teaching and learning, and endeavours to explore the ways to teach the geographic processes using the three-dimensional digital environment for the deep learning of the geoscience concepts interactively.

Keywords: augmented reality sandbox, constructivism, deep learning, geoscience

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15 Droning the Pedagogy: Future Prospect of Teaching and Learning

Authors: Farha Sattar, Laurence Tamatea, Muhammad Nawaz

Abstract:

Drones, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are playing an important role in real-world problem-solving. With the new advancements in technology, drones are becoming available, affordable and user- friendly. Use of drones in education is opening new trends in teaching and learning practices in an innovative and engaging way. Drones vary in types and sizes and possess various characteristics and capabilities which enhance their potential to be used in education from basic to advanced and challenging learning activities which are suitable for primary, middle and high school level. This research aims to provide an insight to explore different types of drones and their compatibility to be used in teaching different subjects at various levels. Research focuses on integrating the drone technology along with Australian curriculum content knowledge to reinforce the understanding of the fundamental concepts and helps to develop the critical thinking and reasoning in the learning process.

Keywords: critical thinking, drone technology, drone types, innovative learning

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14 Electrokinetic Remediation of Nickel Contaminated Clayey Soils

Authors: Waddah S. Abdullah, Saleh M. Al-Sarem

Abstract:

Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils has undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar contaminants (such as heavy metals) and nonpolar organic contaminants. It can efficiently be used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. EK processes have proved to be superior to other conventional methods, such as the pump and treat, and soil washing, since these methods are ineffective in such cases. This paper describes the use of electrokinetic remediation to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Open cells, as well as advanced cylindrical cells, were used to perform electrokinetic experiments. Azraq green clay (low permeability soil, taken from the east part of Jordan) was used for the experiments. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel. The EK experiments were conducted under direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA. Chelating agents (NaEDTA), disodium ethylene diamine-tetra-ascetic acid was used to enhance the electroremediation processes. The effect of carbonates presence in soils was, also, investigated by use of sodium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by using buffer solutions. The results showed that the average removal efficiency was 64%, for the Nickel spiked saturated clayey soil.Experiment results have shown that carbonates retarded the remediation process of nickel contaminated soils. Na-EDTA effectively enhanced the decontamination process, with removal efficiency increased from 64% without using the NaEDTA to over 90% after using Na-EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, contaminated soils, EDTA enhancement, electrokinetic processes, Nickel contaminated soil, soil remediation

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13 The Impact of the Windows Opening on the Design of Buildings in Islamic Architecture

Authors: Salma I. Dwidar, Amal A. Abdel-Sattar

Abstract:

The window openings are the key to the relationship between the inside and the outside of any building. It is the eye that sees from, the lunges of the construction, and the ear to hear. The success of the building, as well as the comfort of the uses, depends mainly on this relationship. Usually, windows are affected by human factors like religious, social, political and economic factors as well as environmental factors like climatic, aesthetic and functional factors. In Islamic architecture, the windows were one of the most important elements of physiological and psychological comfort to the users of the buildings. Windows considered one of the main parameters in designing internal and external facade, where the window openings occupied a big part of the formation of the external facade of the buildings. This paper discusses the importance of the window openings and its relationship to residential buildings in the Islamic architecture. It addresses the rules that have been followed in the design of windows in Islamic architecture to achieve privacy and thermal comfort while there are no technological elements within the dwellings. Also, it demonstrates the effects of windows on the building form and identity and how it gives a distinctive fingerprint of the architecture buildings.

Keywords: window openings, thermal comfort, residential buildings, the Islamic architecture, human considerations

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12 Implementation of Student-Centered Learning Approach in Building Surveying Course

Authors: Amal A. Abdel-Sattar

Abstract:

The curriculum of architecture department in Prince Sultan University includes ‘Building Surveying’ course which is usually a part of civil engineering courses. As a fundamental requirement of the course, it requires a strong background in mathematics and physics, which are not usually preferred subjects to the architecture students and many of them are not giving the required and necessary attention to these courses during their preparation year before commencing their architectural study. This paper introduces the concept and the methodology of the student-centered learning approach in the course of building surveying for architects. One of the major outcomes is the improvement in the students’ involvement in the course and how this will cover and strength their analytical weak points and improve their mathematical skills. The study is conducted through three semesters with a total number of 99 students. The effectiveness of the student-centered learning approach is studied using the student survey at the end of each semester and teacher observations. This survey showed great acceptance of the students for these methods. Also, the teachers observed a great improvement in the students’ mathematical abilities and how keener they became in attending the classes which were clearly reflected on the low absence record.

Keywords: architecture, building surveying, student-centered learning, teaching and learning

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11 CFD Simulation on Gas Turbine Blade and Effect of Twisted Hole Shape on Film Cooling Effectiveness

Authors: Thulodin Mat Lazim, Aminuddin Saat, Ammar Fakhir Abdulwahid, Zaid Sattar Kareem

Abstract:

Film cooling is one of the cooling systems investigated for the application to gas turbine blades. Gas turbines use film cooling in addition to turbulence internal cooling to protect the blades outer surface from hot gases. The present study concentrates on the numerical investigation of film cooling performance for a row of twisted cylindrical holes in modern turbine blade. The adiabatic film effectiveness and the heat transfer coefficient are determined numerical on a flat plate downstream of a row of inclined different cross section area hole exit by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The swirling motion of the film coolant was induced the twisted angle of film cooling holes, which inclined an angle of α toward the vertical direction and surface of blade turbine. The holes angle α of the impingement mainstream was changed from 90°, 65°, 45°, 30° and 20°. The film cooling effectiveness on surface of blade turbine wall was measured by using 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Results showed that the effectiveness of rectangular twisted hole has the effectiveness among other cross section area of the hole at blowing ratio (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2).

Keywords: turbine blade cooling, film cooling, geometry shape of hole, turbulent flow

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10 Electroremediation of Saturated and Unsaturated Nickel-Contaminated Soils

Authors: Waddah Abdullah, Saleh Al-Sarem

Abstract:

Electrokinetic remediation was undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar charged contaminants (such as heavy metals) and non-polar organic contaminants. It can be efficiently used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. This study presented and discussed the results of electrokinetic remediation processes to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Two types of electrokinetics cells were used: an open cell and an advanced cylindrical cell. Two types of soils were used for this investigation; the Azraq green clay which has very low permeability taken from the eastern part of Jordan (city of Azraq) and a sandy soil having, relatively, very high permeability. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel, and the sandy soil was spiked with 1500 ppm of nickel. Fully saturated and partially saturated clayey soils were used for the clean-up process. Clayey soils were tested under a direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA to study the effect of the electrical current on the remediation process. Chelating agent (Na-EDTA), disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetatic acid, was used in both types of soils to enhance the electroremediation process. The effect of carbonates presence in the contaminated soils, also, was investigated by use of sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by use of buffer solutions. The results of the investigation showed that for the fully saturated clayey soil spiked with nickel had an average removal efficiency of 64%, and the average removal efficiency was 46% for the unsaturated clayey soil. For the sandy soil, the average removal efficiency of Nickel was 90%. Test results showed that presence of carbonates in the remediated soils retarded the clean-up process of nickel-contaminated soils (removal efficiency was reduced from 90% to 60%). EDTA enhanced decontamination of nickel contaminated clayey and sandy soils with carbonates was studied. The average removal efficiency increased from 60% (prior to using EDTA) to more than 90% after using EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, EDTA, electroremediation, nickel removal efficiency

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9 Impact of Violence against Women on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Rural Sindh: A Case Study of Kandhkot

Authors: Mohammad Shoaib Khan, Abdul Sattar Bahalkani

Abstract:

This research investigates the violence and their impact on SMEs in Sindh. The main objective of current research is to examine the women empowerment through women participation in small and medium enterprises in upper Sindh. The data were collected from 500 respondents from Kandhkot District, by using simple random technique. A structural questionnaire was designed as an instrument for measuring the impact of SMEs business in women empowerment in rural Sindh. It was revealed that the rural women is less confident and their husbands were always given them hard time once they are exposing themselves to outside the boundaries of the house. It was revealed that rural women have a major contribution in social, economic, and political development. It was further revealed that women are getting low wages and due to non-availability of market facility they are paying low wages. The negative impact of husbands’ income and having children at the age of 0-6 years old are also significant. High income of other household member raises the reservation wage of mothers, thus lowers the probability of participation when the objective of working is to help family’s financial need. The impact of childcare on mothers’ labor force participation is significant but not as the theory predicted. The probability of participation in labor force is significantly higher for women who lived in the urban areas where job opportunities are greater compared to the rural.

Keywords: empowerment, violence against women, SMEs, rural

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8 Future Projection of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods Hazard: A Hydrodynamic Study of the Highest Lake in the Dhauliganga Basin, Uttarakhand

Authors: Ashim Sattar, Ajanta Goswami, Anil V. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) highly contributes to mountain hazards in the Himalaya. Over the past decade, high altitude lakes in the Himalaya has been showing notable growth in their size and number. The key reason is rapid retreat of its glacier front. Hydrodynamic modeling GLOF using shallow water equations (SWE) would result in understanding its impact in the downstream region. The present study incorporates remote sensing based ice thickness modeling to determine the future extent of the Dhauliganga Lake to map the over deepening extent around the highest lake in the Dhauliganga basin. The maximum future volume of the lake calculated using area-volume scaling is used to model a GLOF event. The GLOF hydrograph is routed along the channel using one dimensional and two dimensional model to understand the flood wave propagation till it reaches the 1st hydropower station located 72 km downstream of the lake. The present extent of the lake calculated using SENTINEL 2 images is 0.13 km². The maximum future extent of the lake, mapped by investigating the glacier bed has a calculated scaled volume of 3.48 x 106 m³. The GLOF modeling releasing the future volume of the lake resulted in a breach hydrograph with a peak flood of 4995 m³/s at just downstream of the lake. Hydraulic routing

Keywords: GLOF, glacial lake outburst floods, mountain hazard, Central Himalaya, future projection

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7 Development of a Wall Climbing Robotic Ground Penetrating Radar System for Inspection of Vertical Concrete Structures

Authors: Md Omar Faruq Howlader, Tariq Pervez Sattar, Sandra Dudley

Abstract:

This paper describes the design process of a 200 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and a battery powered concrete vertical concrete surface climbing mobile robot. The key design feature is a miniaturized 200 MHz dipole antenna using additional radiating arms and procedure records a reduction of 40% in length compared to a conventional antenna. The antenna set is mounted in front of the robot using a servo mechanism for folding and unfolding purposes. The robot’s adhesion mechanism to climb the reinforced concrete wall is based on neodymium permanent magnets arranged in a unique combination to concentrate and maximize the magnetic flux to provide sufficient adhesion force for GPR installation. The experiments demonstrated the robot’s capability of climbing reinforced concrete wall carrying the attached prototype GPR system and perform floor-to-wall transition and vice versa. The developed GPR’s performance is validated by its capability of detecting and localizing an aluminium sheet and a reinforcement bar (rebar) of 12 mm diameter buried under a test rig built of wood to mimic the concrete structure environment. The present robotic GPR system proves the concept of feasibility of undertaking inspection procedure on large concrete structures in hazardous environments that may not be accessible to human inspectors.

Keywords: climbing robot, dipole antenna, ground penetrating radar (GPR), mobile robots, robotic GPR

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6 Reduction of Defects Using Seven Quality Control Tools for Productivity Improvement at Automobile Company

Authors: Abdul Sattar Jamali, Imdad Ali Memon, Maqsood Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

Quality of production near to zero defects is an objective of every manufacturing and service organization. In order to maintain and improve the quality by reduction in defects, Statistical tools are being used by any organizations. There are many statistical tools are available to assess the quality. Keeping in view the importance of many statistical tools, traditional 7QC tools has been used in any manufacturing and automobile Industry. Therefore, the 7QC tools have been successfully applied at one of the Automobile Company Pakistan. Preliminary survey has been done for the implementation of 7QC tool in the assembly line of Automobile Industry. During preliminary survey two inspection points were decided to collect the data, which are Chassis line and trim line. The data for defects at Chassis line and trim line were collected for reduction in defects which ultimately improve productivity. Every 7QC tools has its benefits observed from the results. The flow charts developed for better understanding about inspection point for data collection. The check sheets developed for helps for defects data collection. Histogram represents the severity level of defects. Pareto charts show the cumulative effect of defects. The Cause and Effect diagrams developed for finding the root causes of each defects. Scatter diagram developed the relation of defects increasing or decreasing. The P-Control charts developed for showing out of control points beyond the limits for corrective actions. The successful implementation of 7QC tools at the inspection points at Automobile Industry concluded that the considerable amount of reduction on defects level, as in Chassis line from 132 defects to 13 defects. The total 90% defects were reduced in Chassis Line. In Trim line defects were reduced from 157 defects to 28 defects. The total 82% defects were reduced in Trim Line. As the Automobile Company exercised only few of the 7 QC tools, not fully getting the fruits by the application of 7 QC tools. Therefore, it is suggested the company may need to manage a mechanism for the application of 7 QC tools at every section.

Keywords: check sheet, cause and effect diagram, control chart, histogram

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5 Assessment of Alternative Water Resources and Growing Media in Green Roofs

Authors: Hamideh Nouri, Sattar Chavoshi Borujeni

Abstract:

Grey infrastructure is an unavoidable part of urbanisation that is threatening the local microclimates. Sustainable urbanisation requires more green infrastructure in cities such as green roofs to minimise urbanisation impacts. The environmental, social and economic benefits of green roofs are widely deliberated. However, there is still a lack of assessment of the water management for green roofs. This paper aimed to assess the irrigation management of green roofs in a semi-arid region where blue water scarcity is one of the primary challenges in urban water management. To determine the appropriate water source and growing media for green roofs, an experiment was established at the University of South Australia, Australia. This study compared the performance of two growing media and three water sources on the drainage quality, medium weight and survival rate of potted Tussock grass (Poa labillardieral), an endemic plant to Australia and recommended for green roofs. Three irrigation sources were tap water, mixed of wastewater-stormwater, and rainwater. The growing media were natural sandy loam soil and Scoria - one of the most used commercial growing media for green roofs. The drainage quality of these media was tested by analysing leachate samples. Medium weight was measured before and after watering, and all pots were monitored for their survival rates. Results showed that although plant growing development was significantly higher in Scoria, the survival rate was lower. For all three water sources, EC and pH of the leachate were significantly lower from Scoria than the sandy loam soil. However, the mixed of wastewater-stormwater had the highest EC, and rainwater had the lowest EC. Results did not present a significant difference between pH of different water resources in the same media. Our experimental results found the scoria and rainwater as the best sources of medium and water for green roofs.

Keywords: green smart cities, urban water, green roofs, green walls, wastewater, stormwater

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4 'Sex, Work and Sex-Work': The Clandestine Tale of a Tabooed Industry in Bangladesh

Authors: Parvez Sattar

Abstract:

There are around 150,000 female sex workers in Bangladesh, and the country hosts one of the largest brothels in the world. There are 20 brothel-villages in the country, of which 14 are recognized to be ‘official’, and at least 11 are currently operational. Although the national Constitution adopts a preventive policy against prostitution, law does not, as such, prohibit commercial sex work by an adult woman working in a brothel having made an affidavit in this regard. But, at the same time, the law renders at least some forms of floating and hotel based sex work illegal, while sex between males has been termed as sodomy and made culpable offence even on its own. All forms of sex works by MSM and Hijra are thus branded as criminal acts. Observations and findings drawn in this article are based on both primary and secondary sources collecting data from a series of field-based empirical studies conducted by the author through questionnaire survey, FGDs, key informant consultations and other PRA/PLA tools. General and specific conclusions have been based on analysis guided by international standards of human and labour rights approaches. It has been noted that neither the community attitudes nor the cultural mind-sets, or the State's institutional set up is supportive of the causes of sex workers engaged in the most exploitative forms of labour. Lack of respect for fundamental rights continues to diminish any chances of sex workers' reintegration to the mainstream of the society, perpetuates poverty, and increases their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. To aggravate the scenario, the endemic practice of a complex debt-bondage masked by the so-called 'entry-cost' and ‘legal license’ to the industry is considered to be a somewhat accepted 'open secret' and that the police and administration keep their eyes off from such practices treating these as 'their internal affairs'. Often these practices are used by the Sardarni/Khala (landlady) and other 'managing' actors as the tool for further exploitation of the sex workers as well as a 'control strategy'. The paper concludes with the observation that the tabooed truths of commercial sex and sex workers are inherently embedded in the very factors that compel them into this endemically ostracised profession itself. While denial of both recognition and enjoyment of the fundamental human rights of sex workers is widespread, it is the same cycle of social vulnerability and economic exclusion that often confines these people within a continuous process of servitude and modern day slavery.

Keywords: commercial sex work and human rights, Labor protection in sex industry, Prostitution Law in Bangladesh, Sex work as modern day slavery

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3 Effect of 12 Weeks Pedometer-Based Workplace Program on Inflammation and Arterial Stiffness in Young Men with Cardiovascular Risks

Authors: Norsuhana Omar, Amilia Aminuddina Zaiton Zakaria, Raifana Rosa Mohamad Sattar, Kalaivani Chellappan, Mohd Alauddin Mohd Ali, Norizam Salamt, Zanariyah Asmawi, Norliza Saari, Aini Farzana Zulkefli, Nor Anita Megat Mohd. Nordin

Abstract:

Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction leading to arterial stiffness. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AS), as tools for the assessment of vascular damages are widely used and have been shown to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD). C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation. Several studies noted that regular exercise is associated with reduced arterial stiffness. The lack of exercise among Malaysians and the increasing CVD morbidity and mortality among young men are of concern. In Malaysia data on the workplace exercise intervention is scarce. A programme was designed to enable subjects to increase their level of walking as part of their daily work routine and self-monitored by using pedometers. The aim of this study to evaluate the reducing of inflammation by measuring CRP and improvement arterial stiffness measured by carotid femoral PWV (PWVCF) and AI. A total of 70 young men (20 - 40 years) who were sedentary, achieving less than 5,000 steps/day in casual walking with 2 or more cardiovascular risk factors were recruited in Institute of Vocational Skills for Youth (IKBN Hulu Langat). Subjects were randomly assigned to a control (CG) (n=34; no change in walking) and pedometer group (PG) (n=36; minimum target: 8,000 steps/day). The CRP was measured by using immunological method while PWVCF and AI were measured using Vicorder. All parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Data for analysis was conducted using Statistical Package of Social Sciences Version 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). At post intervention, the CG step counts were similar (4983 ± 366vs 5697 ± 407steps/day). The PG increased step count from 4996 ± 805 to 10,128 ±511 steps/day (P<0.001). The PG showed significant improvement in anthropometric variables and lipid (time and group effect p<0.001). For vascular assessment, the PG showed significantly decreased for time and effect (p<0.001) for PWV (7.21± 0.83 to 6.42 ± 0.89) m/s; AI (11.88± 6.25 to 8.83 ± 3.7) % and CRP (pre= 2.28 ± 3.09, post=1.08± 1.37mg/L). However, no changes were seen in CG. As a conclusion, a pedometer-based walking programme may be an effective strategy for promoting increased daily physical activity which reduces cardiovascular risk markers and thus improve cardiovascular health in terms of inflammation and arterial stiffness. The community intervention for health maintenance has potential to adopt walking as an exercise and adopting vascular fitness index as the performance measuring tools.

Keywords: arterial stiffness, exercise, inflammation, pedometer

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2 Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma in a Developing Country: A Retrospective Study of 10 Years

Authors: Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Qamar Masood, Saadia Sattar, Saira Fatima, Najmul Islam

Abstract:

Introduction: The most common endocrine tumor is thyroid cancer. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma (FTC) accounts for 5%–10% of all thyroid cancers. Patients with FTC frequently present with more advanced stage diseases and a higher occurrence of distant metastases because of the propensity of vascular invasion. FTC is mainly treated with surgery, while radioactive iodine therapy is the main adjuvant therapy as per ATA guidelines. In many developing countries, surgical facilities and radioactive iodine are in short supply; therefore, understanding follicular thyroid cancer trends may help developing countries plan and use resources more effectively. Methodology: It was a retrospective observational study of FTC patients of age 18 years and above conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2019. Results: There were 404 patients with thyroid carcinoma, out of which forty (10.1%) were FTC. 50% of the patients were in the 41-60 years age group, and the female to male ratio was 1.5: 1. Twenty-four patients (60%) presented with complain of neck swelling followed by metastasis (20%) and compressive symptoms (20%). The most common site of metastasis was bone (87.5%), followed by lung (12.5%). The pre-operative thyroglobulin level was done in six out of eight metastatic patients (75%) in which it was elevated. This emphasizes the importance of checking thyroglobulin level in unusual presentation (bone pain, fractures) of a patient having neck swelling also to help in establishing the primary source of tumor. There was no complete documentation of ultrasound features of the thyroid gland in all the patients, which is an important investigation done in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodule. On FNAC, 50% (20 patients) had Bethesda category III-IV nodules, while 10% ( 4 patients ) had Bethesda category II. In sixteen patients, FNAC was not done as they presented with compressive symptoms or metastasis. Fifty percent had a total thyroidectomy and 50% had subtotal followed by completion thyroidectomy, plus ten patients had lymph node dissection, out of which seven had histopathological lymph node involvement. On histopathology, twenty-three patients (57.5%) had minimally invasive, while seventeen (42.5%) had widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma. The capsular invasion was present in thirty-three patients (82.5%); one patient had no capsular invasion, but there was a vascular invasion. Six patients' histopathology had no record of capsular invasion. In contrast, the lymphovascular invasion was present in twenty-six patients (65%). In this study, 65 % of the patients had clinical stage 1 disease, while 25% had stage 2 and 10% had clinical stage 4. Seventeen patients (42.5%) had received RAI 30-100 mCi, while ten patients (25%) received more than 100 mCi. Conclusion: FTC demographic and clinicopathological presentation are the same in Pakistan as compared to other countries. Surgery followed by RAI is the mainstay of treatment. Thus understanding the trend of FTC and proper planning and utilization of the resources will help the developing countries in effectively treating the FTC.

Keywords: thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, clinicopathological features, developing countries

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1 An Integrated Solid Waste Management Strategy for Semi-Urban and Rural Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Z. Zaman Asam, M. Ajmal, R. Saeed, H. Miraj, M. Muhammad Ahtisham, B. Hameed, A. -Sattar Nizami

Abstract:

In Pakistan, environmental degradation and consequent human health deterioration has rapidly accelerated in the past decade due to solid waste mismanagement. As the situation worsens with time, establishment of proper waste management practices is urgently needed especially in semi urban and rural areas of Pakistan. This study uses a concept of Waste Bank, which involves a transfer station for collection of sorted waste fractions and its delivery to the targeted market such as recycling industries, biogas plants, composting facilities etc. The management efficiency and effectiveness of Waste Bank depend strongly on the proficient sorting and collection of solid waste fractions at household level. However, the social attitude towards such a solution in semi urban/rural areas of Pakistan demands certain prerequisites to make it workable. Considering these factors the objectives of this study are to: [A] Obtain reliable data about quantity and characteristics of generated waste to define feasibility of business and design factors, such as required storage area, retention time, transportation frequency of the system etc. [B] Analyze the effects of various social factors on waste generation to foresee future projections. [C] Quantify the improvement in waste sorting efficiency after awareness campaign. We selected Gujrat city of Central Punjab province of Pakistan as it is semi urban adjoined by rural areas. A total of 60 houses (20 from each of the three selected colonies), belonging to different social status were selected. Awareness sessions about waste segregation were given through brochures and individual lectures in each selected household. Sampling of waste, that households had attempted to sort, was then carried out in the three colored bags that were provided as part of the awareness campaign. Finally, refined waste sorting, weighing of various fractions and measurement of dry mass was performed in environmental laboratory using standard methods. It was calculated that sorting efficiency of waste improved from 0 to 52% as a result of the awareness campaign. The generation of waste (dry mass basis) on average from one household was 460 kg/year whereas per capita generation was 68 kg/year. Extrapolating these values for Gujrat Tehsil, the total waste generation per year is calculated to be 101921 tons dry mass (DM). Characteristics found in waste were (i) organic decomposable (29.2%, 29710 tons/year DM), (ii) recyclables (37.0%, 37726 tons/year DM) that included plastic, paper, metal and glass, and (iii) trash (33.8%, 34485 tons/year DM) that mainly comprised of polythene bags, medicine packaging, pampers and wrappers. Waste generation was more in colonies with comparatively higher income and better living standards. In future, data collection for all four seasons and improvements due to expansion of awareness campaign to educational institutes will be quantified. This waste management system can potentially fulfill vital sustainable development goals (e.g. clean water and sanitation), reduce the need to harvest fresh resources from the ecosystem, create business and job opportunities and consequently solve one of the most pressing environmental issues of the country.

Keywords: integrated solid waste management, waste segregation, waste bank, community development

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