Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61
61 Augmenting People's Creative Idea Generation Using an Artificial Intelligent Sketching Collaborator

Authors: Joseph Maloba Makokha

Abstract:

Idea generation is an important part of the design process, and many strategies to support this stage have been developed. As artificial intelligence (AI) gains adoption in many domains, we need to understand its role, if any, in the design process. This paper introduces the concept of a “Disruptive Interjector”, an AI system that frequently interjects with suggestions based on observing what a user does. The concept emanates from a study that was conducted with pairs of humans on one hand, and human-AI pairs on the other collaborating on idea generation by sketching. Results from a study show that participants who collaborated with, and took cues from the AI sketch suggestions generated more ideas; and also had more ideas ranked by experts as “creative” compared to two humans working together on the same tasks. It is notable that while researchers from diverse fields of engineering, psychology, art and others have explored conditions and environments that enhance people's creativity - and have provided insights on creativity in general - there still exists a gap on the role that AI can play on creativity. We attempt to narrow this gap.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, design collaboration, creativity, human-machine collaboration, machine learning.

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60 An Exhaustive Investigation of Green Building Certification on the Productivity and Mental and Physical Health of Buildings Occupants in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Armin Samarghandi, Amirreza Jafari, Mohamad Ghiasi

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Since individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, this immediately affects their productivity and health. An essential factor in occupational health and public health is the influence of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings on occupant welfare and productivity. Since then, empirical data have been equivocal, indicating either that the studies are inaccurate or that the research has just scratched the surface of green buildings in offices, accommodation, and hospital settings and not taken the aforementioned holistically. This study compared three green-certified buildings — a residential green building, a green hospital, and a green school — with conventional structures in Tehran, Iran by means of a questionnaire spread among those utilizing these buildings, and assessing their productivity and health rate as opposed to the time they resided, worked in conventional buildings. The results demonstrated higher scores pertaining to productivity, physical and mental wellness as a consequence of better indoor environmental quality (IEQ), natural lighting, design, and sustainability of these building against non-green buildings. In addition, ancillary matters — environmental, financial, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual dimensions of participants — were indirectly evaluated, and the same results are produced.

Keywords: Green building, Iran, productivity, physical and mental health, Tehran.

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59 Use of Waste Tire Rubber Alkali-Activated-Based Mortars in Repair of Concrete Structures

Authors: Mohammad Ebrahim Kianifar, Ehsan Ahmadi

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete structures experience local defects such as cracks over their lifetime under various environmental loadings. Consequently, they are repaired by mortars to avoid detrimental effects such as corrosion of reinforcement, which in long-term may lead to strength loss of a member or collapse of structures. However, repaired structures may need multiple repairs due to changes in load distribution, and thus, lack of compatibility between mortar and substrate concrete. On the other hand, waste tire rubber alkali-activated (WTRAA)-based materials have very high potential to be used as repair mortars because of their ductility and flexibility, which may delay failure of repair mortar, and thus, provide sufficient compatibility. Hence, this work presents a study on suitability of WTRAA-based materials as mortars for repair of concrete structures through an experimental program. To this end, WTRAA mortars with 15% aggregate replacement, alkali-activated (AA) mortars, and ordinary mortars are made to repair a number of concrete beams. The WTRAA mortars are composed of slag as base material, sodium hydroxide as alkaline activator, and different gradation of waste tire rubber (fine and coarse gradations). Flexural tests are conducted on the concrete beams repaired by the ordinary, AA, and WTRAA mortars. It is found that, despite having lower compressive strength and modulus of elasticity, the WTRAA and AA mortars increase flexural strength of the repaired beams, give compatible failures, and provide sufficient mortar-concrete interface bondings. The ordinary mortars, however, show incompatible failure modes. This study demonstrates promising application of WTRAA mortars in practical repairs of concrete structures.

Keywords: Alkali-activated mortars, concrete repair, mortar compatibility flexural strength, waste tire rubber.

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58 Improving Learning Abilities and Inclusion through Movement: The Movi-Mente© Method

Authors: Ivan Traina, Luigi Sangalli, Fabio Tognon, Angelo Lascioli

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Currently, challenges regarding preschooler children are mainly focused on a sedentary lifestyle. Also, motor activity in infancy is seen as a tool for the separate acquisition of cognitive and socio-emotional skills rather than considering neuromotor development as a tool for improving learning abilities. The paper utilized an observational research method to shed light on the results of practicing neuromotor exercises in preschool children with disability as well as provide implications for practice.

Keywords: Children with disability, learning abilities, inclusion, neuromotor development.

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57 Strategy of Zakat Utilization for Productive Economic and Social Activity: A Case Study at Lembaga Amil Zakat, Infaq and Shodaqoh Yayasan Badan Wakaf Universitas Islam Indonesia

Authors: Krisnanda, Naili Qiyadatul Ulya

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Utilization of zakat for productive economic and social activities can be considered an appropriate way to optimize the efficiency and major benefits within these community funds. As we know, not least among the Muslims who desperately need help from zakat funds to improve the livelihoods of their standard of living. In this case, optimizing the utilization of zakat funds can help the community, especially Muslims, to improve and prosper in their lives. Optimizing zakat funds for this purpose can not only motivate people to help others for the welfare and empowerment of the people but can also foster social solidarity between religious communities. The establishment of the nature of social solidarity will reduce the impact of poverty and even eradicate poverty. This study was conducted to determine how the strategy of zakat utilization is through the program of Zakat Galang Berdikari by the Zakat, Infaq, and Shodaqoh Institute of Waqf Board Foundation of Universitas Islam Indonesia (LAZIS YBW UII), what are successful indicators of LAZIS YBW UII in empowering zakat, how to manage zakat at LAZIS YBW UII through the program of Zakat Galang Berdikari to determine the extent of zakat utilization in productive economic activities and to help people less able to start an independent business in Yogyakarta. This study used a qualitative approach and the type of empirical research. This study used primary and secondary data by interviewing stakeholders according to the criteria, carrying out field observations and documentation which were then analyzed carefully and presented in a descriptive form. The result of this research is that the utilization of zakat funds in the Zakat Galang Berdikari program by LAZIS YBW UII is the right strategy to optimize zakat for productive economic and social activities in Yogyakarta.

Keywords: Zakat utilization, zakat funds, productive economic, LAZIS.

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56 Examining How Constraints Influence NCAA Division II Athlete’s Physical Performance

Authors: Timothy Hinchman, Carrie Taylor

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This quantitative quasi-experimental research investigated disparities in mean and median performance among millennial soccer players. According to research, the fear of failure causes millennials to struggle with difficult jobs. The application of specified limitations has been found to increase individual productivity. The study utilized the constraint-based model of novelty (C-BMN) framework and the game performance assessment instrument (GPAI) to assess data concerning constraint-type and its impact on the productivity of 18 soccer players. Individual components cooperation and trapping had statistical significance throughout the intervention, while positioning, passing, and dribbling did not. The GPAI was statistically significant between the control and both restriction types. A two-way mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction between limitations and temperaments, however only 72% of individuals completed the temperament exam.

Keywords: Constraints, temperament, physical performance, GPAI.

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55 Resilient Machine Learning in the Nuclear Industry: Crack Detection as a Case Study

Authors: Anita Khadka, Gregory Epiphaniou, Carsten Maple

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There is a dramatic surge in the adoption of Machine Learning (ML) techniques in many areas, including the nuclear industry (such as fault diagnosis and fuel management in nuclear power plants), autonomous systems (including self-driving vehicles), space systems (space debris recovery, for example), medical surgery, network intrusion detection, malware detection, to name a few. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday modern human life. To date, the predominant focus has been developing underpinning ML algorithms that can improve accuracy, while factors such as resiliency and robustness of algorithms have been largely overlooked. If an adversarial attack is able to compromise the learning method or data, the consequences can be fatal, especially but not exclusively in safety-critical applications. In this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of five adversarial attacks and two defence methods on a crack detection ML model. Our analysis shows that it can be dangerous to adopt ML techniques without rigorous testing, since they may be vulnerable to adversarial attacks, especially in security-critical areas such as the nuclear industry. We observed that while the adopted defence methods can effectively defend against different attacks, none of them could protect against all five adversarial attacks entirely.

Keywords: Resilient Machine Learning, attacks, defences, nuclear industry, crack detection.

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54 Simulation of the Asphaltene Deposition Rate in a Wellbore Blockage via Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Xiaodong Gao, Pingchuan Dong, Qichao Gao

Abstract:

This work attempts to predict the deposition rate of asphaltene particles in blockage tube through CFD simulation. The Euler-Lagrange equation has been applied during the flow of crude oil and asphaltene particles. The net gravitational force, virtual mass, pressure gradient, Saffman lift, and drag forces are incorporated in the simulations process. Validation of CFD simulation results is compared to the benchmark experiments from the previous literature. Furthermore, the effects of blockage location, blockage length, and blockage thickness on deposition rate are also analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the maximum deposition rate of asphaltene occurs in the blocked tube section, and the greater the deposition thickness, the greater the deposition rate. Moreover, the deposition amount and maximum deposition rate along the length of the tube have the same trend. Results of this study are in the ability to better understand the deposition of asphaltene particles in production and help achieve to deal with the asphaltene challenges.

Keywords: Asphaltene deposition rate, blockage length, blockage thickness, blockage diameter, transient condition.

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53 Poli4SDG: An Application for Environmental Crises Management and Gender Support

Authors: Angelica S. Valeriani, Lorenzo Biasiolo

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In recent years, the scale of the impact of climate change and its related side effects has become ever more massive and devastating. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), promoted by United Nations, aim to front issues related to climate change, among others. In particular, the project CROWD4SDG focuses on a bunch of SDGs, since it promotes environmental activities and climate-related issues. In this context, we developed a prototype of an application, under advanced development considering web design, that focuses on SDG 13 (SDG on climate action) by providing users with useful instruments to face environmental crises and climate-related disasters. Our prototype is thought and structured for both web and mobile development. The main goal of the application, POLI4SDG, is to help users to get through emergency services. To this extent, an organized overview and classification prove to be very effective and helpful to people in need. A careful analysis of data related to environmental crises prompted us to integrate the user contribution, i.e. exploiting a core principle of Citizen Science, into the realization of a public catalog, available for consulting and organized according to typology and specific features. In addition, gender equality and opportunity features are considered in the prototype, in order to allow women, often the most vulnerable category, to have direct support. The overall description of the application functionalities is detailed. Moreover, implementation features and properties of the prototype are discussed.

Keywords: Crowdsourcing, social media, SDG, climate change, natural disasters, gender equality.

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52 Adopting Cloud-Based Techniques to Reduce Energy Consumption: Toward a Greener Cloud

Authors: Sandesh Achar

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The cloud computing industry has set new goals for better service delivery and deployment, so anyone can access services such as computation, application, and storage anytime. Cloud computing promises new possibilities for approaching sustainable solutions to deploy and advance their services in this distributed environment. This work explores energy-efficient approaches and how cloud-based architecture can reduce energy consumption levels amongst enterprises leveraging cloud computing services. Adopting cloud-based networking, database, and server machines provide a comprehensive means of achieving the potential gains in energy efficiency that cloud computing offers. In energy-efficient cloud computing, virtualization is one aspect that can integrate several technologies to achieve consolidation and better resource utilization. Moreover, the Green Cloud Architecture for cloud data centers is discussed in terms of cost, performance, and energy consumption, and appropriate solutions for various application areas are provided.

Keywords: Greener Cloud, cloud computing, energy efficiency, energy consumption, metadata tags, Green Cloud Advisor.

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51 Task-Based Language Teaching: A Paradigm Shift in ESL/EFL Teaching and Learning: A Case Study-Based Approach

Authors: Zehra Sultan

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The study is based on the Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) approach which is found to be very effective in the EFL/ESL classroom. This approach engages learners to acquire the usage of authentic language skills by interacting with the real world through a sequence of pedagogical tasks. The use of technology enhances the effectiveness of this approach. This study throws light on the historical background of TBLT, and its efficacy in the EFL /ESL classroom. In addition, this study precisely talks about the implementation of this approach in the General Foundation Program (GFP) of Muscat College, Oman. It furnishes the list of the pedagogical tasks embedded in the language curriculum of the GFP which are skillfully allied to the College graduate attributes. Moreover, the study also discusses the challenges pertaining to this approach from the point of view of teachers, students and its classroom application. Additionally, the operational success of this methodology is gauged through formative assessments of the GFP which is apparent in the students’ progress.

Keywords: Task-based language teaching, authentic language, communicative approach, real world activities, ESL/EFL activities.

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50 Arginase Enzyme Activity in Human Serum as a Marker of Cognitive Function: The Role of Inositol in Combination with Arginine Silicate

Authors: Katie Emerson, Sara Perez-Ojalvo, Jim Komorowski, Danielle Greenberg

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate arginase activity levels in response to combinations of an inositol-stabilized arginine silicate (ASI; Nitrosigine®), L-arginine, and Inositol. Arginine acts as a vasodilator that promotes increased blood flow resulting in enhanced delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the brain and other tissues. Arginase, found in human serum, catalyzes the conversion of arginine to ornithine and urea, completing the last step in the urea cycle. Decreasing arginase levels maintains arginine and results in increased nitric oxide production. This study aimed to determine the most effective combination of ASI, L-arginine and inositol for minimizing arginase levels and therefore maximize ASI’s effect on cognition. Serum was taken from untreated healthy donors by separation from clotted factors. Arginase activity of serum in the presence or absence of test products was determined (QuantiChrom™, DARG-100, Bioassay Systems, Hayward CA). The remaining ultra-filtrated serum units were harvested and used as the source for the arginase enzyme. ASI alone or combined with varied levels of Inositol were tested as follows: ASI + inositol at 0.25 g, 0.5 g, 0.75 g, or 1.00 g. L-arginine was also tested as a positive control. All tests elicited changes in arginase activity demonstrating the efficacy of the method used. Adding L-arginine to serum from untreated subjects, with or without inositol only had a mild effect. Adding inositol at all levels reduced arginase activity. Adding 0.5 g to the standardized amount of ASI led to the lowest amount of arginase activity as compared to the 0.25 g, 0.75 g or 1.00g doses of inositol or to L-arginine alone. The outcome of this study demonstrates an interaction of the pairing of inositol with ASI on the activity of the enzyme arginase. We found that neither the maximum nor minimum amount of inositol tested in this study led to maximal arginase inhibition. Since the inhibition of arginase activity is desirable for product formulations looking to maintain arginine levels, the most effective amount of inositol was deemed preferred. Subsequent studies suggest this moderate level of inositol in combination with ASI leads to cognitive improvements including reaction time, executive function, and concentration.

Keywords: Arginine, blood flow, colorimetry, urea cycle.

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49 Evaluation of Video Quality Metrics and Performance Comparison on Contents Taken from Most Commonly Used Devices

Authors: Pratik Dhabal Deo, Manoj P.

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With the increasing number of social media users, the amount of video content available has also significantly increased. Currently, the number of smartphone users is at its peak, and many are increasingly using their smartphones as their main photography and recording devices. There have been a lot of developments in the field of video quality assessment in since the past years and more research on various other aspects of video and image are being done. Datasets that contain a huge number of videos from different high-end devices make it difficult to analyze the performance of the metrics on the content from most used devices even if they contain contents taken in poor lighting conditions using lower-end devices. These devices face a lot of distortions due to various factors since the spectrum of contents recorded on these devices is huge. In this paper, we have presented an analysis of the objective Video Quality Analysis (VQA) metrics on contents taken only from most used devices and their performance on them, focusing on full-reference metrics. To carry out this research, we created a custom dataset containing a total of 90 videos that have been taken from three most commonly used devices, and Android smartphone, an iOS smartphone and a Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera. On the videos taken on each of these devices, the six most common types of distortions that users face have been applied in addition to already existing H.264 compression based on four reference videos. These six applied distortions have three levels of degradation each. A total of the five most popular VQA metrics have been evaluated on this dataset and the highest values and the lowest values of each of the metrics on the distortions have been recorded. Finally, it is found that blur is the artifact on which most of the metrics did not perform well. Thus, in order to understand the results better the amount of blur in the data set has been calculated and an additional evaluation of the metrics was done using High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) codec, which is the next version of H.264 compression, on the camera that proved to be the sharpest among the devices. The results have shown that as the resolution increases, the performance of the metrics tends to become more accurate and the best performing metric among them is VQM with very few inconsistencies and inaccurate results when the compression applied is H.264, but when the compression is applied is HEVC, Structural Similarity (SSIM) metric and Video Multimethod Assessment Fusion (VMAF) have performed significantly better.

Keywords: Distortion, metrics, recording, frame rate, video quality assessment.

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48 Image-Based UAV Vertical Distance and Velocity Estimation Algorithm during the Vertical Landing Phase Using Low-Resolution Images

Authors: Seyed-Yaser Nabavi-Chashmi, Davood Asadi, Karim Ahmadi, Eren Demir

Abstract:

The landing phase of a UAV is very critical as there are many uncertainties in this phase, which can easily entail a hard landing or even a crash. In this paper, the estimation of relative distance and velocity to the ground, as one of the most important processes during the landing phase, is studied. Using accurate measurement sensors as an alternative approach can be very expensive for sensors like LIDAR, or with a limited operational range, for sensors like ultrasonic sensors. Additionally, absolute positioning systems like GPS or IMU cannot provide distance to the ground independently. The focus of this paper is to determine whether we can measure the relative distance and velocity of UAV and ground in the landing phase using just low-resolution images taken by a monocular camera. The Lucas-Konda feature detection technique is employed to extract the most suitable feature in a series of images taken during the UAV landing. Two different approaches based on Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been proposed, and their performance in estimation of the relative distance and velocity are compared. The first approach uses the kinematics of the UAV as the process and the calculated optical flow as the measurement. On the other hand, the second approach uses the feature’s projection on the camera plane (pixel position) as the measurement while employing both the kinematics of the UAV and the dynamics of variation of projected point as the process to estimate both relative distance and relative velocity. To verify the results, a sequence of low-quality images taken by a camera that is moving on a specifically developed testbed has been used to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm. The case studies show that the quality of images results in considerable noise, which reduces the performance of the first approach. On the other hand, using the projected feature position is much less sensitive to the noise and estimates the distance and velocity with relatively high accuracy. This approach also can be used to predict the future projected feature position, which can drastically decrease the computational workload, as an important criterion for real-time applications.

Keywords: Automatic landing, multirotor, nonlinear control, parameters estimation, optical flow.

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47 Native Language Identification with Cross-Corpus Evaluation Using Social Media Data: 'Reddit'

Authors: Yasmeen Bassas, Sandra Kuebler, Allen Riddell

Abstract:

Native Language Identification is one of the growing subfields in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The task of Native Language Identification (NLI) is mainly concerned with predicting the native language of an author’s writing in a second language. In this paper, we investigate the performance of two types of features; content-based features vs. content independent features when they are evaluated on a different corpus (using social media data “Reddit”). In this NLI task, the predefined models are trained on one corpus (TOEFL) and then the trained models are evaluated on a different data using an external corpus (Reddit). Three classifiers are used in this task; the baseline, linear SVM, and Logistic Regression. Results show that content-based features are more accurate and robust than content independent ones when tested within corpus and across corpus.

Keywords: NLI, NLP, content-based features, content independent features, social media corpus, ML.

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46 Generative Design of Acoustical Diffuser and Absorber Elements Using Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing

Authors: S. Aziz, B. Alexander, C. Gengnagel, S. Weinzierl

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This paper explores a generative design, simulation, and optimization workflow for the integration of acoustical diffuser and/or absorber geometry with embedded coupled Helmholtz-resonators for full scale 3D printed building components. Large-scale additive manufacturing in conjunction with algorithmic CAD design tools enables a vast amount of control when creating geometry. This is advantageous regarding the increasing demands of comfort standards for indoor spaces and the use of more resourceful and sustainable construction methods and materials. The presented methodology highlights these new technological advancements and offers a multimodal and integrative design solution with the potential for an immediate application in the AEC-Industry. In principle, the methodology can be applied to a wide range of structural elements that can be manufactured by additive manufacturing processes. The current paper focuses on a case study of an application for a biaxial load-bearing beam grillage made of reinforced concrete, which allows for a variety of applications through the combination of additive prefabricated semi-finished parts and in-situ concrete supplementation. The semi-prefabricated parts or formwork bodies form the basic framework of the supporting structure and at the same time have acoustic absorption and diffusion properties that are precisely acoustically programmed for the space underneath the structure. To this end, a hybrid validation strategy is being explored using a digital and cross-platform simulation environment, verified with physical prototyping. The iterative workflow starts with the generation of a parametric design model for the acoustical geometry using the algorithmic visual scripting editor Grasshopper3D inside the Building Information Modeling (BIM) software Revit. Various geometric attributes (i.e., bottleneck and cavity dimensions) of the resonator are parameterized and fed to a numerical optimization algorithm which can modify the geometry with the goal of increasing absorption at resonance and increasing the bandwidth of the effective absorption range. Using Rhino.Inside and LiveLink for Revit the generative model was imported directly into the Multiphysics simulation environment COMSOL. The geometry was further modified and prepared for simulation in a semi-automated process. The incident and scattered pressure fields were simulated from which the surface normal absorption coefficients were calculated. This reciprocal process was repeated to further optimize the geometric parameters. Subsequently the numerical models were compared to a set of 3D concrete printed physical twin models which were tested in a .25 m x .25 m impedance tube. The empirical results served to improve the starting parameter settings of the initial numerical model. The geometry resulting from the numerical optimization was finally returned to grasshopper for further implementation in an interdisciplinary study.

Keywords: Acoustical design, additive manufacturing, computational design, multimodal optimization.

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45 Academic Achievement Differences in Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissists and the Mediating Effects of Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Amber L. Dummett, Efstathia Tzemou

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Narcissism is a personality trait characterised by selfishness, entitlement, and superiority. Narcissism is split into two subtypes, grandiose narcissism (GN) and vulnerable narcissism (VN). Grandiose narcissists are extraverted and arrogant, while vulnerable narcissists are introverted and insecure. This study investigates the psychological mechanisms that lead to differences in academic achievement (AA) between grandiose and vulnerable narcissists, specifically the mediating effects of self-esteem and self-efficacy. While narcissism is considered to be a negative trait, this study considers if better AA is one of them. Moreover, further research into VN is essential to fully compare and contrast it with GN. We hypothesise that grandiose narcissists achieve higher marks due to having high self-esteem which in turn boosts their sense of self-efficacy. In comparison, we hypothesise that vulnerable narcissists underperform due to having low self-esteem which limits their self-efficacy. Two online surveys were distributed to undergraduate university students. The first was a collection of scales measuring the mentioned dimensions, and the second investigated end of year AA. Sequential mediation analyses were conducted using the gathered data. Our analysis shows that neither self-esteem nor self-efficacy mediate the relationship between GN and AA. GN positively predicts self-esteem but has no relationship with self-efficacy. Self-esteem does not mediate the relationship between VN and AA. VN has a negative indirect effect on AA via self-efficacy, and VN negatively predicts self-esteem. Self-efficacy positively predicts AA. GN does not affect AA through the mediation of self-esteem and then self-efficacy, and neither does VN in this way. Overall, having grandiose or vulnerable narcissistic traits does not affect students’ AA. However, being highly efficacious does lead to academic success, therefore, universities should employ methods to improve the self-efficacy of their students.

Keywords: Academic achievement, grandiose narcissism, self-efficacy, self-esteem, vulnerable narcissism.

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44 Low Overhead Dynamic Channel Selection with Cluster-Based Spatial-Temporal Station Reporting in Wireless Networks

Authors: Zeyad Abdelmageid, Xianbin Wang

Abstract:

Choosing the operational channel for a WLAN access point (AP) in WLAN networks has been a static channel assignment process initiated by the user during the deployment process of the AP, which fails to cope with the dynamic conditions of the assigned channel at the station side afterwards. However, the dramatically growing number of Wi-Fi APs and stations operating in the unlicensed band has led to dynamic, distributed and often severe interference. This highlights the urgent need for the AP to dynamically select the best overall channel of operation for the basic service set (BSS) by considering the distributed and changing channel conditions at all stations. Consequently, dynamic channel selection algorithms which consider feedback from the station side have been developed. Despite the significant performance improvement, existing channel selection algorithms suffer from very high feedback overhead. Feedback latency from the STAs, due the high overhead, can cause the eventually selected channel to no longer be optimal for operation due to the dynamic sharing nature of the unlicensed band. This has inspired us to develop our own dynamic channel selection algorithm with reduced overhead through the proposed low-overhead, cluster-based station reporting mechanism. The main idea behind the cluster-based station reporting is the observation that STAs which are very close to each other tend to have very similar channel conditions. Instead of requesting each STA to report on every candidate channel while causing high overhead, the AP divides STAs into clusters then assigns each STA in each cluster one channel to report feedback on. With proper design of the cluster based reporting, the AP does not lose any information about the channel conditions at the station side while reducing feedback overhead. The simulation results show equal performance and at times better performance with a fraction of the overhead. We believe that this algorithm has great potential in designing future dynamic channel selection algorithms with low overhead.

Keywords: Channel assignment, Wi-Fi networks, clustering, DBSCAN, overhead.

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43 Puhr(i)puhr ‘Son’s Son’ at the Shahpuhr Inscription at Haji-Abad

Authors: Behzad Moeini Sam, Sara Mohammadi Avandi, Abbas Moradi Zirkuhi

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Ancient Near East civilizations were successive powers with a similar structure as the Median and Persian Empires that came after them; that is, the ancient Empires were founded under new leadership, and their political power transferred from one nation to another. The replacement of the Iranians instead of the Mesopotamian civilizations caused the Old Iranian languages to influence the Mesopotamian ones. However, the changes were relatively small. This paper aims to compare the word of puhre(ī)puhr or son’s son in Haji-Abad inscription with that of the son of the son in Mesopotamian texts to find out the relationship with the Mesopotamian languages. First, we introduced the morphological derivation of ‘Grandchild’ from the Indo-European to the New Persian language; second, we searched for the same in the Mesopotamian languages from Sumerian to the Neo-Babylonian Period. Thus, we conclude that it is logical to assume puhre(ī)puhr’s (son’s son) morphology at the Haji-Abad inscription may be affected by that of the Mesopotamian languages.

Keywords: Indo-European, Mesopotamia, puhre(ī)puhr, son’s son.

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42 China’s Health Diplomacy to Strengthen Ties with Africa

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

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The outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic has caused great difficulties for South-South cooperation, but there are also opportunities. China’s health diplomacy has changed from dispatching medical teams, assisting in the construction of hospitals, and to encouraging medical investment in the Africa health sector. This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s health statecraft in Africa from 1963 to 2020. Findings suggested that China has a preference for aiding Africa health infrastructure and sending medical teams to African countries and it is both socially and financially sustainable. China’s health diplomacy in Africa is a success and has established secure diplomatic relations with African countries, thanks to the medical and health assistance to Africa over 60 years. This research contributes to the literature of health diplomacy and indicates that China’s health aid has fostered cooperation at the medical and diplomatic levels.

Keywords: Africa, bilateral relations, China’s Health Diplomacy, COVID-19.

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41 China's Strategic Aid Diplomacy to Foster Development of Latin America

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

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This paper adopted a retrospective review of China’s assistance to Latin America from the 1950s to 2020. Findings suggested that China’s assistance to Latin America can be roughly divided into five stages: The 1950s to 1960s was the initial stage of China’s assistance to Latin America, mainly focusing on the establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba and other Latin American countries. The strategy has a strong ideological basis. The 1980s were the stage of development of China's aid to Latin America, which was characterized by consolidating and expanding diplomatic space, emphasizing the spirit of cooperation of equality, mutual benefit, and common development. The 1990s to 2000s marked the further development of diplomatic relations with Latin American countries, plus domestic market-oriented reforms, emphasizing the importance of economic considerations, and less ideological orientation; and this period also witnessed more Chinese state-owned enterprises going out to invest in Latin America. 2010-2019 marked the further development of Latin American relations. This paper contributes to the literature of diplomacy and health assistance to Latin America and highlights the importance of foreign aid and health assistance in sealing bilateral diplomatic relations.

Keywords: Broad Spectrum Assistance, China, Latin America, bilateral relations.

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40 The Effect of Energy Consumption and Losses on the Nigerian Manufacturing Sector: Evidence from the ARDL Approach

Authors: Okezie A. Ihugba

Abstract:

The bounds testing ARDL (2, 2, 2, 2, 0) technique to cointegration was used in this study to investigate the effect of energy consumption and energy loss on Nigeria's manufacturing sector from 1981 to 2020. The model was created to determine the relationship between these three variables while also accounting for interactions with control variables such as inflation and commercial bank loans to the manufacturing sector. When the dependent variables are energy consumption and energy loss, the bound tests show that the variables of interest are bound together in the long run. Because electricity consumption is a critical factor in determining manufacturing value-added in Nigeria, some intriguing observations were made. According to the findings, the relationship between log of electricity consumption (LELC) and log of manufacturing value added (LMVA) is statistically significant. According to the findings, electricity consumption reduces manufacturing value-added. The target variable (energy loss) is statistically significant and has a positive sign. In Nigeria, a 1% reduction in energy loss increases manufacturing value-added by 36% in the first lag and 35% in the second. According to the study, the government should speed up the ongoing renovation of existing power plants across the country, as well as the construction of new gas-fired power plants. This will address a number of issues, including overpricing of electricity as a result of grid failure.

Keywords: ARDL, cointegration, Nigeria's manufacturing, electricity.

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39 Investigation of Droplet Size Produced in Two-Phase Gravity Separators

Authors: Kul Pun, F. A. Hamad, T. Ahmed, J. O. Ugwu, J. Eyers, G. Lawson, P. A. Russell

Abstract:

Determining droplet size and distribution is essential when determining the separation efficiency of a two/three-phase separator. This paper investigates the effect of liquid flow and oil pad thickness on the droplet size at the lab scale. The findings show that increasing the inlet flow rates of the oil and water results in size reduction of the droplets and increasing the thickness of the oil pad increases the size of the droplets. The data were fitted with a simple Gaussian model, and the parameters of mean, standard deviation, and amplitude were determined. Trends have been obtained for the fitted parameters as a function of the Reynolds number, which suggest a way forward to better predict the starting parameters for population models when simulating separation using CFD packages. The key parameter to predict to fix the position of the Gaussian distribution was found to be the mean droplet size.

Keywords: Two-phase separator, average bubble droplet, bubble size distribution, liquid-liquid phase.

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38 The Shifting Urban Role of Buildings’ Facades: A Diachronic Analysis of El Korba

Authors: Virginia Bassily, Sherif Goubran

Abstract:

In heritage conservation and revival, much of the focus is placed on the techniques and methods to preserve, restore, and revive heritage structures and locations. However, more attention needs to be drawn to how deterioration happens and its effect on the area’s character and socio-economic status. To this end, this research aims to examine the decline and its effect in the El Korba area in Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. El Korba was designed with a unique architectural character to stimulate social and economic life. However, the area has been on a path of physical deterioration that is corroding the social life on its streets. This research uses diachronic analysis in Ibrahim El-Lakkani Boulevard of El Korba based on a previously developed framework that connects buildings’ architectural features to the degree of social interaction in the street to document the changes that the building deterioration could have caused. Architectural features of the street level during both the original state (1906) and the current state (2021) are broken down and categorized in those six parameters to understand their decline or improvement over time. We find that the parameters that have decreased over the years and caused the deterioration are complexity and architectural character, permeability, territoriality and personalization, and physical comfort.  Based on these findings, revival projects can focus on physical parameters that create synergistic benefits by preserving and renewing heritage locations and revitalizing their socio-economic potential.

Keywords: Architectural character, heritage building conservation, enclosure, ground-floor use, El Korba, visual and physical permeability, personalization, physical comfort, social life, territoriality.

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37 A Machine Learning-based Analysis of Autism Prevalence Rates across US States against Multiple Potential Explanatory Variables

Authors: Ronit Chakraborty, Sugata Banerji

Abstract:

There has been a marked increase in the reported prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among children in the US over the past two decades. This research has analyzed the growth in state-level ASD prevalence against 45 different potentially explanatory factors including socio-economic, demographic, healthcare, public policy and political factors. The goal was to understand if these factors have adequate predictive power in modeling the differential growth in ASD prevalence across various states, and, if they do, which factors are the most influential. The key findings of this study include (1) there is a confirmation that the chosen feature set has considerable power in predicting the growth in ASD prevalence, (2) the most influential predictive factors are identified, (3) given the nature of the most influential predictive variables, an indication that a considerable portion of the reported ASD prevalence differentials across states could be attributable to over and under diagnosis, and (4) Florida is identified as a key outlier state pointing to a potential under-diagnosis of ASD.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD, clustering, Machine Learning, predictive modeling.

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36 Emotional Security in Relationship to Tikrit University Students' Emotional Efficiency

Authors: Ibtisam Mahmoud Mohammed Sultan

Abstract:

The present research aims at identifying the level of both emotional security and emotional competence among Tikrit University students. It also meant to know the statistically significant differences according to variables such as gender variables (m-f) and specialization variables (scientific-humanities). The research also attempts to learn what kind of relationship is there between emotional security and emotional efficiency Tikrit University students have achieved. We constructed emotional security measure which consists of 54 items as well as a measure of emotional competence consisting of 46 items. We extracted full psychometric characteristics of both scales. The research sample consisted of 600 students selected randomly and applying the scales on a basic research sample and processed statistical data using a variety of methods, including statistical measure Pearson correlation coefficient, we found a set of results as follows: Tikrit University students possess a high level of emotional security, males enjoy more emotional security than females, there is no difference between students of scientific and humanitarian specialization in variable emotional security, Tikrit University students enjoy a high level of emotional competence, females outperform males in emotional competence level, the humanitarian specialization students excel in emotional competence more than those specialized in non-humanitarian sciences. Furthermore, the research comes up with a positive correlative relationship between these two variables. Through research results, we developed a set of conclusions, proposals, and recommendations.

Keywords: Emotional security, gender variable, specialization variable, Tikrit University students.

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35 Frequency Modulation in Vibro-Acoustic Modulation Method

Authors: D. Liu, D. M. Donskoy

Abstract:

The vibroacoustic modulation method is based on the modulation effect of high-frequency ultrasonic wave (carrier) by low-frequency vibration in the presence of various defects, primarily contact-type such as cracks, delamination, etc. The presence and severity of the defect are measured by the ratio of the spectral sidebands and the carrier in the spectrum of the modulated signal. This approach, however, does not differentiate between amplitude and frequency modulations, AM and FM, respectfully. This paper is an attempt to explain the generation mechanisms of FM and its correlation with the flaw properties. Here we proposed two possible mechanisms leading to FM modulation based on nonlinear local defect resonance and dynamic acoustoelastic models.

Keywords: Non-destructive testing, nonlinear acoustics, structural health monitoring, acoustoelasticity, local defect resonance.

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34 Analyzing the Relationship between the Systems Decisions Process and Artificial Intelligence: A Machine Vision Case Study

Authors: Mitchell J. McHugh, John J. Case

Abstract:

Systems engineering is a holistic discipline that seeks to organize and optimize complex, interdisciplinary systems. With the growth of artificial intelligence, systems engineers must face the challenge of leveraging artificial intelligence systems to solve complex problems. This paper analyzes the integration of systems engineering and artificial intelligence and discusses how artificial intelligence systems embody the systems decision process (SDP). The SDP is a four-stage problem-solving framework that outlines how systems engineers can design and implement solutions using value-focused thinking. This paper argues that artificial intelligence models can replicate the SDP, thus validating its flexible, value-focused foundation. The authors demonstrate this by developing a machine vision mobile application that can classify weapons to augment the decision-making role of an Army subject matter expert. This practical application was an end-to-end design challenge that highlights how artificial intelligence systems embody systems engineering principles. The impact of this research demonstrates that the SDP is a dynamic tool that systems engineers should leverage when incorporating artificial intelligence within the systems that they develop.

Keywords: Computer vision, machine learning, mobile application, systems engineering, systems decision process.

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33 Study of Storms on the Javits Center Green Roof

Authors: A. Cho, H. Sanyal, J. Cataldo

Abstract:

A quantitative analysis of the different variables on both the South and North green roofs of the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center was taken to find mathematical relationships between net radiation and evapotranspiration (ET), average outside temperature, and the lysimeter weight. Groups of datasets were analyzed, and the relationships were plotted on linear and semi-log graphs to find consistent relationships. Antecedent conditions for each rainstorm were also recorded and plotted against the volumetric water difference within the lysimeter. The first relation was the inverse parabolic relationship between the lysimeter weight and the net radiation and ET. The peaks and valleys of the lysimeter weight corresponded to valleys and peaks in the net radiation and ET respectively, with the 8/22/15 and 1/22/16 datasets showing this trend. The U-shaped and inverse U-shaped plots of the two variables coincided, indicating an inverse relationship between the two variables. Cross variable relationships were examined through graphs with lysimeter weight as the dependent variable on the y-axis. 10 out of 16 of the plots of lysimeter weight vs. outside temperature plots had R² values > 0.9. Antecedent conditions were also recorded for rainstorms, categorized by the amount of precipitation accumulating during the storm. Plotted against the change in the volumetric water weight difference within the lysimeter, a logarithmic regression was found with large R² values. The datasets were compared using the Mann Whitney U-test to see if the datasets were statistically different, using a significance level of 5%; all datasets compared showed a U test statistic value, proving the null hypothesis of the datasets being different from being true.

Keywords: Green roof, green infrastructure, Javits Center, evapotranspiration, net radiation, lysimeter.

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32 Causes of Delays in Construction Projects: A Case Study for Petrochemical Industry of Iran

Authors: S. Bagher Daryaii

Abstract:

Delays in construction projects are one of the most common risky problems and regardless of the causes, the delays can occur in all projects and all industries. The impact of delays has a wide range from neglectable ones to losing the project's importance or its economic justification. In this paper, by doing research and interview with managers, executors, consultants and supervisors of construction projects in the petrochemical industry, their opinions about reasons of delays in projects have been gathered.

Keywords: Analysis of delays, causes of delays, delays in petrochemical projects, project delays.

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31 Experimental Test of a Combined Machine that Evenly Distributes Fertilizer under the Soil on Slopes

Authors: Qurbanov Huseyn Nuraddin

Abstract:

The results of scientific research on a machine that pours an equal amount of mineral fertilizer under the soil to increase the productivity of grain in mountain farming and obtain quality grain are substantiated. The average yield of the crop depends on the nature of the distribution of fertilizers in the soil. Therefore, the study of effective energy-saving methods for the application of mineral fertilizers is the actual task of modern agriculture. Depending on the type and variety of plants in mountain farming, there is an optimal norm of mineral fertilizers. Applying an equal amount of fertilizer to the soil is one of the conditions that increase the efficiency of the field. One of the main agro-technical indicators of the work of mineral fertilizing machines is to ensure equal distribution of mineral fertilizers in the field. Taking into account the above-mentioned issues, a combined plough has been improved in our laboratory.

Keywords: Combined plough, mineral fertilizers, sprinkle fluently, fertilizer rate, cereals.

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30 Vibroacoustic Modulation of Wideband Vibrations and Its Possible Application for Windmill Blade Diagnostics

Authors: Abdullah Alnutayfat, Alexander Sutin, Dong Liu

Abstract:

Wind turbine has become one of the most popular energy production methods. However, failure of blades and maintenance costs evolve into significant issues in the wind power industry, so it is essential to detect the initial blade defects to avoid the collapse of the blades and structure. This paper aims to apply modulation of high-frequency blade vibrations by low-frequency blade rotation, which is close to the known Vibro-Acoustic Modulation (VAM) method. The high-frequency wideband blade vibration is produced by the interaction of the surface blades with the environment air turbulence, and the low-frequency modulation is produced by alternating bending stress due to gravity. The low-frequency load of rotational wind turbine blades ranges between 0.2-0.4 Hz and can reach up to 2 Hz for strong wind. The main difference between this study and previous ones on VAM methods is the use of a wideband vibration signal from the blade's natural vibrations. Different features of the VAM are considered using a simple model of breathing crack. This model considers the simple mechanical oscillator, where the parameters of the oscillator are varied due to low-frequency blade rotation. During the blade's operation, the internal stress caused by the weight of the blade modifies the crack's elasticity and damping. The laboratory experiment using steel samples demonstrates the possibility of VAM using a probe wideband noise signal. A cycle load with a small amplitude was used as a pump wave to damage the tested sample, and a small transducer generated a wideband probe wave. The received signal demodulation was conducted using the Detecting of Envelope Modulation on Noise (DEMON) approach. In addition, the experimental results were compared with the modulation index (MI) technique regarding the harmonic pump wave. The wideband and traditional VAM methods demonstrated similar sensitivity for earlier detection of invisible cracks. Importantly, employing a wideband probe signal with the DEMON approach speeds up and simplifies testing since it eliminates the need to conduct tests repeatedly for various harmonic probe frequencies and to adjust the probe frequency.

Keywords: Damage detection, turbine blades, Vibro-Acoustic Structural Health Monitoring, SHM, Detecting of Envelope Modulation on Noise.

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29 Usage of Channel Coding Techniques for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Visible Light Communications Systems

Authors: P.L.D.N.M. de Silva, S.G. Edirisinghe, R. Weerasuriya

Abstract:

High Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is a concern of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based Visible Light Communication (VLC) systems. Discrete Fourier Transform spread (DFT-s) OFDM is an alternative single carrier modulation scheme which would address this concern. Employing channel coding techniques is another mechanism to reduce the PAPR. In this study, the improvement which can be harnessed by hybridizing these two techniques for VLC system is being studied. Within the study, efficient techniques such as Hamming coding and Convolutional coding have been studied. Thus, we present the impact of the hybrid of DFT-s OFDM and Channel coding (Hamming coding and Convolutional coding) on PAPR in VLC systems, using MATLAB simulations.

Keywords: Convolutional Coding, Discrete Fourier Transform spread Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (DFT-s OFDM), Hamming Coding, Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), Visible Light Communications (VLC).

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28 Adapting Cities Name with ICT and Countries Interested in the Smart City

Authors: Qasim Hamakhurshid Hamamurad, Normal Mat Jusoh, Uznir Ujang

Abstract:

The concept of the city with an infrastructure of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) embraces several definitions depending on the meanings of the word "smart" which include: intelligent city, smart city, knowledge city, ubiquitous city, sustainable city, and digital city. Many definitions of the city exist, but this study explores which one has been universally acknowledged. From the literature analysis, it emerges that the term smart city is the most used in the articles to show the smartness of a city. This paper shares exploration of the research from the seven main website digital databases and journals focusing on the smart city from January 2015 to February 2020 to: (a) Time research, to examine the causes of the smart city phenomenon and other concept literature in the last five years; (b) Review of words, to see how and where the smart city specification and relation of different definitions are implemented; (c) Geographical research to consider where smart cities' greatest concentrations are in the world and determine if Malaysians are interacting with the smart city; and (d) How many papers are published in all of Malaysia from 2015 to 2020 about smart cities. Three steps are followed to accomplish the aim of this study: (1) The analysis which covered a systematic literature review search strategy to gather a representative sub-set of papers on the smart city and other definitions utilizing GoogleScholar, Elsevier, Scopus, ScienceDirect, IEEEXplore, WebofScience, and Springer between January 2015-February 2020; (2) The formation of a bibliometric map based on the bibliometric evaluation using the mapping technique VOSviewer to visualize differences; (3) VOSviewer application program to build initial clusters. The bibliometric analytical findings targeted the word harmony.

Keywords: Bibliometric research, smart city, ICT, VOSviewer, urban modernization.

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27 Decoding the Construction of Identity and Struggle for Self-Assertion in Toni Morrison and Selected Indian Authors

Authors: Madhuri Goswami

Abstract:

The matrix of power establishes the hegemonic dominance and supremacy of one group through exercising repression and relegation upon the other. However, the injustice done to any race, ethnicity or caste has instigated the protest and resistance through various modes- social campaigns, political movements, literary expression and so on. Consequently, the search for identity, the means of claiming it and strive for recognition have evolved as the persistent phenomena all through the world. In the discourse of protest and minority literature, these two discourses- African American and Indian Dalit- surprisingly, share wrath and anger, hope and aspiration, and quest for identity and struggle for self-assertion. African American and Indian Dalit are two geographically and culturally apart communities that stand together on a single platform. This paper has sought to comprehend the form and investigate the formation of identity in general and in the literary work of Toni Morrison and Indian Dalit writing, particularly i.e. Black identity and Dalit identity. The study has speculated two types of identity namely, individual or self and social or collective identity in the literary province of this marginalized literature. Morrison’s work outsources that self-identity is not merely a reflection of an inner essence; it is constructed through social circumstances and relations. Likewise, Dalit writings too have a fair record of the discovery of self-hood and formation of identity which connects to the realization of self-assertion and worthiness of their culture among Dalit writers. Bama, Pawar, Limbale, Pawde, and Kamble investigate their true self concealed amid societal alienation. The study has found that the struggle for recognition is, in fact, the striving to become the definer, instead of just being defined; and, this striving eventually, leads to the introspection among them. To conclude, Morrison as well as Indian marginalized authors, despite being set quite distant, communicate the relation between individual and community in the context of self-consciousness, self-identification, and (self) introspection. This research opens a scope for further research to find out similar phenomena and trace an analogy in other world literature.

Keywords: Identity, introspection, self-access, struggle for recognition

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26 The Impact of Leadership Style on Innovative Work Behavior

Authors: Dyah P. Srirahayu, Esti Putri Anugrah, Amelia Firdaus

Abstract:

The existence of the current library has met the complex needs of users. However, human resources in the library are often a source of problems in service. This is influenced by the leadership style in each library. This study aims to analyze the impact of leadership style on innovative work behavior. The research method used is a quantitative approach to analyze using SPSS. The findings in this study illustrate that leadership style has an influence on innovative work behavior which is certainly influenced by various existing factors.

Keywords: Leadership, public libraries, innovative behavior, Transactional leadership.

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25 Investigation and Identification of a Number of Precious and Semi-Precious Stones Related to Bam Historical Citadel Using Micro Raman Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy

Authors: Nazli Darkhal

Abstract:

The use of gems and ornaments has been common in Iran since the beginning of history. The prosperity of the country, the wealth, and the interest of the people of this land in a luxurious and glorious life, combined with beauty, have always attracted the attention of Iranian people to gems and jewelry. Iranians are famous in the world for having a long history of collecting and recognizing precious stones. In this case, we can use the unique treasure of national jewelry. Raman spectroscopy method is one of the oscillating spectroscopy methods that is classified in the group of nondestructive study methods, and like other methods, in addition to several advantages, it also has disadvantages and problems. Micro Raman spectroscopy is one of the different types of Raman spectroscopy in which an optical microscope is combined with a Raman device to provide more capabilities and advantages than its original method. In this way, with the help of Raman spectroscopy and a light microscope, while observing more details from different parts of the historical sample, natural or artificial pigments can be identified in a small part of it. The EDX (Energy Dispersive X ray) electron microscope also functions as the basis for the interaction of the electron beam with the matter. The beams emitted from this interaction can be used to examine samples. In this article, in addition to introducing the micro-Raman spectroscopy method, studies have been conducted on the structure of three samples of existing stones in the historic citadel of Bam. Using this method of study on precious and semi-precious stones, in addition to requiring a short time, can provide us with complete information about the structure and theme of these samples. The results of experiments and gemology of the stones showed that the selected beads are agate and jasper, and they can be placed in the chalcedony group.

Keywords: Bam citadel, precious stones, semi-precious stones, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope.

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24 A Case Study in Using the Can-Sized Satellite Platforms for Interdisciplinary Problem-Based Learning in Aeronautical and Electronic Engineering

Authors: Michael Johnson, Vincenzo Oliveri

Abstract:

This work considers an interdisciplinary Problem-Based Learning (PBL) project developed by lecturers from the Aeronautical and Electronic and Computer Engineering departments at the University of Limerick. This “CANSAT” project utilises the CanSat can-sized satellite platform in order to allow students from aeronautical and electronic engineering to engage in a mixed format (online/face-to-face), interdisciplinary PBL assignment using a real-world platform and application. The project introduces students to the design, development, and construction of the CanSat system over the course of a single semester, enabling student(s) to apply their aeronautical and technical skills/capabilities to the realisation of a working CanSat system. In this case study, the CanSat kits are used to pivot the real-world, discipline-relevant PBL goal of designing, building, and testing the CanSat system with payload(s) from a traditional module-based setting to an online PBL setting. Feedback, impressions, benefits, and challenges identified through the semester are presented. Students found the project to be interesting and rewarding, with the interdisciplinary nature of the project appealing to them. Challenges and difficulties encountered are also addressed, with solutions developed between the students and facilitators to overcoming these discussed.

Keywords: Problem-Based Learning, Online PBL, Electronic Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, Interdisciplinary Project, CanSat.

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23 The Influence of Audio on Perceived Quality of Segmentation

Authors: Silvio R. R. Sanches, Bianca C. Barbosa, Beatriz R. Brum, Cléber G.Corrêa

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the quality of a segmentation algorithm, the researchers use subjective or objective metrics. Although subjective metrics are more accurate than objective ones, objective metrics do not require user feedback to test an algorithm. Objective metrics require subjective experiments only during their development. Subjective experiments typically display to users some videos (generated from frames with segmentation errors) that simulate the environment of an application domain. This user feedback is crucial information for metric definition. In the subjective experiments applied to develop some state-of-the-art metrics used to test segmentation algorithms, the videos displayed during the experiments did not contain audio. Audio is an essential component in applications such as videoconference and augmented reality. If the audio influences the user’s perception, using only videos without audio in subjective experiments can compromise the efficiency of an objective metric generated using data from these experiments. This work aims to identify if the audio influences the user’s perception of segmentation quality in background substitution applications with audio. The proposed approach used a subjective method based on formal video quality assessment methods. The results showed that audio influences the quality of segmentation perceived by a user.

Keywords: Background substitution, influence of audio, segmentation evaluation, segmentation quality.

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22 Individuals’ Inner Wellbeing during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Quantitative Comparison of Social Connections and Close Relationships between the UK and India

Authors: Maria Spanoudaki, Pauldy C. J. Otermans, Dev Aditya

Abstract:

Relationships form an integral part of our everyday wellbeing. In this study, the focus is on Inner Wellbeing which can be described as an individuals' thoughts and feelings about what they can do and be. Relationships can come in many forms and can be divided into Social Connections (thoughts and feelings about the social network people can establish and rely on), and Close Relationships (thoughts and feeling about the emotional support people can receive from significant others or their close, intimate circle). The purpose of this study is to compare the Social Connections and Close Relationship dimensions of Inner Wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic between the UK and India. As part of the study, 392 participants in the UK and 205 participants India completed an online questionnaire using the Inner Wellbeing scale. Factor analyses showed that the construct of Inner Wellbeing can be described as one factor for the UK sample whereas it can be described as two factors (one focusing on positive items and one focusing on negative items) for the Indian sample. Results showed that during COVID-19, Social Connections were significantly different in the UK compared to India, whereas there is no significant difference for Close Relationships. The implications on relationships and wellbeing are discussed in detail.

Keywords: Social networks, relationship maintenance, relationship satisfaction, inner wellbeing.

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21 Impact of the Electricity Market Prices on Energy Storage Operation during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Marin Mandić, Elis Sutlović, Tonći Modrić, Luka Stanić

Abstract:

With the restructuring and deregulation of the power system, storage owners, generation companies or private producers can offer their multiple services on various power markets and earn income in different types of markets, such as the day-ahead, real-time, ancillary services market, etc. During the COVID-19 pandemic, electricity prices, as well as ancillary services prices, increased significantly. The optimization of the energy storage operation was performed using a suitable model for simulating the operation of a pumped storage hydropower plant under market conditions. The objective function maximizes the income earned through energy arbitration, regulation-up, regulation-down and spinning reserve services. The optimization technique used for solving the objective function is mixed integer linear programming (MILP). In numerical examples, the pumped storage hydropower plant operation has been optimized considering the already achieved hourly electricity market prices from Nord Pool for the pre-pandemic (2019) and the pandemic (2020 and 2021) years. The impact of the electricity market prices during the COVID-19 pandemic on energy storage operation is shown through the analysis of income, operating hours, reserved capacity and consumed energy for each service. The results indicate the role of energy storage during a significant fluctuation in electricity and services prices.

Keywords: Electrical market prices, electricity market, energy storage optimization, mixed integer linear programming, MILP, optimization.

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20 Traffic Forecasting for Open Radio Access Networks Virtualized Network Functions in 5G Networks

Authors: Khalid Ali, Manar Jammal

Abstract:

In order to meet the stringent latency and reliability requirements of the upcoming 5G networks, Open Radio Access Networks (O-RAN) have been proposed. The virtualization of O-RAN has allowed it to be treated as a Network Function Virtualization (NFV) architecture, while its components are considered Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs). Hence, intelligent Machine Learning (ML) based solutions can be utilized to apply different resource management and allocation techniques on O-RAN. However, intelligently allocating resources for O-RAN VNFs can prove challenging due to the dynamicity of traffic in mobile networks. Network providers need to dynamically scale the allocated resources in response to the incoming traffic. Elastically allocating resources can provide a higher level of flexibility in the network in addition to reducing the OPerational EXpenditure (OPEX) and increasing the resources utilization. Most of the existing elastic solutions are reactive in nature, despite the fact that proactive approaches are more agile since they scale instances ahead of time by predicting the incoming traffic. In this work, we propose and evaluate traffic forecasting models based on the ML algorithm. The algorithms aim at predicting future O-RAN traffic by using previous traffic data. Detailed analysis of the traffic data was carried out to validate the quality and applicability of the traffic dataset. Hence, two ML models were proposed and evaluated based on their prediction capabilities.

Keywords: O-RAN, traffic forecasting, NFV, ARIMA, LSTM, elasticity.

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19 Cybersecurity Awareness among Applied Sciences Student Population

Authors: Nikolina Kasunic, Sanja Bracun

Abstract:

After graduation, student population of applied sciences will become the population of employees on IT experts’ positions or "just" business users of certain IT technologies for which the level of awareness of existing cybersecurity risks is extremely important. This research results define the current cybersecurity awareness level of students at Zagreb University of Applied Sciences (TVZ), what can be useful not only for teaching staff to form a curriculum related to cybersecurity more accurately but also to employers to know what to expect from their future employees regarding cybersecurity awareness level. There is also a connection determined between the student’s behaviour and their level of cybersecurity awareness.

Keywords: Applied sciences students’ population, cybersecurity, cybersecurity awareness, student population cybersecurity awareness.

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18 Sound Instance: Art, Perception and Composition through Soundscapes

Authors: Ricardo Mestre

Abstract:

The soundscape stands out as an agglomeration of sounds available in the world, associated with different contexts and origins, being a theme studied by various areas of knowledge, seeking to guide their benefits and their consequences, contributing to the welfare of society and other ecosystems. With the objective for a greater recognition of sound reality, through the selection and differentiation of sounds, the soundscape studies focus on the contribution for a better tuning of the world and to the balance and well-being of humanity. Sound environment, produced and created in various ways, can provide various sources of information, contributing to the orientation of the human being, alerting and manipulating him during his daily journey, like small notifications received on a cell phone or other device with these features. In this way, it becomes possible to give sound its due importance in relation to the processes of individual representation, in manners of social, professional and emotional life. Ensuring an individual representation means providing the human being with new tools for the long process of reflection by recognizing his environment, the sounds that represent him, and his perspective on his respective function in it. In order to provide more information about the importance of the sound environment inherent to the individual reality, one introduces the term sound instance, in order to refer to the whole sound field existing in the individual's life, which is divided into four distinct subfields, but essential to the process of individual representation, called sound matrix, sound cycles, sound traces and sound interference. Alongside volunteers we were able to create six representations of sound instances, based on the individual perception of his/her life, focusing on the present, past and future. With this investigation it was possible to determine that sound instance has a tool for self-recognition, considering the statements of opinion about the experience from the volunteers, reflecting about the three time lines, based on memories, thoughts and wishes.

Keywords: Sound instance, soundscape, sound art, self-recognition.

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17 Structural Analysis of Aircraft Wing Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Manish Kumar, Pradeep Rout Aditya Kumar Jha, Pankaj Gupta

Abstract:

Wings are structural components of an aeroplane that are used to produce lift while the aircraft is in flight. The initial assault angle of the wing is definite. Due to the pressure difference at the top and bottom surfaces of the wing, lift force is produced when the flow passes over it. This paper explains the fundamental concept of the structural behaviour of a wing threatened by flowing loads during the voyage. The study comprises the use of concepts and analysis with the help of finite element analysis. Wing assembly is the first stage of wing model and design, which are determined by fascinating factual features. The basic gathering wing consists of a thin membrane, two poles, and several ribs. It has two spars, the major spar and the secondary spar. Here, NACA 23015 is selected as the standard model for all types of aerofoil structures since it is more akin to the custom aerofoil utilized in large aircraft, specifically the Airbus A320. Two rods mostly endure the twisting moment and trim strength, which is finished with titanium contamination to ensure enough inflexibility. The covering and wing spars are made of aluminium amalgam to lessen the structural heaviness. Following that, a static underlying examination is performed, and the general contortion, equivalent flexible strain, and comparing Von-Mises pressure are obtained to aid in investigations of the mechanical behaviour of the wing. Moreover, the modular examination is being upheld to decide the normal pace of repetition as well as the modular state of the three orders, which are obtained through the pre-stress modular investigation. The findings of the modular investigation assist engineers in reducing their excitement about regular events and turning away the wing from the whirlwind. Based on the findings of the study, planners can prioritise union and examination of the pressure mindfulness range and tremendous twisting region. All in all, the entertainment outcomes demonstrate that the game plan is feasible and further develop the data grade of the lifting surface.

Keywords: FEM, Airbus, NACA, modulus of elasticity, aircraft wing.

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16 Hospital Facility Location Selection Using Permanent Analytics Process

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this paper, a new MCDMA approach, the permanent analytics process is proposed to assess the immovable valuation criteria and their significance in the placement of the healthcare facility. Five decision factors are considered for the value and selection of immovables. In the multiple factor selection problems, the priority vector of the criteria used to compare several immovables is first determined using the permanent analytics method, a mathematical model for the multiple criteria decisionmaking process. Then, to demonstrate the viability and efficacy of the suggested approach, twenty potential candidate locations were evaluated using the hospital site selection problem's decision criteria. The ranking accuracy of estimation was evaluated using composite programming, which took into account both the permanent analytics process and the weighted multiplicative model. 

Keywords: Hospital Facility Location Selection, Permanent Analytics Process, Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM)

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15 Artificial Neural Networks Technique for Seismic Hazard Prediction Using Seismic Bumps

Authors: Belkacem Selma, Boumediene Selma, Samira Chouraqui, Hanifi Missoum, Tourkia Guerzou

Abstract:

Natural disasters have occurred and will continue to cause human and material damage. Therefore, the idea of "preventing" natural disasters will never be possible. However, their prediction is possible with the advancement of technology. Even if natural disasters are effectively inevitable, their consequences may be partly controlled. The rapid growth and progress of artificial intelligence (AI) had a major impact on the prediction of natural disasters and risk assessment which are necessary for effective disaster reduction. Earthquake prediction to prevent the loss of human lives and even property damage is an important factor; that, is why it is crucial to develop techniques for predicting this natural disaster. This study aims to analyze the ability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict earthquakes that occur in a given area. The used data describe the problem of high energy (higher than 104 J) seismic bumps forecasting in a coal mine using two long walls as an example. For this purpose, seismic bumps data obtained from mines have been analyzed. The results obtained show that the ANN is able to predict earthquake parameters with  high accuracy; the classification accuracy through neural networks is more than 94%, and the models developed are efficient and robust and depend only weakly on the initial database.

Keywords: Earthquake prediction, artificial intelligence, AI, Artificial Neural Network, ANN, seismic bumps.

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14 Node Insertion in Coalescence Hidden-Variable Fractal Interpolation Surface

Authors: Srijanani Anurag Prasad

Abstract:

The Coalescence Hidden-variable Fractal Interpolation Surface (CHFIS) was built by combining interpolation data from the Iterated Function System (IFS). The interpolation data in a CHFIS comprise a row and/or column of uncertain values when a single point is entered. Alternatively, a row and/or column of additional points are placed in the given interpolation data to demonstrate the node added CHFIS. There are three techniques for inserting new points that correspond to the row and/or column of nodes inserted, and each method is further classified into four types based on the values of the inserted nodes. As a result, numerous forms of node insertion can be found in a CHFIS.

Keywords: Fractal, interpolation, iterated function system, coalescence, node insertion, knot insertion.

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13 A Survey in Techniques for Imbalanced Intrusion Detection System Datasets

Authors: Najmeh Abedzadeh, Matthew Jacobs

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An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a software application that monitors malicious activities and generates alerts if any are detected. However, most network activities in IDS datasets are normal, and the relatively few numbers of attacks make the available data imbalanced. Consequently, cyber-attacks can hide inside a large number of normal activities, and machine learning algorithms have difficulty learning and classifying the data correctly. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review is conducted on different types of algorithms for both implementing the IDS and methods in correcting the imbalanced IDS dataset. The most famous algorithms are machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), and reinforcement learning (RL). Most of the research use the CSE-CIC-IDS2017, CSE-CIC-IDS2018, and NSL-KDD datasets for evaluating their algorithms.

Keywords: IDS, intrusion detection system, imbalanced datasets, sampling algorithms, big data.

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12 Early Installation Effect on the Vibration Generated by Machines

Authors: Maitham Al-Safwani

Abstract:

Motor vibration issues were analyzed and correlated to poor equipment installation. We had a water injection pump tested in the factory and exceeded the pump vibration limit. Once the pump was brought to the site, its half-size shim plates were replaced with full-size shims plate that drastically reduced the vibration. In this study, vibration data were recorded for several and similar motors run at the same and different speeds. The vibration values were recorded — for two and a half hours — and the vibration readings analyzed to determine when the readings become consistent. This was as well supported by recording the audio noises produced by some machines seeking a relationship between changes in machine noises and machine abnormalities, such as vibration.

Keywords: Vibration, noise, shaft unbalance, shaft misalignment.

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11 A Quantitative Model for Determining the Area of the “Core and Structural System Elements” of Tall Office Buildings

Authors: Görkem Arslan Kılınç

Abstract:

Due to the high construction, operation, and maintenance costs of tall buildings, quantification of the area in the plan layout which provides a financial return is an important design criterion. The area of the “core and the structural system elements” does not provide financial return but must exist in the plan layout. Some characteristic items of tall office buildings affect the size of these areas. From this point of view, 15 tall office buildings were systematically investigated. The typical office floor plans of these buildings were re-produced digitally. The area of the “core and the structural system elements” in each building and the characteristic items of each building were calculated. These characteristic items are the size of the long and short plan edge, plan length/width ratio, size of the core long and short edge, core length/width ratio, core area, slenderness, building height, number of floors, and floor height. These items were analyzed by correlation and regression analyses. Results of this paper put forward that; characteristic items which affect the area of "core and structural system elements" are plan long and short edge size, core short edge size, building height, and the number of floors. A one-unit increase in plan short side size increases the area of the "core and structural system elements" in the plan by 12,378 m2. An increase in core short edge size increases the area of the core and structural system elements in the plan by 25,650 m2. Subsequent studies can be conducted by expanding the sample of the study and considering the geographical location of the building.

Keywords: Core area, correlation analysis, floor area, regression analysis, space efficiency, tall office buildings.

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10 Positioning a Southern Inclusive Framework Embedded in the Social Model of Disability Theory Contextualized for Guyana

Authors: Lidon Lashley

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This paper presents how the social model of disability can be used to reshape inclusive education practices in Guyana. Inclusive education in Guyana is metamorphosizing but still firmly held in the tenets of the Medical Model of Disability which influences the experiences of children with Special Education Needs and/or Disabilities (SEN/D). An ethnographic approach to data gathering was employed in this study. Qualitative data were gathered from the voices of children with and without SEN/D as well as their mainstream teachers to present the interplay of discourses and subjectivities in the situation. The data were analyzed using Adele Clarke's situational analysis. The data suggest that it is possible but will be challenging to fully contextualize and adopt Loreman's synthesis and Booths and Ainscow's Index in the two mainstream schools studied. In addition, the data paved the way for the presentation of the 'Southern Inclusive Education Framework for Guyana' and its support tool 'The Inclusive Checker created for Southern mainstream primary classrooms'.

Keywords: Social Model of Disability, Medical Model of Disability, subjectivities, metamorphosis, special education needs, postcolonial Guyana, Quasi-inclusion practices, Guyanese cultural challenges, mainstream primary schools, Loreman's Synthesis, Booths and Ainscow's Index.

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9 A Review of Current Trends in Thin Film Solar Cell Technologies

Authors: Adekanmi M. Adeyinka, Onyedika V. Mbelu, Yaqub B. Adediji, Daniel I. Yahya

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Growing energy demand and the world's dependence on fossil fuel-based energy systems causing greenhouse gas emissions and climate change have intensified the need for utilizing renewable energy sources. Solar energy can be converted directly into electricity via photovoltaic solar cells. Thin-film solar cells are preferred due to their cost effectiveness, less material consumption, flexibility, and rising trend in efficiency. In this paper, Gallium arsenide (GaAs), Amorphous silicon (a-Si), Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS), and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin film solar cells are reviewed. The evolution, structures, fabrication methods, stability and degradation methods, and trend in the efficiency of the thin-film solar cells over the years are discussed in detail. Also, a comparison of the thin-film solar cells reviewed with crystalline silicon in terms of physical properties and performance is made.

Keywords: Climate change, conversion efficiency, solar energy, thin-film solar cell.

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8 Challenges and Proposed Solutions toward Successful Dealing with E-Waste in Kuwait

Authors: Salem Alajmi, Bader Altaweel

Abstract:

Kuwait, like many parts of the world, has started facing the dangerous growth of electrical and electronic waste. This growth has been noted in last two decades, emerging with the development of mobile phones, computers, TVs, as well as other electronic devices and electrical equipment. Kuwait is already among the highest global producers of electronic waste (e-waste) in kg per capita. Furthermore, Kuwait is among the global countries that set high-level future targets in renewable energy projects. Accumulation of this electronic waste, as well as accelerated renewable energy projects, will lead to the increase of future threats to the country. In this research, factors that lead to the increase the e-waste in Kuwait are presented. Also, the current situations of dealing with e-waste in the country as well as the associated challenges are examined. The impact of renewable energy projects on future e-waste accumulation is considered. Moreover, this research proposes the best strategies and practices toward successfully dealing with the waste of electronic devices and renewable energy technologies.

Keywords: E-waste, landfill, environmental management, valuable metals, hazardous materials.

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7 Enhancement of Recycled Concrete Aggregate Properties by Mechanical Treatment and Verification in Concrete Mixes with Replacement up to 100%

Authors: Iveta Nováková, Martin-Andrè S. Husby, Boy-Arne Buyle

Abstract:

The building industry has one of the most significant contributions to global warming due to the production of building materials, transportation, building activities, and demolition of structures when they reach the end of their life. Implementation of circular material flow and circular economy can significantly reduce greenhouse gasses and simultaneously reduce the need for natural resources. The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is one of the possibilities for reducing the depletion of raw materials for concrete production. Concrete is the most used building material worldwide, and aggregates constitute large part of its volume. RCA can replace a certain amount of natural aggregates (NA), and concrete will still perform as required. The aim of this scientific paper is to evaluate RCA properties with and without mechanical treatment. Analysis of RCA itself will be followed by compressive strength of concrete containing various amounts of treated and non-treated RCA. Results showed improvement in compressive strength of the mix with mechanically treated RCA compared to standard RCA, and even the strength of concrete with mechanically treated RCA in dose 50% of coarse aggregates was higher than the reference mix by 4%. Based on obtained results, it can be concluded that integration of RCA in industrial concrete production is feasible, at a replacement ratio of 50% for mechanically treated RCA and 30% if untreated RCA is used, without affecting the compressive strength negatively.

Keywords: Recycled concrete aggregates, RCA, mechanical treatment, aggregate properties, compression strength.

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6 Analysis and Protection of Soil in Controlled Regime Using Techniques Adapted to the Specifics of Precision Agriculture

Authors: Voicu Petre, Oaida Mircea, Surugiu Petru

Abstract:

It is now unanimously accepted that conventional agriculture has led to the emergence and intensification of some forms of soil and environmental degradation, some of which are due to poorly applied or insufficiently substantiated technological measures. For this reason, the elaboration of any agricultural technology requires a deep knowledge of all the factors involved as well as of the interaction relations between them. This is also the way in which the research will be approached in this paper. Despite the fact that at European level the implementation of precision agriculture has a low level compared to some countries located on the American continent, it is emerging not only as an alternative to conventional agriculture but, as a viable way to preserve the quality of the environment in general, and the edaphic environment in particular. This gives an increased importance to the research in this paper through physical, chemical, biological, mineralogical and micromorphological analytical determinations, processing of analytical results, identification of processes, causes, factors, establishment of soil quality indicators and the perspective of measurements from distance by satellite techniques of some of these soil properties (humidity, temperature, pH, N, P, K and so on).

Keywords: Conventional agriculture, environmental degradation, precision agriculture, soil.

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5 Calibration of 2D and 3D Optical Measuring Instruments in Industrial Environments at Submillimeter Range

Authors: A. Mínguez-Martínez, J. de Vicente

Abstract:

Modern manufacturing processes have led to the miniaturization of systems and, as a result, parts at the micro and nanoscale are produced. This trend seems to become increasingly important in the near future. Besides, as a requirement of Industry 4.0, the digitalization of the models of production and processes makes it very important to ensure that the dimensions of newly manufactured parts meet the specifications of the models. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the scrap and the cost of non-conformities, ensuring the stability of the production at the same time. To ensure the quality of manufactured parts, it becomes necessary to carry out traceable measurements at scales lower than one millimeter. Providing adequate traceability to the SI unit of length (the meter) to 2D and 3D measurements at this scale is a problem that does not have a unique solution in industrial environments. Researchers in the field of dimensional metrology all around the world are working on this issue. A solution for industrial environments, even if it is not complete, will enable working with some traceability. At this point, we believe that the study of the surfaces could provide us with a first approximation to a solution. In this paper, we propose a calibration procedure for the scales of optical measuring instruments, particularizing for a confocal microscope, using material standards easy to find and calibrate in metrology and quality laboratories in industrial environments. Confocal microscopes are measuring instruments capable of filtering the out-of-focus reflected light so that when it reaches the detector, it is possible to take pictures of the part of the surface that is focused. Varying and taking pictures at different Z levels of the focus, a specialized software interpolates between the different planes, and it could reconstruct the surface geometry into a 3D model. As it is easy to deduce, it is necessary to give traceability to each axis. As a complementary result, the roughness Ra parameter will be traced to the reference. Although the solution is designed for a confocal microscope, it may be used for the calibration of other optical measuring instruments, by applying minor changes.

Keywords: Industrial environment, confocal microscope, optical measuring instrument, traceability.

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4 Dynamic Fast Tracing and Smoothing Technique for Geiger-Muller Dosimeter

Authors: M. Ebrahimi Shohani, S. M. Taheri, S. M. Golgoun

Abstract:

Environmental radiation dosimeter is a kind of detector that measures the dose of the radiation area. Dosimeter registers the radiation and converts it to the dose according to the calibration parameters. The limit of a dose is different at each radiation area and this limit should be notified and reported to the user and health physics department. The stochastic nature of radiation is the reason for the fluctuation of any gamma detector dosimetry. In this research we investigated Geiger-Muller type of dosimeter and tried to improve the dose measurement. Geiger-Muller dosimeter is a counter that converts registered radiation to the dose. Therefore, for better data analysis, it is necessary to apply an algorithm to smooth statistical variations of registered radiation. We proposed a method to smooth these fluctuations much more and also proposed a dynamic way to trace rapid changes of radiations. Results show that our method is fast and reliable method in comparison the traditional method.

Keywords: Geiger-Muller, radiation detection, smoothing algorithms, dosimeter, dose calculation.

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3 Methodology for Quantifying the Meaning of Information in Biological Systems

Authors: Richard L. Summers

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The advanced computational analysis of biological systems is becoming increasingly dependent upon an understanding of the information-theoretic structure of the materials, energy and interactive processes that comprise those systems. The stability and survival of these living systems is fundamentally contingent upon their ability to acquire and process the meaning of information concerning the physical state of its biological continuum (biocontinuum). The drive for adaptive system reconciliation of a divergence from steady state within this biocontinuum can be described by an information metric-based formulation of the process for actionable knowledge acquisition that incorporates the axiomatic inference of Kullback-Leibler information minimization driven by survival replicator dynamics. If the mathematical expression of this process is the Lagrangian integrand for any change within the biocontinuum then it can also be considered as an action functional for the living system. In the direct method of Lyapunov, such a summarizing mathematical formulation of global system behavior based on the driving forces of energy currents and constraints within the system can serve as a platform for the analysis of stability. As the system evolves in time in response to biocontinuum perturbations, the summarizing function then conveys information about its overall stability. This stability information portends survival and therefore has absolute existential meaning for the living system. The first derivative of the Lyapunov energy information function will have a negative trajectory toward a system steady state if the driving force is dissipating. By contrast, system instability leading to system dissolution will have a positive trajectory. The direction and magnitude of the vector for the trajectory then serves as a quantifiable signature of the meaning associated with the living system’s stability information, homeostasis and survival potential.

Keywords: Semiotic meaning, Shannon information, Lyapunov, living systems.

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2 Combining the Deep Neural Network with the K-Means for Traffic Accident Prediction

Authors: Celso L. Fernando, Toshio Yoshii, Takahiro Tsubota

Abstract:

Understanding the causes of a road accident and predicting their occurrence is key to prevent deaths and serious injuries from road accident events. Traditional statistical methods such as the Poisson and the Logistics regressions have been used to find the association of the traffic environmental factors with the accident occurred; recently, an artificial neural network, ANN, a computational technique that learns from historical data to make a more accurate prediction, has emerged. Although the ability to make accurate predictions, the ANN has difficulty dealing with highly unbalanced attribute patterns distribution in the training dataset; in such circumstances, the ANN treats the minority group as noise. However, in the real world data, the minority group is often the group of interest; e.g., in the road traffic accident data, the events of the accident are the group of interest. This study proposes a combination of the k-means with the ANN to improve the predictive ability of the neural network model by alleviating the effect of the unbalanced distribution of the attribute patterns in the training dataset. The results show that the proposed method improves the ability of the neural network to make a prediction on a highly unbalanced distributed attribute patterns dataset; however, on an even distributed attribute patterns dataset, the proposed method performs almost like a standard neural network. 

Keywords: Accident risks estimation, artificial neural network, deep learning, K-mean, road safety.

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1 Effects of Boundary Conditions on the Dynamic Values of Solid Structures

Authors: F. Kadioglu, M. Z. Polat, A. R. Gunay

Abstract:

Correct measurement of a structural damping value is an important issue for the reliable design of the components exposed to vibratory and noise conditions. As far as a vibrating beam technique is concerned, the specimens under the test somehow are interacted with measuring and exciting devices, and also with boundary conditions of the test set-up. The aim of this study is to propose a vibrating beam method that offers a non-contact dynamic measurement of solid beam specimens. To evaluate the possible effects of the clamped portion of the specimens with clamped-free ends on the dynamic values (damping and the elastic modulus), the same measuring devices were used, and the results were compared to those with the free-free ends. First, the governing equations of beam specimens related to the free-free and clamped-free boundary conditions were expressed to be able to find their natural frequencies, flexural modulus and damping values. To get a clear idea of the sensitivity of the boundary conditions to the damping values at low, medium and high levels, representative materials were subjected to the tests. The results show that the specimens with low damping values are especially sensitive to the boundary conditions and that the most reliable structural damping values are obtained for the specimens with free-free ends. For the damping values at the low levels, a deviation of about 368% was obtained between the specimens with free-free and clamped-free ends, yet, for those having high inherent damping values, comparable results were obtained. It was obvious that the set-up with clamped-free boundary conditions was not able to produce correct/reliable damping values for the specimens with low inherent damping. 

Keywords: Boundary conditions, damping, dynamic values, non-contact measuring systems, vibrating beam technique.

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